During the 1400s and 1500s European explorers—inspired by greed, curiosity, and the desire for glory, and aided by new tec...
<ul><li>Renaissance spirit of discovery and innovation in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Spirit led Europeans to set sail on voy...
<ul><li>Navigation  </li></ul><ul><li>Sailors needed precise means to calculate location  </li></ul><ul><li>Compass, let k...
<ul><li>Improvements  </li></ul><ul><li>Just as important as advances in navigation were advances in shipbuilding </li></u...
As a result of their location facing the Atlantic Ocean, Portugal and Spain were well suited to kicking off the Age of Exp...
<ul><li>Water Route to India </li></ul><ul><li>Prince Henry’s ultimate goal—find water route around Africa to India </li><...
<ul><li>Columbus’ First Voyage </li></ul><ul><li>Columbus reached island in Caribbean after about two months at sea </li><...
<ul><li>Columbus — three more voyages to Americas  </li></ul><ul><li>Still believed he had reached Asia  </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Vasco Núñez de Balboa: 1513,  crossed the Isthmus of Panama to the Pacific Ocean,  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st  Eur...
<ul><li>Spanish and Portuguese did not remain alone in their efforts.  </li></ul><ul><li>By early 1500s the English and Fr...
<ul><li>Henry Hudson </li></ul><ul><li>England wanted to find shorter route to Asia than Magellan found </li></ul><ul><li>...
The countries of Europe established colonies in the lands they had discovered but, in some cases, only after violently con...
<ul><li>Scramble to establish colonies and empires in new lands </li></ul><ul><li>Spain first to successfully settle in th...
<ul><li>Conquistador </li></ul><ul><li>Some Spaniards moved from Caribbean to mainland to set up colonies </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>November 8, 1519, Cortés, army entered Tenochtitl á n, Aztec capital </li></ul><ul><li>Cortés, Moctezuma greeted e...
<ul><li>Francisco Pizarro </li></ul><ul><li>10 years after conquest of Aztecs,  Francisco Pizarro  led expedition to Peru ...
<ul><li>Beginnings of Slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Disease, mistreatment took toll on native population </li></ul><ul><li>Som...
<ul><li>Portuguese built an empire in the Americas </li></ul><ul><li>Because of treaty, their empire was not as large as t...
Native American hunters were the French traders’ main source of furs. Many traders married Native American women, intermin...
<ul><li>South from New France </li></ul><ul><li>A few French explorers headed south to seek more lands to claim </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Trade Interests </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch who came to North America interested in trade </li></ul><ul><li>Only large...
<ul><li>1607, first English colony established at Jamestown </li></ul><ul><li>Settlers hoped to find gold, silver, river r...
<ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><li>English ran into conflict with French settlers in Americas </li></ul><ul><li>Mid-1700s,...
 
 
 
As people settled in North America, they adapted to different types of geography by developing different styles of housing...
 
 
<ul><li>Most of southwestern U.S. and northern Mexico is desert  </li></ul><ul><li>Hohokam flourished from 100 BC to AD 15...
<ul><li>Hohokam expanded irrigation system </li></ul><ul><li>Channeled water into villages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used well...
<ul><li>The Anasazi lived in the Desert West near the Hohokam from about 100 BC to AD 1300. </li></ul><ul><li>Pueblos </li...
<ul><li>Hopewell </li></ul><ul><li>Lived in eastern woodlands, near Ohio and Mississippi river valleys </li></ul><ul><li>M...
<ul><li>Mississippian </li></ul><ul><li>Also lived in eastern woodlands, near Ohio and Mississippi river valleys </li></ul...
<ul><li>Cultures developed differently according to their environments </li></ul><ul><li>Varied geography determined the w...
<ul><li>The Iroquois </li></ul><ul><li>Lived in eastern North America in warmer climate </li></ul><ul><li>Relied on materi...
<ul><li>Europeans brought change </li></ul><ul><li>Plains Indians originally lived along rivers and streams </li></ul><ul>...
Civilizations in Mesoamerica were some of the earliest and most advanced in the Americas.
<ul><li>Mesoamerica, southern Mexico and northern Central America, was ideal for farming. </li></ul><ul><li>Cities and com...
<ul><li>Zapotec </li></ul><ul><li>Southern Mexico 1500 BC to AD 750 </li></ul><ul><li>May have had contact with Olmec </li...
<ul><li>Toltec  </li></ul><ul><li>Highlands of central Mexico, AD 900 to 1200  </li></ul><ul><li>Capital located at Tula, ...
<ul><li>Large civilization  </li></ul><ul><li>Olmec, Zapotec, Toltec small in comparison  </li></ul><ul><li>Developed arou...
<ul><li>Cities and Government </li></ul><ul><li>Most cities built between AD 250 and 900, the Classic Age </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>The Maya worshipped many gods and believed they influenced daily life;  </li></ul><ul><li>They also believed their...
<ul><li>Achievements </li></ul><ul><li>Impressive buildings and architecture, including canals </li></ul><ul><li>Advances ...
<ul><li>Decline of Mayan civilization, AD 900  </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by number of factors  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enviro...
<ul><li>At the height of Mayan Civilization, the Aztecs began to rise to power in the north.  </li></ul><ul><li>Early Azte...
<ul><li>Conquering Warriors </li></ul><ul><li>Aztecs gained strength in 1420s with  alliance  with Texcoco and Tlacopan </...
<ul><li>Tenochtitl á n </li></ul><ul><li>Capital city of Aztec empire </li></ul><ul><li>Covered 5 square miles </li></ul><...
