What is six sigma?
• Sigma is a measure of “goodness: the capability
of a process to produce perfect work.
• A “defect” is any mistake that results in customer
• Sigma indicates how often defects are likely to occur.
• The higher the sigma level, the lower the defect rate.
• The lower the defect rate, the higher the quality.
Why six sigma?
• Sigma allows comparison of products and services
of varying complexity
• Also, it provides a common basis for benchmarking
(competitors and non-competitors).
• The higher the sigma level, the better your operation is
• Sigma measures how well you’re doing in getting
to zero defects.
Why six sigma as a customer what
will you accept?
What to expect at 3 sigma what to expect at 6
5400 wrong drug prescription one wrong drug prescription in 25
per year. years
Unsafe drinking water about 2 unsafe drinking water for 1 sec in
hours each month 16 years.
Human Resources: reduce the number of requisitions
unfilled after 30 days.
Customer Service: measure the number of calls
answered on the first ring.
Order Fulfillment: eliminate Customer returns because
of incorrect parts or product being shipped.
Finance: reduce the instances of accounts being paid
after a specified time limit has elapsed.
What is DMAIC
it is an approach undertaken to improve existing
Six sigma combination of 5 interconnected phases of a
process improvement project. Following are the phases:
This approach is undertaken when there is a need to
create new design or product
5 steps in DMADV approach-
Define design goals that are consistent with customer demands and
the enterprise strategy.
Measure and identify CTQs (characteristics that are Critical To
Quality), product capabilities, production process capability, and
Analyze to develop and design alternatives, create a high-level
design and evaluate design capability to select the best design.
Design details, optimize the design, and plan for design verification.
Verify the design, set up pilot runs, implement the production
process and hand it over to the process owners.
DMADV is also known as DFSS, an abbreviation of "Design For Six
Difference b/w DMAIC and DMADV
1.Defines a business process
2.Measuring current process
3.Identify root cause of the recurring problem
4.Improvements made to reduce defects
5. Keep check on future performance
Difference b/w DMAIC and DMADV
1.Define customer needs
2.Measure customer needs & specifications
3.Analyze options to meet customer
4.Model is designed to meet customer needs
5.Model put through simulation tests for
The six sigma organization.
The six sigma team has five levels of
What is a BELT?
Belt refers to the level or the position, of a person in an
organization at the time of performing a work or at the
time of implementation of a project.
There are five “Belt” levels :-
2. Master black belt
3. Black belt
4. Green belt
5. Yellow belt
• Lay down policies and guidelines regarding
functioning of six sigma teams
• Approves six sigma projects
• Removes road blocks in the path of six sigma
• Receives presentations
• Monitors project
• Make available necessary resources
• Sort out conflicts
Master black belts
The highest level of Six Sigma expertise;
All duties involve implementation of Six
Sigma, including statistical analysis, strategic
and policy planning and implementation, and
training and mentoring of Black Belts.
a Six Sigma-trained professional who has
usually completed an examination and been
certified in its methods;
all job duties include implementation of Six
Sigma methodology throughout all levels of
leading teams and projects, and providing
Six Sigma training and mentoring to Green
and Yellow Belts.
In many organizations, Six Sigma's "entry level";
a Six Sigma-trained professional who does not
work on Six Sigma projects exclusively, but
whose duties include leading projects and teams
and implementing Six Sigma methodology at
the project level
The lowest level of Six Sigma expertise
applies to a professional who has a basic
working knowledge and who may manage
smaller process improvement projects,
but who does not function as a project or