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"Everyone is a Designer” -- an introduction to Fab Labs, 3D Printing, the 3rd Industrial Revolution -- and their impact (p...
"Everyone is a Designer” -- an introduction to Fab Labs, 3D Printing, the 3rd Industrial Revolution -- and their impact (p...
"Everyone is a Designer” -- an introduction to Fab Labs, 3D Printing, the 3rd Industrial Revolution -- and their impact (p...
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"Everyone is a Designer” -- an introduction to Fab Labs, 3D Printing, the 3rd Industrial Revolution -- and their impact (possibly)

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Presentation given to the Deming Learning Network on May 28th 2014 at Make Aberdeen, 17 Belmont Street, Aberdeen. A notes pdf is also available for more detailed information and further reading: http://petertroxler.net/content/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/DLNnotesLO.pdf

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"Everyone is a Designer” -- an introduction to Fab Labs, 3D Printing, the 3rd Industrial Revolution -- and their impact (possibly)

  1. 1. Everyone(is(a(Designer( ( ( ( Peter(Troxler( @trox( p.troxler@hr.nl( University(of(Applied( Sciences(Ro>erdam( Research(Centre( CreaAng(010(
  2. 2. Everyone(is(a(Designer( ( ( ( Peter(Troxler( @trox( h>p://petertroxler.org(
  3. 3. ?" ©(2013( John(Abella( ccKby( ©(2010( Cea( ccKby(( RiLin( The$Third$Industrial$ Revolu2on$ 2011(
  4. 4. personal(fabricaAon(
  5. 5. ( Fab(labs(are(a(global( network(of(local(labs,( enabling(invenAon(by( providing(access(to(tools( for(digital(fabricaAon( ( What(is(a(fab(lab?(
  6. 6. ( Fab(labs(share(an( evolving(inventory(of( core(capabiliAes(to(make( (almost)(anything,( allowing(people(and( projects(to(be(shared( ( What's(in(a(fab(lab?(
  7. 7. ( OperaAonal,( educaAonal,(technical,( financial,(and(logisAcal( assistance(beyond( what's(available(within( one(lab( ( What(does(the(fab(lab( network(provide?(
  8. 8. ( Fab(labs(are(available(as( a(community(resource,( offering(open(access(for( individuals(as(well(as( scheduled(access(for( programs( ( Who(can(use(a(fab(lab?(
  9. 9. MODèle Autres lieux autres fablabs lieu equipe communautés locales histoire / Environnement socio-culturel compétences Savoir-Faire matériaux industries innovantes entrepreunariat / Entrepreunariat social artisanat arthur Schmitt, nod-A autres types de lieux: techshops, hackerspaces, makerspaces, repair cafés, EPNs, etc. formation / EDucation Business model Programmation outils spécifiques Nouveaux objets / détournement d’objets Projets collaboratifs solutions locales et gloables à des grandes problématiques objets pour un marché d’une personne réparation / réutilisation / recyclage Utilisateurs: - designers - ingénieurs - entrepreneurs - architectes - inventeurs - codeurs - PMEs - artisans - habitants - artistes - jeunes / enfants - défavorisés ... Outils: - machines à commande numérique - plateformes programmables - outillage de base - plateformes de partage en ligne impact global impact local Fablab projets territoire communautés en ligne Principe (make, share, learn) fabrication numérique organisation (charte) Ecosystème au service du mouvement mouvement ‘makers’ open source / open hardware innovation
  10. 10. ( safety(( not(hurAng(people(or(machines( opera2ons(( assisAng(with(cleaning,( maintaining,(improving(the(lab( knowledge$ contribuAng(to(documentaAon( and(instrucAon( ( What(are(your( responsibiliAes?(
  11. 11. ( Designs(and(processes( developed(in(fab(labs( can(be(protected(and( sold(however(an( inventor(chooses,(…( ( Who(owns(fab(lab( invenAons?(
  12. 12. ( …(but(should(remain( available(for(individuals( to(use(and(learn(from( ( ( (
  13. 13. ( Commercial(acAviAes( can(be(prototyped(and( incubated(in(a(fab(lab,( but(they(must(not( conflict(with(other(uses,( ( How(can(businesses(use( a(fab(lab?(
  14. 14. ( they(should(grow( beyond(rather(than( within(the(lab,(
  15. 15. ( and(they(are(expected( to(benefit(the(inventors,( labs,(and(networks(that( contribute(to(their( success(