Tenochtitl á n
<ul><li>The Aztec had an organized society, with the king at the top, followed by priests. </li></ul><ul><li>Society and R...
<ul><li>Other classes </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants, artisans wealthy, respected </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants rich from tradi...
The Aztecs <ul><li>Kept written records, though not as advanced as Mayan </li></ul><ul><li>Composed poetry, riddles, histo...
Several early cultures in South America adapted to extreme environmental conditions. One of them, the Incas, built one of ...
The western region of South America is one of environmental contrasts where early peoples learned to adapt and build civil...
Early Cultures in South America <ul><li>Desert people, 200 BC to AD 600, best known for huge designs on desert floor </li>...
 
<ul><li>Inca’s expansive empire  </li></ul><ul><li>Brought entire South American region into one empire  </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Strictly controlled by government </li></ul><ul><li>Common people required to pay labor ...
The government also played a big role in Inca society. Each family was grouped with others into a cooperative community ca...
<ul><li>Religion a key element of Inca society  </li></ul><ul><li>People allowed to worship local gods </li></ul><ul><ul><...
In spite of the high level of achievement, the Inca Empire lasted only about 100 years. Arrival of Spanish in 1532 marked ...
 
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  1. 1. During the 1400s and 1500s European explorers—inspired by greed, curiosity, and the desire for glory, and aided by new technologies—sailed to many previously unknown lands.
  2. 2. <ul><li>Renaissance spirit of discovery and innovation in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Spirit led Europeans to set sail on voyages of discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Period is sometimes called the Age of Exploration </li></ul>Foundations of Exploration <ul><li>Search for wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans desired expensive luxury goods </li></ul><ul><li>Flow of goods controlled by Italian merchants </li></ul><ul><li>Charged high prices for these rare goods </li></ul>Drive to Explore <ul><li>Hoped to find new, faster routes to Asia to gain trade foothold </li></ul><ul><li>Wealth not only goal </li></ul><ul><li>Some set out to find fame, glory </li></ul><ul><li>Hoped making great discoveries would bring honor to their names </li></ul>New Routes <ul><li>Other explorers hoped to spread their faith into new lands </li></ul><ul><li>Another motive—simple curiosity </li></ul><ul><li>Writings like Marco Polo’s very popular in Europe, intrigued many with tales of exotic lands, peoples </li></ul>Faith, Curiosity
  3. 3. <ul><li>Navigation </li></ul><ul><li>Sailors needed precise means to calculate location </li></ul><ul><li>Compass, let know sailors know which direction was north at any time </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans learned to use astrolabe from Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Navigators could chart location based on sun, stars in relation to horizon </li></ul><ul><li>Advances in Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Whatever reasons for exploring, Europeans could not have made voyages of discovery without certain key advances in technology </li></ul><ul><li>Some advances made in Europe during Renaissance </li></ul><ul><li>Others borrowed from people with whom Europeans had contact, especially Chinese, Muslims </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Just as important as advances in navigation were advances in shipbuilding </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans learned to build ships that rode lower in water than earlier ships </li></ul><ul><li>Deep-draft ships could withstand heavier waves; also had larger cargo holds </li></ul><ul><li>Popular for Exploratory Voyages </li></ul><ul><li>Caravel would also be equipped with weapons, including cannons </li></ul><ul><li>Ships could face off against hostile ships at sea </li></ul><ul><li>Maneuverability, defensive ability made caravel most popular for exploring </li></ul><ul><li>Caravels </li></ul><ul><li>Caravel , light, fast sailing ship; two features made it highly maneuverable </li></ul><ul><li>Steered with rudder at stern, rather than with side oars </li></ul><ul><li>Also lateen, triangular, sails; could be turned to catch wind from any direction </li></ul>Shipbuilding
  5. 5. As a result of their location facing the Atlantic Ocean, Portugal and Spain were well suited to kicking off the Age of Exploration. Explorers from Portugal and Spain <ul><li>Portugal was first country to launch large-scale voyages of exploration </li></ul><ul><li>Begun largely due to efforts of Prince Henry, son of King John I of Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>Often called Henry the Navigator , not himself explorer </li></ul><ul><li>Patron, supporter of those who wished to explore </li></ul>The Portuguese <ul><li>Early 1400s, Henry established court to which he brought sailors, mapmakers, astronomers, others </li></ul><ul><li>Expeditions sent west to islands in Atlantic, south to explore western coast of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Portuguese settled Azores, Madeira Islands, learned more about Africa’s coast </li></ul>Navigation Court
