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Smart City Lecture 1: How to build a Smart City

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The Smart City series of lectures span the fundamental ideas, visions and the technologies related to the development of services for the Smart City (or Society) and the Internet of Things.

Before building a Smart City, we must agree on what a Smart City is, or could be. This lecture presents a concrete vision for what a Smart City is. We will work through some immediate conclusions. This will help us define some basic requirements on architecture and infrastructure, vital to create a scalable and resilient Smart City. With a focus on decentralized and federated architectures, new standardization efforts are presented that provide a basis for interoperability in the Smart City.

Published in: Internet
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Smart City Lecture 1: How to build a Smart City

  1. 1. © Waher Data AB, 2018. Smart City Lecture 1 How to build a Smart City
  2. 2. © Waher Data AB, 2018. 1. Smart?
  3. 3. © Waher Data AB, 2018. What does smart mean?  Smart Meters  Smart Phones  Smart TV  Smart Homes  Smart Buildings  Smart Cars  Smart Cities  Smart Societies  … Is “Smart” just a buzz word, or does it mean anything?
  4. 4. © Waher Data AB, 2018. Smart? Meter  Performs calculations  Records consumption  Communicates  Control load Smart means connected. It also indirectly reports when you’re home and some of what you do… Smart?
  5. 5. © Waher Data AB, 2018. Smart?-phone  Pocket computer  Apps Has phoning become better/easier/different? Smart means flexible tool / toy. It also helps keep you unaware, while it siphons your personal data… Smart?
  6. 6. © Waher Data AB, 2018. Smart? TV  Apps  Internet Smart means easier access to online entertainment. Does it observe you back?
  7. 7. © Waher Data AB, 2018. Smart Home  Home Automation  Helps control common tasks  Lighting  Locks  Temperature  Electricity  Kitchen  Surveillance  Assisted Living  … Smart means to help / automate. Is it necessary for someone outside of your home, to know what you do inside?
  8. 8. © Waher Data AB, 2018. Smart Building  Building Automation  Administration  Heating  Water  Electricity  Air-conditioning  Laundry  Maintenance  Surveillance  … Smart means to help / automate. The point is to help the owner/manager, not necessarily the inhabitant.
  9. 9. © Waher Data AB, 2018. Smart Car  Autonomous Driving  Connectivity  Automate control  Speed  Lights  Breaks  Signals  Steering  … Smart means to help / automate. Will they be smart enough?
  10. 10. © Waher Data AB, 2018. Smart City / Society  Automation  Open Data  Transport  Traffic (C-ITS)  Parking  Utilities  Health Care  Law enforcement  Schools  Libraries  Waste management  Citizens?  … Smart for whom?
  11. 11. © Waher Data AB, 2018. Common Denominators  Automation  Optimization  Connectivity Sufficient for labeling something as “smart”? “Smart” is a great buzz word. It helps vendors appear better, and consumers feel better, even if the technology happens to be “stupid”.
  12. 12. © Waher Data AB, 2018. 2. Delirium
  13. 13. © Waher Data AB, 2018. What can be
  14. 14. © Waher Data AB, 2018. Chinese Social Credit System (World’s most?) ambitious “Smart City” project. Calculates economic and social reputation, based on mass surveillance and AI:  Honesty  Commercial Integrity  Social Integrity  Judicial Credibility
  15. 15. © Waher Data AB, 2018. Chinese Social Credit System Collects data from:  Online activity  Searches  Shopping behavior  Locations  Friends  Health  Bank accounts  Messages  Smart Home appliances  News sources  Dating  …
  16. 16. © Waher Data AB, 2018. Chinese Social Credit System Affects:  Job positions  Salaries  Living  Travel restrictions  Visa restrictions  Access to schools  Social status  Loans  Internet bandwidth  …
  17. 17. © Waher Data AB, 2018. Bad idea? How about:  Environmental impact rating?  Diversity index?  Common value compliance?  …
  18. 18. © Waher Data AB, 2018. Universal Declaration of Human Rights Article 12: No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks. https://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/ Well… it all depends on how you choose to interpret “arbitrary” and “attack”…
  19. 19. © Waher Data AB, 2018. Will the surveillance state prevail? Is the Chinese system better or worse than the western system? Some criticize the western model, by claiming it does similar things, but not transparently.
  20. 20. © Waher Data AB, 2018. Authoritarian regimes (Top/Down)  Easy to make decisions  Laws  Ubiquitous  Sacrifices individual freedoms Freedom of expression Creativity Smart for whom? The state.
  21. 21. © Waher Data AB, 2018. Western Democracies (Bottom/Up)  Market forces Segmented (limited interoperability) Not well thought through Not transparent “Robber Barons”  Consensus difficult  Standards  Laws Smart for whom? The citizen, (hopefully… in the end…)
  22. 22. © Waher Data AB, 2018. 3. Vision
  23. 23. © Waher Data AB, 2018. Ownership of Information Robber Barons appear in new areas of enterprise, where there is no effective legislation available. Processing of information is one such area. Ownership of information is not legally defined (yet). We need to define and protect ownership of information.
  24. 24. © Waher Data AB, 2018. Is interoperability important? Same water meter can be used by:  Utility  For billing  Assisted Living  No flow might indicate accident.  Building Maintenance  Constant flow indicate leak. Smart to install 3 meters doing the same thing?
  25. 25. © Waher Data AB, 2018. Is security important? Same home security camera can be used by:  Security Company  Protect your home  Trusted Neighbors  Neighborhood watch (when away)  Family  Look in on elderly  Healthcare  Quick overview of scene before arrival  Police  Quick overview of crime scene Smart to allow a burglar or a voyeur access?
