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Notes chapter 7part1


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Notes chapter 7part1

  1. 1. Cell Structure and Function Chapter 7
  2. 2. Conversion Review K H D ___ d c m 12.4m = ________cm 0.765L = ________mL 10,432ms = ________s
  3. 3. Going Further 1 Milimeter (mm) = 0.001m  1 micrometer (μm) = 0.00001m (10-6m)  1 nanometer(nm)=0.00000001m (10-9m)
  4. 4. 7.1 Life is Cellular Sizes of Objects and Magnifying Power of Microscopes
  5. 5. Compound Light Microscope
  6. 6. Guidelines for using Light Microscopes       Carry the microscope with one hand holding the arm and the other hand supporting the base. Never slide the microscope across the lab table. Clean lenses with lens paper only. Always begin AND end with the lowest power objective in place and the stage at its lowest level. Use the coarse adjustment knob on low power objectives. Use ONLY the fine adjustment knob on high power objectives.
  7. 7. The Discovery of the Cell  Robert Hooke • Looked at cells in cork and named them cells  Anton van Leeuwenhoek • Observed pond water  Schleiden and Schwann • All plants and animals are made of cells  Oken and Virchow • Cells are produced from division of existing cells
  8. 8. Three Parts of the Cell Theory: 1. 2. 3. All living things are made up of cells. The cell is the most basic unit of life. New cells are produced from existing cells.
  9. 9. Why are cells so small? Small cells function more efficiently than large cells. • All substances that enter and leave the cell • must cross the cell surface. Cells need a high surface area to volume ratio in order to exchange substances more readily.
  10. 10. Prokaryotes  Single-celled organism that lacks a nucleus and other internal compartments.  Bacteria are common prokaryotes. Pearson Education inc. 2010
  11. 11.  Common Features of Cells • • • • Cell membrane – thin flexible barrier that encloses and separates the cell from it’s external environment. Cytoplasm – the cell’s interior Ribosomes – where proteins are made Genetic Material – instructions for making proteins, regulate cellular activities, and enable reproduction
  12. 12. Eukaryotes Cells that contain a nucleus and internal compartments called organelles.  Eukaryotic organisms can be one-celled (unicellular) or contain many cells (multicellular).
  13. 13. 7.2 Cell Structure
  14. 14. The Cytoskeleton supports and shapes cell  helps position and transport organelles  provides strength  assists in cell division  aids in cell movement Three types of cytoskeleton fibers:  • • • Microfilaments – made up of protein and actin Microtubules – made up of protein and tubulin Intermediate fibers – thick ropes of protein
  15. 15. The Nucleus Controls most functions of the cell.  Most of the cell’s DNA is contained in the nucleus.  Surrounded by the nuclear envelope, which separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm. • The nuclear envelope contains small channels called nuclear pores which allow substances to move in and out of the nucleus.
  16. 16. Nucleolus Nucleolus  Region inside the nucleus where ribosomes are assembled.
  17. 17. Ribosomes  Located free in the cytoplasm or attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum  Produce proteins
  18. 18. 2 types of endoplasmic reticulum (ER): • Rough ER – has attached ribosomes and thus has a rough appearance. – Helps transport proteins from ribosomes in vesicles. • Smooth ER – performs various functions such as making lipids and breaking down toxic substances. Rough ER Smooth ER
  19. 19. Golgi Apparatus Vesicle  Modifies proteins received in vesicles from the ER. • Some vesicles will remain in the cytoplasm and become lysosomes, which work to remove waste in the cell.
  20. 20. Vacuoles  Used for storage of water, salts, proteins, and sugars.
  21. 21. Mitochondria  Harvest energy from organic compounds to make ATP.
  22. 22. Cell Membrane  Made of a double layer of phospholipids • lipid bilayer  Protects and supports the cell  Regulates what enters and leaves the cell • Selectively permeable
  23. 23. Unique features of plant cells  Cell wall •  Chloroplast •  thick layer of protein and cellulose surrounding the cell membrane. use light energy to make carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water. Central vacuole • • takes up much of the plant cell’s volume Stores water and nutrients.
  24. 24. Plant Cells
  25. 25. Plant Cell
  26. 26.  Cell Specialization • Cell Diversity