  6. 6. <ul><li>Water Route to India </li></ul><ul><li>Prince Henry’s ultimate goal—find water route around Africa to India </li></ul><ul><li>Died before goal accomplished; attempts to find such a route not abandoned </li></ul><ul><li>1488, Bartolomeu Dias became first to sail around southern tip of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Lucrative Trade </li></ul><ul><li>da Gama’s trip inspired another expedition to India, led by Pedro Cabral </li></ul><ul><li>Sailed west; sighted, claimed land that became known as Brazil </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal established trading centers; became rich, powerful European nation </li></ul><ul><li>da Gama </li></ul><ul><li>1497, Vasco da Gama set out for India, stopped at several African ports </li></ul><ul><li>Learned Muslim merchants actively involved in trade </li></ul><ul><li>Journey took more than 10 months, eventually reached Calicut in India </li></ul>Exploration Attempts
  7. 7. <ul><li>Columbus’ First Voyage </li></ul><ul><li>Columbus reached island in Caribbean after about two months at sea </li></ul><ul><li>Thought he had reached Asian islands known as Indies; called people living there Indians </li></ul><ul><li>1493, returned to Spain with exotic items, including parrots, jewels, gold, plants unknown in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish believed Columbus found new route to Asia, hailed him as hero </li></ul><ul><li>Italian Sailor </li></ul><ul><li>Spain also eager to seek out new routes to riches of East </li></ul><ul><li>1492, Spanish rulers agreed to pay for voyage by Italian sailor Christopher Columbus </li></ul><ul><li>Columbus believed he could sail west from Spain, reach China </li></ul><ul><li>Correct in theory, but figures he presented about earth’s size wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Also had no idea the Americas lay across Atlantic </li></ul>The Spanish
  8. 8. <ul><li>Columbus — three more voyages to Americas </li></ul><ul><li>Still believed he had reached Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Error not realized until about 1502 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explorer Amerigo Vespucci sailed coast of South America, concluded it was not Asia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mapmakers later named land America in his honor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowing they had found new land, Spanish set out to explore it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1513, N úñe z de Balboa led expedition across Isthmus of Panama </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After more than three weeks of travel, Balboa became first European to see Pacific Ocean </li></ul></ul>Results of Voyages
  9. 9. <ul><li>Vasco Núñez de Balboa: 1513, crossed the Isthmus of Panama to the Pacific Ocean, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st European to See/Reach Pacific </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spanish realized they needed to cross another ocean to reach Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>West Around World </li></ul><ul><li>Daring adventurer, Ferdinand Magellan decided to sail west around world </li></ul><ul><li>1519, Magellan set out for Spain with five ships, 250 men </li></ul><ul><li>Perilous Voyage </li></ul><ul><li>Journey long, difficult; some men mutinied, rebelled </li></ul><ul><li>Magellan killed in fight with Philippine natives; his men sailed on (Juan Sebastian de Elcano) </li></ul><ul><li>1522, 18 survivors of original fleet arrived back in Spain, first to circumnavigate world </li></ul>Ferdinand Magellan
  10. 10. <ul><li>Spanish and Portuguese did not remain alone in their efforts. </li></ul><ul><li>By early 1500s the English and French were exploring northern parts of the Americas. </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch later joined in explorations. </li></ul><ul><li>The English </li></ul><ul><li>1497, first major English voyage of discovery launched </li></ul><ul><li>John Cabot sailed to Atlantic coast of what is now Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Tried to repeat voyage; fleet vanished, presumably sunk </li></ul><ul><li>Sir Francis Drake </li></ul><ul><li>English realized they had reached a new land, not Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Queen sent Sir Francis Drake out, Sea Captain or Pirate, Knighted Eliz 1 </li></ul><ul><li>After stop in what is now California, Drake sailed north to seek route around North America </li></ul><ul><li>The weather was too cold, and headed west to get back to England (2 nd circumnavigate) </li></ul>Explorers from the Rest of Europe
  11. 11. <ul><li>Henry Hudson </li></ul><ul><li>England wanted to find shorter route to Asia than Magellan found </li></ul><ul><li>1607, Hudson set out to north to find Northeast Passage around Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Found nothing but ice, returned to England </li></ul><ul><li>Two more voyages for English, one for Dutch </li></ul><ul><li>The French </li></ul><ul><li>Also wanted to find passage to Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Sent explorers to look for Northwest Passage </li></ul><ul><li>1534, Jacques Cartier sailed past Newfoundland into St. Lawrence River, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Claimed land as province of New France, now Canada </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Dutch </li></ul><ul><li>By 1600s Netherlands powerful trading nation, hoped to find new products, trading partners </li></ul><ul><li>1609, Henry Hudson set out to find Northwest Passage, Again </li></ul><ul><li>Did not find passage, Crew Mutiny, Cast Adrift </li></ul>Henry Hudson
  12. 12. The countries of Europe established colonies in the lands they had discovered but, in some cases, only after violently conquering the native people who lived there .