  26. 26. © Waher Data AB, 2018. Objective Standards We need more objective standards that define what “smart” means, and that are:  Well Through through Have general validity  Interoperable across domains  Protect Fundamental Human Rights Standards are used to build infrastructure.
  27. 27. © Waher Data AB, 2018. Incentives? Why would you allow others access to your things or your data? It would:  Add load to your systems  Decrease its performance  Allow competitors to compete, without investing in your equipment Cross-domain interoperability requires open markets of things and data. Open ≠ Free
  28. 28. © Waher Data AB, 2018. Vision of a Smart City  Ubiquitous access to interoperable sensors and things.  Ubiquitous access to data and information from society’s authorities.  Access to smart services in all niches of society.  Definition of ownership of information.  Protection of Privacy, by design and by default.  Market for access to things and data. Is this Science Fiction?
  29. 29. © Waher Data AB, 2018. Ubiquitous Computing  Ubiquitous access to sensors and things.  Ubiquitous access to data and information from society’s authorities.  Access to smart services in all niches of society. Mark Weiser (Xerox PARC) coined the term “ubiquitous computing” in 1988. (♰ 1999)
  30. 30. © Waher Data AB, 2018. IEEE IoT Harmonization  Interoperability  Definition of ownership of information  Protection of Privacy, by design and by default  Market for access to things and data* (*) Funded by Swedish Internet Fund.
  31. 31. © Waher Data AB, 2018. 4. Ownership
  32. 32. © Waher Data AB, 2018. Who owns the data? Who is the owner of data?  The person/entity generating (inventing) the data?  The person/entity storing (controlling) the data?  The person about whom the data relates to? Is it important?
  33. 33. © Waher Data AB, 2018. Legislation Which law is applicable?  Copyright?  Trade secrets?  Intellectual Property?  Privacy? Enforcing ownership through legal means is difficult.
  34. 34. © Waher Data AB, 2018. Ownership of things How is normal ownership enforced?  Protection behind lock & key.  Access only to trusted parties.  Monitoring.  Demonstration of ownership.
  35. 35. © Waher Data AB, 2018. Ownership of data Why treat data differently? Local storage (decentralization) allows:  Protection behind lock & key.  Limiting access to trusted parties.  Monitoring access.  Demonstrating ownership.  Enforcing ownership of data. Added benefit:  Intrinsic value of data through access.
  36. 36. © Waher Data AB, 2018. Edge Computing Processing “on the Edge” instead of “in the Cloud” allows:  Access = Value  Scalability  Resilience  Security
  37. 37. © Waher Data AB, 2018. 5. Data Protection
  38. 38. Ex-Director of National Intelligence James R. Clapper http://www.popsci.com/clapper-americas-greatest-threat-is-internet-things ”America's greatest threat is the Internet of Things” Feb 9, 2016
  39. 39. © Waher Data AB, 2018. Vulnerabilities  You pay for an angel  You also get a bat What is not specified, is left undefined
  40. 40. © Waher Data AB, 2018. IoT systems particularly vulnerable  Long-term operation  Technologies become obsolete  Lack of updates  Interact with physical world  Larger scale  More units and attack surfaces  Invisible operation  No visible clues something is wrong  No human operator (for normal use case)  Lack of supervision
  41. 41. © Waher Data AB, 2018. Decentralization & security  More attack surfaces  But value of each node is small  Value/Effort ratio small  Easier to protect  Massive data breaches difficult  You don’t put all your eggs into the same basket  More resilient  End-to-end encryption
  42. 42. © Waher Data AB, 2018. Anonymization vs. Strong Identities Anonymization:  Protects whistle blower or dissident (or criminal or terrorist)  Makes security decisions difficult. Strong identities (pseudonyms):  Protect information owners.  Allows selective responses. Both protect privacy, in different ways.
  43. 43. © Waher Data AB, 2018. IEEE IoT Harmonization  Decentralization  Global Identities  Authentication  Authorization  Ownership  Discovery  Decision Support  Provisioning  Smart Contracts*  Economic Feedback* (*) Funded by Swedish Internet Fund.
  44. 44. © Waher Data AB, 2018. 6. Events
  45. 45. © Waher Data AB, 2018. Smart City Lectures* 1. How to build a Smart City (Oct 4th) 2. Privacy in the Smart City (Oct 18th) 3. An Open and/or Secure Smart City (Oct 25th) 4. Harmonizing the Internet of Things (Nov 8th) 5. Introduction to Encryption (Nov 15th) 6. Earning by Sharing in the Smart City (Nov 22th) 7. … 8. … (*) Funded by Swedish Internet Fund.
  46. 46. © Waher Data AB, 2018. Smart City Labs* 1. Sensors and actuators (Oct 10th) 2. Connect and chat with your device (Oct 17th) 3. Publishing data from your sensor (Oct 24th) 4. Publishing and discovering devices (Nov 7th) 5. Controlling actuators (Nov 14th) 6. Decision Support for your devices (Nov 21th) 7. … 8. … (*) Funded by Swedish Internet Fund.
  47. 47. © Waher Data AB, 2018.  Raspberry Pi & Arduino  Sensors, Actuators, Controllers, Concentrators, Bridges  Protocols: MQTT, HTTP, CoAP, LWM2M, XMPP  Interoperability  Social Interaction  Decision Support  Product Lifecycle  IoT Service Platforms  IoT Harmonization  Security  Privacy Amazon Packt Microsoft Store Contact: https://waher.se/, https://littlesister.se/ Mastering Internet of Things
  48. 48. © Waher Data AB, 2018. 7. Open Discussion Ownership? Privacy? Security? Surveillance? Interoperability? Cool stuff? Qué? Where’s the Money? Who pays? What could go wrong? Little Sister? Harmonization?

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