  16. 16. ©(2010( Cea( ccKby(( ©(2011( Windell(Oskay( ccKby( ©(2008( Chris,(r3v(||(cls( ccKbyKsa( Anderson( Makers.$The$new$ industrial$revolu2on( 2012(
  17. 17. 3D(prinAng(
  18. 18. addiAve(manufacturing(
  19. 19. 1987! 1991! 1993! 1996! 2000! 2001! 2006! !  Stereolithography (solidy liquid polymer using a laser)(! !  Fused Deposit Modelling (extruding thermoplastic)! !  Solid Ground Curing (SL for whole layers)! !  Laminated Object Manufacturing (bond and cut sheet material)! !  Direct Shell Production Casting (binding powder)! 3D printers RepRap
  20. 20. ©(2012(makerbot( ©(2014(DMG(Mori(Seiki(
  21. 21. consumer(3D(prinAng:(5K10(years(to(maturity( enterprise(3D(prinAng:(2K5(years(to(maturity( ©(2013(Gartner(
  22. 22. ©(2009( Zach(Hoeken( ccKbyKsa( ©(2012( Maciaj(Wojnicki( ccKby( ©(2013( John(Abella( ccKby( ©(2014( 3D(Hubs(
  23. 23. kickstarter(
  24. 24. Gonzo(Products( Gonzo(InnovaAon( Gonzo(Engineering( Alexandra(DeschampsKSonsino,(
  25. 25. h>ps://www.kickstarter.com/projects/ chefsleeve/( h>p://www.thinKgk.com(
  26. 26. Duplo(Brick(to(Brio(Track(adapter(( (by(Zydac( h>p://www.ikeahackers.net(
  27. 27. Jeremy(RiLin( The(Third(Industrial( RevoluAon( 2011( RiLin( The$Third$Industrial$ Revolu2on$ 2011(
  28. 28. Karl(Marx((1867)(( Das(Kapital( ( Frank"B."Gilbreth"(1911)( Mo2on$Study$ Frederic"W."Taylor"(1911)(( Principles$of$Scien2fic$Management$ Henry"Ford"(1922)(( My$Life$and$Work$(The$ Autobiography$of$Henry$Ford)$ 1st(Industrial(RevoluAon( ( AutomaAc(prinAng(press( ( SteamKpowered( technology(
  29. 29. David"F."Noble"(1984)( Forces$of$Produc2on.$A$Social$History$ of$Industrial$Automa2on$ James"R."Beniger"(1986)(( Control$Revolu2on.$Technological$ and$Economic$Origins$of$the$ Informa2on$Society$ Shoshana"Zuboff"(1988)$ In$the$Age$of$the$Smart$Machine.$ The$Future$of$Work$and$Power$ 2nd(Industrial(RevoluAon( ( Electrical( communicaAon( ( OilKpowered( combusAon(engine(
  30. 30. Our(enormously(producAve(economy(demands(that(we( make(consumpAon(our(way(of(life,(that(we(convert(the( buying(and(use(of(goods(into(rituals,(that(we(seek(our( spiritual(saAsfacAon(and(our(ego(saAsfacAon(in( consumpAon.(We(need(things(consumed,(burned(up,(worn( out,(replaced(and(discarded(at(an(everKincreasing(rate.(( Lebow,(1955(
  31. 31. Jeremy"RiLin((2011)( The$Third$Industrial$Revolu2on.$ How$Lateral$Power$is$ Transforming$Energy,$the$ Economy,$and$the$World$ Yochai"Benkler((2011)( The$Penguin$and$the$Leviathan.$ How$Coopera2on$Triumphs$over$ SelfLInterest$ 3rd(Industrial(RevoluAon( ( Internet( ( Renewable(energies(
  32. 32. ©(2010(( Kevin(Doole( (ccKby( ©(1968( Elgin(County(Archives( St.(Thomas(TimesKJournal(fonds( ©(2011( (ddurant( ccKby(
  33. 33. ©(1907(( E.A.(Thomson( Bu>eKSilver(Bow(Public(Library(( ©(2009( mars_discovery_district( ccKbyKncK(sa((( ©(2011( Wired(/(adafruit( ccKbyKncKsa(
  34. 34. ©(2008( Travis(S.( ccKbyKnc(( 2012( Soccerex( ccKbyKsa(
  35. 35. 3rd(Industrial(RevoluAon( ( Industrie(4.0( ( 5(industrial(revoluAons(
  36. 36. 1780(…(steam(engine( 1850(…(railway( 1860(…(electricity( 1950(…(computer( 200x(…(fith(revoluAon( Marsh,(P.(((2012).(The(New(Industrial(RevoluAon(
  37. 37. IBM Global Business Services 5 ed an exciting tipping point, starting to invest in it as a ns for this include: olution desktop 3D printers day.4 The decrease in cost with improved accuracy, d make it a viable technology rinters are achieving a creased strength and finish 3D printing allows for more s and shorter product terials – While not all out 30 industrial plastics, are supported today, with and green polymers expected ce the expiration of Chuck ring patent in 2009, the open d 3D printing, leading to ents.7 Fifty-one critical re in the next ten years.8 my of scale, 3D printing is rm the principles of global nd yet, just 17 percent of our ng’s impact on the future of very large extent.” Perhaps cterize this technology as hat a substantial portion ff-guard by the rapid 3D printing technology is already widespread in prototyping and specialized production applications like aerospace and jewelry. As costs fall, we expect it to shift into broad manufac- turing. Our study findings forecast that 3D printing costs should fall by 79 percent over the next five years – and by 92 percent over the