  13. 13. <ul><li>Scramble to establish colonies and empires in new lands </li></ul><ul><li>Spain first to successfully settle in the Americas </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually conquered native empires, the Aztecs and Incas </li></ul><ul><li>Spain in Caribbean </li></ul><ul><li>First areas settled by Spanish, Caribbean islands, Hispaniola, Cuba </li></ul><ul><li>Columbus hoped to find gold, did not </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish introduced encomienda system there </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonist given land and Native Americans to work the land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Required to teach native workers about Christianity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Millions Died </li></ul><ul><li>Disastrous system for Native Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Mistreatment, overwork took toll on population </li></ul><ul><li>Europeans spread new diseases </li></ul>Spain Builds an Empire
  14. 14. <ul><li>Conquistador </li></ul><ul><li>Some Spaniards moved from Caribbean to mainland to set up colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Hernán Cortés led expedition to Mexico, ended with conquest of Aztecs </li></ul><ul><li>Cortés a conquistador , military leader fought against Native Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Cortes Marches on Capital </li></ul><ul><li>Moctezuma II , Aztec emperor at time of Spanish arrival in Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Aztecs powerful, ruled much of Mexico; unpopular with conquered </li></ul><ul><li>Cortés joined by thousands of those who wanted to defeat Aztecs </li></ul><ul><li>Other Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Native American allies, Cortés had </li></ul><ul><li>metal weapons, heavy armor, guns, horses (never seen in Americas) </li></ul><ul><li>Disease also swept through Aztec Empire, killing thousands of people </li></ul>The Conquest of Mexico
  15. 15. <ul><li>November 8, 1519, Cortés, army entered Tenochtitl á n, Aztec capital </li></ul><ul><li>Cortés, Moctezuma greeted each other respectfully </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish soon took emperor prisoner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Battle erupted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moctezuma killed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Months of heavy fighting followed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cortés eventually took city </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defeated entire Aztec empire </li></ul></ul>Aztec Empire
  16. 16. <ul><li>Francisco Pizarro </li></ul><ul><li>10 years after conquest of Aztecs, Francisco Pizarro led expedition to Peru </li></ul><ul><li>Had heard of fabulous wealth of Inca Empire; hoped to win wealth for himself </li></ul><ul><li>Inca Empire already weakened by smallpox; many killed, including emperor </li></ul><ul><li>Civil war had also broken out </li></ul><ul><li>New Ruler </li></ul><ul><li>1532, new ruler, Atahualpa , agreed to meet with Spanish </li></ul><ul><li>Pizarro demanded Atahualpa accept Christianity, hand over empire to Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Atahualpa refused </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish killed Atahualpa, destroyed Inca army, took over empire </li></ul>The Conquest of Peru
  17. 17. <ul><li>Beginnings of Slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Disease, mistreatment took toll on native population </li></ul><ul><li>Some appalled at treatment </li></ul><ul><li>One reformer, Bartolom é de Las Casas recommended replacing Native Americans as laborers with imported African slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Slave labor soon became common practice in Americas </li></ul><ul><li>Life in the Spanish Empire </li></ul><ul><li>With Mexico, Peru, Spain gained control of huge empire in Americas </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish king chose officials, viceroys , to govern American holdings </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish colonial economy based on gold, silver mining, farming </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish drafted Native Americans for labor in mines, on farms </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Portuguese built an empire in the Americas </li></ul><ul><li>Because of treaty, their empire was not as large as the Spanish one </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty </li></ul><ul><li>1494, Treaty of Tordesillas drew imaginary line through Atlantic Ocean </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everything west, including most of then-undiscovered Americas, would belong to Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Everything to east would be Portuguese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only Brazil remained as Portuguese colony </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Colonization </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy Brazilian jungles made mining, farming difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Portuguese in no hurry to settle </li></ul><ul><li>1530s, colonists slowly moved in, mostly along Atlantic coast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established huge farming estates, as in Spanish lands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First used Native American, then African slave, labor to work on farms </li></ul></ul>The Portuguese in Brazil
  19. 19. Native American hunters were the French traders’ main source of furs. Many traders married Native American women, intermingling the two cultures. Silver and gold from American colonies began to circulate in Europe; other European countries paid close attention. Leaders in France, England, and the Netherlands decided that they needed to establish colonies in the Americas. French, Dutch, and English Colonies in the Americas <ul><li>French explorers established colonies in New France, or Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Hoped this would be a rich source for gold, silver </li></ul><ul><li>Did not find riches, but found other potentially valuable trade goods </li></ul>New France <ul><li>Waters of North Atlantic swarming with fish, staple of European diet </li></ul><ul><li>Forests yielded valuable furs </li></ul><ul><li>French did not send large numbers of colonists; small groups of traders </li></ul><ul><li>Did not enslave Native Americans </li></ul>Trade and Colonization
  20. 20. <ul><li>South from New France </li></ul><ul><li>A few French explorers headed south to seek more lands to claim </li></ul><ul><li>1608, Samuel de Champlain founded city of Quebec </li></ul><ul><li>French also explored Mississippi River </li></ul><ul><li>Thought it flowed to Pacific, would provide route to Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Mississippi to Gulf of Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>1682, Ren é -Robert La Salle canoed down entire Mississippi River to Gulf of Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Claimed enormous Mississippi region, tributaries for France </li></ul><ul><li>Named huge, fertile area Louisiana, after King Louis XIV </li></ul>Further Explorations
  21. 21. <ul><li>Trade Interests </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch who came to North America interested in trade </li></ul><ul><li>Only large colony, New Netherland, in Hudson River valley </li></ul><ul><li>New Amsterdam </li></ul><ul><li>1626, governor bought island of Manhattan from Wappinger </li></ul><ul><li>Founded city of New Amsterdam, later New York City </li></ul><ul><li>Slow Growth in Americas </li></ul><ul><li>New Netherland did not grow </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch focused on developing colonies in other parts of world </li></ul><ul><li>Other colonies more profitable </li></ul><ul><li>More Valuable Goods </li></ul><ul><li>Produced goods that could not be obtained in Europe, Americas </li></ul><ul><li>Caribbean sugar, Asian spices more valuable </li></ul>The Dutch of New Netherland
  22. 22. <ul><li>1607, first English colony established at Jamestown </li></ul><ul><li>Settlers hoped to find gold, silver, river route to Pacific </li></ul><ul><li>Instead found marshy ground, impure water </li></ul><ul><li>80 percent of settlers died during first winter in America </li></ul><ul><li>Colony still endured </li></ul><ul><li>Pilgrims </li></ul><ul><li>1620, Pilgrims sailed from England </li></ul><ul><li>Pilgrims had been persecuted in England for religious beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Established colony at Plymouth, Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><li>Persevered despite difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>Colony self-sufficient within 5 years </li></ul><ul><li>Native Americans </li></ul><ul><li>English settlers did not share same relationship with Native Americans as French, Dutch </li></ul><ul><li>Jamestown, Plymouth colonies received aid from local peoples </li></ul><ul><li>Still, colonists viewed Native Americans with distrust, anger </li></ul>The English Colonies
  23. 23. <ul><li>Problems </li></ul><ul><li>English ran into conflict with French settlers in Americas </li></ul><ul><li>Mid-1700s, English colonists attempted to settle in French territory, upper Ohio River valley; tension in region grew; war broke out, 1754 </li></ul><ul><li>Costly War </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually French surrendered, yielded Canada, all French territory east of Mississippi </li></ul><ul><li>War costly for British; king tried to place costs of war on colonists </li></ul><ul><li>Led to resentment, which eventually brought about American Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>French and Indian War </li></ul><ul><li>Both had Native American allies; English called it French and Indian War </li></ul><ul><li>War began badly for British; French had more soldiers than English </li></ul><ul><li>British turned tide, took city of Quebec </li></ul>British-French Conflict
  24. 27. As people settled in North America, they adapted to different types of geography by developing different styles of housing and ways of getting food.
  25. 30. <ul><li>Most of southwestern U.S. and northern Mexico is desert </li></ul><ul><li>Hohokam flourished from 100 BC to AD 1500 </li></ul><ul><li>Learned to farm in the desert </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built shallow canals for irrigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planted crops in earthen mounds next to canals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Woven mats created dams in canals, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>directed water to crop mounds </li></ul></ul>Cultures of the Desert West
  26. 31. <ul><li>Hohokam expanded irrigation system </li></ul><ul><li>Channeled water into villages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used wells and other containers for storing water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created pithouses, dwellings formed by digging shallow holes in the ground and building walls and roofs with mixture of clay and straw called adobe </li></ul></ul>Cultures of the Desert West
  27. 32. <ul><li>The Anasazi lived in the Desert West near the Hohokam from about 100 BC to AD 1300. </li></ul><ul><li>Pueblos </li></ul><ul><li>Like Hohokam, Anasazi had pithouses </li></ul><ul><li>Also developed the pueblo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Several stories high </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many rooms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to apartments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Villages also had underground rooms called kivas </li></ul><ul><li>Kivas used as meeting places, for religious ceremonies </li></ul><ul><li>Cliff Dwellings </li></ul><ul><li>Another type of Anasazi architecture, cliff dwellings </li></ul><ul><li>Pueblos built in shallow caves in walls of rocky canyons </li></ul><ul><li>To enter, rock staircases carved into rock or ladders </li></ul><ul><li>Limited accessibility offered protection from attack </li></ul>Cultures of the Desert West
  28. 33. <ul><li>Hopewell </li></ul><ul><li>Lived in eastern woodlands, near Ohio and Mississippi river valleys </li></ul><ul><li>Mound builders, 200 BC to AD 500 </li></ul><ul><li>Built large stone and earth mounds as burial sites </li></ul><ul><li>Size suggests some form of organized labor </li></ul><ul><li>Burial Mounds </li></ul><ul><li>Hopewell buried objects like pottery and metal ornaments </li></ul><ul><li>Daggers of obsidian from Rocky Mountains </li></ul><ul><li>Shells from Gulf of Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Clues that Hopewell developed extensive trade network </li></ul><ul><li>Culture began to decline AD 400, cause not clear </li></ul>The Mound Builders
  29. 34. <ul><li>Mississippian </li></ul><ul><li>Also lived in eastern woodlands, near Ohio and Mississippi river valleys </li></ul><ul><li>Built some of the earliest cities in North America </li></ul><ul><li>Cahokia had population up to 20,000 people </li></ul><ul><li>Contained more than 100 mounds, with ruler living atop largest in city center </li></ul><ul><li>Cahokia </li></ul><ul><li>Planned city built by an organized labor force </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematical and engineering skills evident </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of soils in mounds for proper drainage </li></ul><ul><li>Artifacts show complex society, differences between common people and those with status </li></ul>The Mound Builders
  30. 35. <ul><li>Cultures developed differently according to their environments </li></ul><ul><li>Varied geography determined the way these peoples got food </li></ul><ul><li>Also how they made their shelter </li></ul><ul><li>Environment also played a role in how societies organized </li></ul><ul><li>The Inuit </li></ul><ul><li>Lived in the Arctic regions of North America </li></ul><ul><li>Frozen, treeless landscape meant no vegetation for food source </li></ul><ul><li>Became skilled hunters and fishers </li></ul><ul><li>Year-round hunting </li></ul><ul><li>Used kayaks to hunt sea mammals, caught fish through holes in ice </li></ul><ul><li>Hunted caribou in summer, used skins and furs for warm clothing </li></ul><ul><li>Houses were igloos, made from ice blocks </li></ul>Other Cultures of North America
  31. 36. <ul><li>The Iroquois </li></ul><ul><li>Lived in eastern North America in warmer climate </li></ul><ul><li>Relied on materials from the forest </li></ul><ul><li>Built dwellings called longhouses from elm bark </li></ul><ul><li>Hunting and farming </li></ul><ul><li>Trapped forest animals for food </li></ul><ul><li>Farmed crops such as beans, squash, maize </li></ul><ul><li>Five different nations </li></ul><ul><li>Iroquois included Cayuga, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca </li></ul><ul><li>Shared characteristics, eventually formed government, Iroquois League </li></ul><ul><li>Later admitted Tuscarora, but did not grant equal status </li></ul>Other Cultures of North America
  32. 37. <ul><li>Europeans brought change </li></ul><ul><li>Plains Indians originally lived along rivers and streams </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of horses by Europeans changed their lives </li></ul><ul><li>Followed buffalo herds over long distances </li></ul><ul><li>Buffalo center of lives, with buffalo meat as food, skins for clothing and tents, and bones and horns for tools </li></ul><ul><li>Plains Indians </li></ul><ul><li>Like Iroquois, Plains Indians consisted of different tribes </li></ul><ul><li>Not all spoke same language, communication problematic </li></ul><ul><li>Developed a form of sign language to communicate when they met </li></ul><ul><li>Lived mostly on a treeless grassland </li></ul>
  33. 38. Civilizations in Mesoamerica were some of the earliest and most advanced in the Americas.