next decade, making it more cost-effective than all but the largest production runs. Figure 3: The economics of 3D printing will fundamentally transform the principles of global mass production. Economies of scale • Ideally, cost of producing one unit = cost of producing a million units • While industries will never reach an economy of scale of one, 3D manufacturing will lower the minimum economic scale of volume production On demand manufacturing • Rapid prototyping will allow for shorter product design cycles • Stockless inventory models will result in smarter supply chains and lower risk in manufacturing Customization • 3D printing will enable product customization to personal and demographic needs • New retail models will emerge, engaging the consumer in the product design process Location elasticity • Supply chains will become more location elastic, bringing manufacturing closer to consumer • Transportation of fewer finished goods will alter global trade flows and the logistics industry Brody,(P.,(&(Pureswaran,(V.((2013)( The(new(sotwareKdefined(supply(chain(( IBM(InsAtute(for(Business(Value.(p.(5( Brody,(P.,(&(Pureswaran,(V.((2013)( The(new(sotwareKdefined(supply(chain(( IBM(InsAtute(for(Business(Value.(p.(7( IBM Global Business Services 7 Consumers have embraced these system-on-a-chip platforms to create open source hardware designs that add intelligence to devices – many of which they can then produce by themselves using 3D printers. Companies and individuals are publishing open source hardware designs using standardized components and developing open source software platforms that replicate typical embedded system functionality. The same positive cycle of peer review and reputation building works as it does for open source software. Indeed, where just a few years ago consumers were sharing just 20 to 50 new open source product designs every month, today we count more than 30,000 new designs every month.12 For enterprises, the rise of open source electronics presents a dual opportunity. For the first time, it’s possible to shift the “brains” of a device from a hard-wired chip to software that is running on a flexible platform. That means rapid design cycle time. It also means that instead of just using computing power for simplification, the marginal cost of adding significant intelligence to products is now near zero. Of our respondents, 26 percent said that access to emerging technologies is the primary driver for innovating in an open source model. Tied for the second most-common response were 22 percent each who cited lower R&D costs and shorter time-to-market as their primary drivers to source innovation externally versus internally. The industry has seen a steady growth in open source compo- nents. Respondents report that just 20 percent of products were open source five years ago and in 2013 that percentage had climbed to 33 percent. Open source electronics will bring the power and flexibility of complex control systems to the full Figure 4: Key outcomes of manufacturing that is based on open source electronics. Commoditization of hardware • Powerful computing capability will become commoditized • Transforms dynamics of competition – embrace your competitor and consumer Efficiency • Huge economic waste for the industry when multiple implementations are developed by different closed design teams • Means of global market research for new product development Innovation • Democratizes innovation. Consumers become product developers • More rapid innovation from access to faster testing and feedback Intellectual property • Trade in design specifications rather than finished products • Promotes stricter adherence to standards From hardware-constrained to software-defined Today, though we often design products in software, the reality is that supply chains are defined by physical and operational constraints. Components cannot be made without first creating molds that are then tested and put into production on special- ized machinery. Production lines are carefully built for volume and speed, and production planning systems are designed to minimize the number of times reconfiguration is required.