  34. 39. <ul><li>Mesoamerica, southern Mexico and northern Central America, was ideal for farming. </li></ul><ul><li>Cities and complex social structures arose there too. </li></ul><ul><li>Olmec </li></ul><ul><li>Lived in hot, humid lowlands </li></ul><ul><li>1200 BC to AD 300 </li></ul><ul><li>Built first large towns in Mesoamerica </li></ul><ul><li>Earliest Olmec town </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pyramid, courtyard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eight giant stone heads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Throne like monuments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Towns served as ceremonial, political and religious centers </li></ul><ul><li>Society </li></ul><ul><li>Olmec rulers, families lived in towns </li></ul><ul><li>Lower social classes lived outside the towns </li></ul><ul><li>Elite led ceremonies, controlled trade network </li></ul><ul><li>Trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From Gulf to Pacific coast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rubber, pottery, furs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also beliefs, art, games </li></ul></ul>The First Civilizations
  35. 40. <ul><li>Zapotec </li></ul><ul><li>Southern Mexico 1500 BC to AD 750 </li></ul><ul><li>May have had contact with Olmec </li></ul><ul><li>Began as farmers, built capital city around 500 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Monte Alb á n, first true city in Mesoamerica </li></ul><ul><li>Located high above Valley of Oaxaca </li></ul><ul><li>Monte Alb á n </li></ul><ul><li>Huge main plaza with pyramids, temples, palaces </li></ul><ul><li>Olmec influence in decorations </li></ul><ul><li>Large ball court, observatory </li></ul><ul><li>Population of 25,000 at height </li></ul><ul><li>City declined when leaders lost support of their people </li></ul><ul><li>Still used for high-status burials </li></ul>The First Civilizations
  36. 41. <ul><li>Toltec </li></ul><ul><li>Highlands of central Mexico, AD 900 to 1200 </li></ul><ul><li>Capital located at Tula, near obsidian mines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Major trade center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pyramids, temples </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Militaristic society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fierce warriors established dominance over large region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate change, social conflict led to decline </li></ul></ul>The First Civilizations
  37. 42. <ul><li>Large civilization </li></ul><ul><li>Olmec, Zapotec, Toltec small in comparison </li></ul><ul><li>Developed around 1000 BC </li></ul><ul><li>More than 40 cities of 5,000 to 100,000 each at height </li></ul><ul><li>Early Maya Civilization </li></ul><ul><li>First lived in small villages </li></ul><ul><li>Grew corn, beans, squash </li></ul><ul><li>Good rainfall, rich soils </li></ul><ul><li>Rain forest challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Slash-and burn agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Clearing forest land for crops </li></ul><ul><li>Flat terraces built in hillsides to control erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Trade developed </li></ul><ul><li>Farming did not provide all needs </li></ul><ul><li>Villages traded for cotton, jade </li></ul><ul><li>Trade of cacao, salt, obsidian helped villages grow to cities </li></ul>The Maya
  38. 43. <ul><li>Cities and Government </li></ul><ul><li>Most cities built between AD 250 and 900, the Classic Age </li></ul><ul><li>Cities Tikal and Copan among the most spectacular in Mesoamerica </li></ul><ul><li>Brightly painted pyramids, temples and palaces found there </li></ul><ul><li>City-States </li></ul><ul><li>Each had own ruler and government </li></ul><ul><li>No ruler ever united the cities into single empire </li></ul><ul><li>Cities linked even without central government </li></ul><ul><li>Cities linked </li></ul><ul><li>Highlands traded jade, obsidian for cotton, rubber, cacao from lowlands </li></ul><ul><li>Cities also linked by warfare with each other </li></ul><ul><li>Through battles kings tried to gain land, power </li></ul>The Maya
  39. 44. <ul><li>The Maya worshipped many gods and believed they influenced daily life; </li></ul><ul><li>They also believed their kings communicated with the gods. </li></ul><ul><li>To keep the gods happy, the Maya performed private and public rituals. </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Offerings </li></ul><ul><li>Offering blood by piercing tongue, skin </li></ul><ul><li>Human sacrifice only occasionally </li></ul><ul><li>Ritual ball game, losing team having hearts sacrificed to gods </li></ul><ul><li>Upper Class Society </li></ul><ul><li>Priests, who led religious ceremonies </li></ul><ul><li>Professional warriors, who got war victims for human sacrifice </li></ul><ul><li>Other Classes </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants, craftspeople middle class </li></ul><ul><li>Lower class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provided food, labor for other classes </li></ul></ul>The Maya
  40. 45. <ul><li>Achievements </li></ul><ul><li>Impressive buildings and architecture, including canals </li></ul><ul><li>Advances in astronomy, math, writing </li></ul><ul><li>Observed movements of sun, moon, planets </li></ul><ul><li>Calendar system </li></ul><ul><li>Created based on astronomical observations </li></ul><ul><li>365-day farming, 260-day religious calendars </li></ul><ul><li>More accurate than that used in Europe at same time </li></ul><ul><li>Number and writing systems </li></ul><ul><li>Number system included new concepts, including “zero” </li></ul><ul><li>Complex writing system of glyphs , or symbols, representing objects, sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Carved writing in stone, also in bark-paper book called a codex </li></ul>The Maya
  41. 46. <ul><li>Decline of Mayan civilization, AD 900 </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by number of factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental damage, drought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warfare increased over competition for land, destroyed more crops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abuse of power by strong kings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Civilization declined but did not disappear </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maya moved from forest to coastal cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remained for several hundred years </li></ul></ul>The Maya
  42. 47. <ul><li>At the height of Mayan Civilization, the Aztecs began to rise to power in the north. </li></ul><ul><li>Early Aztecs were a small group of unlucky farmers that created the most powerful empire in Mesoamerica. </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of the Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Began as separate farming tribes </li></ul><ul><li>Probably subject of the Toltecs </li></ul><ul><li>Legend: settle where they saw an eagle on a cactus eating a snake </li></ul><ul><li>Migrated south to Valley of Mexico, 1100s </li></ul><ul><li>Good farmland already taken </li></ul><ul><li>Lake Texcoco </li></ul><ul><li>A swampy island in valley </li></ul><ul><li>Site where legend says Aztecs saw eagle and snake </li></ul><ul><li>Founded city of Tenochtitl á n </li></ul><ul><li>From here, continued rise to power </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to being farmers, the Aztecs were also fierce warriors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They began fighting to control other towns around Lake Texcoco. </li></ul></ul>The Aztecs
  43. 48. <ul><li>Conquering Warriors </li></ul><ul><li>Aztecs gained strength in 1420s with alliance with Texcoco and Tlacopan </li></ul><ul><li>Alliance gained control over huge region beyond Lake Texcoco </li></ul><ul><li>Aztecs ruled 400 to 500 other city states, 5 million people </li></ul><ul><li>Required conquered people to pay tribute </li></ul><ul><li>Wealth and Strength </li></ul><ul><li>Tribute paid in many forms, feathers, food, pottery, blankets </li></ul><ul><li>Tribute was basis of economy </li></ul><ul><li>Gained wealth and strength through trade as well </li></ul><ul><li>System of roads aided trade of goods like jade, cacao </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants also acted as spies for Aztec emperor </li></ul>The Aztecs
  44. 49. <ul><li>Tenochtitl á n </li></ul><ul><li>Capital city of Aztec empire </li></ul><ul><li>Covered 5 square miles </li></ul><ul><li>Population of about 200,000 </li></ul><ul><li>One of largest cities in world at time </li></ul><ul><li>Site of present day Mexico City </li></ul><ul><li>Enchanted Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Walled compound at city center </li></ul><ul><li>Pyramid with two temples on top </li></ul><ul><li>Other temples, government buildings, palaces, a ball court </li></ul><ul><li>Political and religious heart of the empire </li></ul><ul><li>First Europeans, “enchanted vision” </li></ul><ul><li>Floating Gardens </li></ul><ul><li>Swampy island in middle of lake </li></ul><ul><li>Not much land for farming </li></ul><ul><li>Aztecs built floating gardens at city’s edge </li></ul><ul><li>Tenochtitl á n connected by canals and causeways to biggest market </li></ul><ul><li>Vendors paid tax to support army </li></ul>The Aztecs
  45. 50. Tenochtitl á n
  46. 51. <ul><li>The Aztec had an organized society, with the king at the top, followed by priests. </li></ul><ul><li>Society and Religion </li></ul><ul><li>King was part of royal family, but had to be elected </li></ul><ul><li>Lived in palace at Tenochtitl á n </li></ul><ul><li>Certain nobles served as government officials </li></ul><ul><li>Just below king were priests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpreted calendars </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performed religious ceremonies </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Ceremonies </li></ul><ul><li>Believed gods needed blood </li></ul><ul><li>Sacrificed as many as 20,000 victims a year </li></ul><ul><li>European perspective , </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ walls splashed and caked with blood…stank abominably” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Slaves. prisoners used for sacrifices </li></ul><ul><li>Certain warriors who captured victims also upper class </li></ul>The Aztecs
  47. 52. <ul><li>Other classes </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants, artisans wealthy, respected </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants rich from trading </li></ul><ul><li>Artisans important, made goods required for tribute </li></ul><ul><li>Lower class </li></ul><ul><li>Most were farmers, very poor </li></ul><ul><li>Did not own their own land </li></ul><ul><li>Paid so much in tribute, it was difficult to survive </li></ul><ul><li>Chance for improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers could become warriors or study at special schools </li></ul><ul><li>All attended school until 15 </li></ul><ul><li>Continuing in special schools led to work in government </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Suffered most in Aztec society </li></ul><ul><li>Most had been captured in battle, or could not pay debts </li></ul><ul><li>Some worked as farmers, laborers; some sacrificed </li></ul>The Aztecs
  48. 53. The Aztecs <ul><li>Kept written records, though not as advanced as Mayan </li></ul><ul><li>Composed poetry, riddles, historical accounts </li></ul><ul><li>Used astronomy to create religious and solar calendars much like the Maya </li></ul><ul><li>Aztec Empire lasted less than 200 years, brought to end by European contact, 1500s </li></ul>Sciences <ul><li>Aztecs known for achievements in art and science </li></ul><ul><li>Artisans made bright feathers into headdresses, shields, costumes </li></ul><ul><li>Metalworkers fashioned gold, silver, copper into jewelry, masks </li></ul><ul><li>Stoneworkers decorated temples with elaborate statues </li></ul>Achievements
  49. 54. Several early cultures in South America adapted to extreme environmental conditions. One of them, the Incas, built one of the biggest and most powerful empires in the Americas.