  38. 38. Brody,(P.,(&(Pureswaran,(V.((2013)( The(new(sotwareKdefined(supply(chain(( IBM(InsAtute(for(Business(Value.(p.(9( Brody,(P.,(&(Pureswaran,(V.((2013)( The(new(sotwareKdefined(supply(chain(( IBM(InsAtute(for(Business(Value.(p.(9( IBM Global Business Services 9 ra of small, ware-defined supply chain case we modeled, we found portion of every one of ured with a software-defined d result in lower costs. odestly lower and within ten n average (see Figure 6). he 90 percent decrease in the uction required to enter the s not true that new technolo- ” results. Aggregate normalized unit cost analysis (%) 23% unit cost reduction 2012 Traditional 100 89 100 88 99 91 31 98 83 66 2012 Digital 2017 Digital 2022 Digital ott, IBM Institute for Business Value economic scale analysis (%) uction in minimum me of production gital 2022 Digital 9 25 17 32 Industrial displayHearing implant Washing machineMobile phone Aggregate normalized carbon footprint (kg CO2e) analysis (%) 2012 Digital 2017 Digital 100 88 99 100 120 2022 Digital 33 92 101 109 Modeling results: The era of small, simple and local The most critical test that the software-defined supply chain must meet is cost. In every single case we modeled, we found that within five years, a significant portion of every one of these products could be manufactured with a software-defined supply chain – and, doing so would result in lower costs. Within five years, costs become modestly lower and within ten years, they are 23 percent lower, on average (see Figure 6). Even more dramatic however, is the 90 percent decrease in the minimum economic scale of production required to enter the industry. Surprisingly, though, it is not true that new technolo- gies will offer uniformly “greener” results. Aggregate normal 2 2012 Traditional 100 89 100 2012 Digital Source: Econolyst, Mike Watson and Alex Scott, IBM Institute for Business Value Figure 6: On average for the industry, our analysis shows that the software-defined supply chain is expec unit cost benefit, a 90 percent reduction in scale requirements and variable benefits in terms of carbon fo Aggregate normalized minimum economic scale analysis (%) 90% reduction in minimum volume of production 100 2012 Digital 2017 Digital 2022 Digital 24 29 25 17 32 Hearing implant Mobile phone Aggregate normalized carbo 2012 Digital 20 100 88
  39. 39. ©(2012(complexitys.con,(ccKbyKsa( ©(2013(Made(in(4Havens(
  40. 40. PresseK(und(InformaAonsamt(der( Bundesregierung(K(Bildbestand((B(145(Bild),(PD( ©(2013(Manon(Mostert(–(van(der(Sar(
  41. 41. •  effecAve(forms(of(collecAve(acAon(and(( selfKorganisaAon( •  new(systems(that(tap(into(the(capabiliAes(of(( the(“next(industrial(revoluAon”( •  protect(the(interests(and(creaAve(freedom(of(makers( while(ensuring(wide(access(to(new(knowledge( •  appropriately(and(effecAvely(create(and(capture(value( •  achieve(equality(and(fairness( Troxler(2013,(2013a(
  42. 42. thanks( ( ( ( Peter(Troxler( @trox( h>p://petertroxler.org(

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