  50. 55. The western region of South America is one of environmental contrasts where early peoples learned to adapt and build civilizations. Early Cultures in South America <ul><li>Lived in Peruvian highlands, 800 to 400 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Chavin de Huantar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban religious, trading center of culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home to about 3,000 farmers, craftspeople </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Several different ecological zones represented in Andes </li></ul>The Chav í n <ul><li>Warmer valleys had irrigation systems, grew corn </li></ul><ul><li>Cooler higher in mountains, grew potatoes </li></ul><ul><li>High-altitude grasslands, raised llamas and alpacas </li></ul><ul><li>Other Andean peoples later adopted these methods of farming </li></ul>Chav í n Crops
  51. 56. Early Cultures in South America <ul><li>Desert people, 200 BC to AD 600, best known for huge designs on desert floor </li></ul><ul><li>Many theories, including having to do with location of water </li></ul><ul><li>Built irrigation canals and relied on springs, flooding of streams to water crops </li></ul><ul><li>Farming supported large population </li></ul>The Nazca <ul><li>Lived in coastal desert of Peru in farming, fishing villages 400 BC to AD 600 </li></ul><ul><li>Built irrigation canals in desert, channeled flow of Andean streams to crops </li></ul><ul><li>Best known for skilled metalwork in gold, silver, pottery </li></ul><ul><li>Pottery depicted scenes of everyday life, including warfare </li></ul>The Moche
  52. 58. <ul><li>Inca’s expansive empire </li></ul><ul><li>Brought entire South American region into one empire </li></ul><ul><li>Began as small Andean tribe </li></ul><ul><li>Early 1500s, empire expanded along Pacific coast, Andes </li></ul><ul><li>Ruling a large empire </li></ul><ul><li>Incas needed strong government </li></ul><ul><li>Emperor had most power </li></ul><ul><li>Did not want conquered people to rebel </li></ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><li>Period of rapid expansion began 1400s from Cuzco </li></ul><ul><li>Pachacuti used political alliances, military force </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded by later leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Creating stability </li></ul><ul><li>Moved leaders of conquered areas out </li></ul><ul><li>Moved loyal new leaders in </li></ul><ul><li>Military used to protect against rebellion, external attacks </li></ul>The Inca Empire
  53. 59. <ul><li>Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Strictly controlled by government </li></ul><ul><li>Common people required to pay labor tax, called the mita </li></ul><ul><li>Government told each household what work to do to pay tax </li></ul><ul><li>Tracking goods </li></ul><ul><li>Inca used quipu , colored and knotted cords representing numbers, dates </li></ul><ul><li>No written language, quipu used to record taxes, number livestock, census </li></ul><ul><li>Road system improved communication, helped government control economy </li></ul><ul><li>Mita </li></ul><ul><li>Paid by weaving cloth, working on government farms, mines, building roads </li></ul><ul><li>No merchants, goods distributed by government </li></ul><ul><li>Extra food, goods stored in government warehouses for emergencies </li></ul>The Inca Empire
  54. 60. The government also played a big role in Inca society. Each family was grouped with others into a cooperative community called an ayllu . The Inca Empire <ul><li>Members shared activities like farming, building canals, rituals </li></ul><ul><li>Each group of ten ayllus had chief </li></ul><ul><li>Chain of command from emperor down to local level </li></ul>Ayllu <ul><li>No slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Most belonged to lower class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artisans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Servants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wore plain clothes </li></ul><ul><li>Could not own more than needed </li></ul><ul><li>Served upper class </li></ul>Class Divisions <ul><li>King, government officials, priests </li></ul><ul><li>Lived in capital, Cuzco </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stone houses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fine clothes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Did not pay tax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attended school to prepare to be officials </li></ul></ul>Upper Class
  55. 61. <ul><li>Religion a key element of Inca society </li></ul><ul><li>People allowed to worship local gods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sun god was most important of all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed kings related to sun god </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Main temple located in Cuzco </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mummies of dead kings worshipped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious ceremonies often included sacrifices of llamas, cloth or food, rarely humans </li></ul></ul>The Inca Empire
  56. 62. In spite of the high level of achievement, the Inca Empire lasted only about 100 years. Arrival of Spanish in 1532 marked end of Empire. The level of organization of Inca government and society led to significant achievements in the areas of engineering and the arts. The Incas were particularly talented builders of temples, forts and roads. Many Inca structures were built so well they still stand today. The Inca Empire <ul><li>Especially skilled in metalwork </li></ul><ul><li>Artisans made intricate ornaments of gold, silver </li></ul><ul><li>Created a life-sized field of corn out of gold, silver in temple courtyard </li></ul>Metalwork <ul><li>Weavers worked with wool, cotton </li></ul><ul><li>Divided cloth into three categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plain for households </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finer for taxes and trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special for royal and religious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Variety of patterns used </li></ul>Weaving

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