Bio 2 Chapter 30 - Bones and Muscles

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Bio 2 Chapter 30 - Bones and Muscles

  1. 1. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture by Edward J. Zalisko PowerPoint Lectures for Campbell Biology: Concepts & Connections, Seventh Edition Reece, Taylor, Simon, and Dickey Chapter 30 How Animals Move
  2. 2. Figure 30.0_1 Chapter 30: Big Ideas Movement and Locomotion The Vertebrate Skeleton Muscle Contraction and Movement
  3. 3.  Skeletons provide – body support, – movement by working with muscles, and – protection of internal organs.  There are three main types of animal skeletons: – hydrostatic skeletons, – exoskeletons, and – endoskeletons. 30.2 Skeletons function in support, movement, and protection © 2012 Parson Education, Inc.
  4. 4. 1. Hydrostatic skeletons are – fluid held under pressure in a closed body compartment and – found in worms and cnidarians. – Hydrostatic skeletons – help protect other body parts by cushioning them from shocks, – give the body shape, and – provide support for muscle action. 30.2 Skeletons function in support, movement, and protection © 2012 Parson Education, Inc.
  5. 5. 2. Exoskeletons are rigid external skeletons that consist of – chitin and protein in arthropods and – calcium carbonate shells in molluscs. – Exoskeletons must be shed to permit growth. 30.2 Skeletons function in support, movement, and protection © 2012 Parson Education, Inc.
  6. 6. 3. Endoskeletons consist of hard or leathery supporting elements situated among the soft tissues of an animal. They may be made of – cartilage or cartilage and bone (vertebrates), – spicules (sponges), or – hard plates (echinoderms). 30.2 Skeletons function in support, movement, and protection © 2012 Parson Education, Inc.
  7. 7.  The vertebrate skeletal system provides – structural support – means of locomotion 30.3 EVOLUTION CONNECTION: Vertebrate skeletons are variations on an ancient theme © 2012 Parson Education, Inc.
  8. 8. Bones of the Human Body •The adult skeleton has 206 bones •Two basic types of bone tissue •Compact bone •Homogeneous •Spongy bone •Small needle-like pieces of bone •Many open spaces
  9. 9. Figure 5.1 Spongy bone Compact bone
  10. 10. Classification of Bones •Bones are classified by shape •Long bones • Typically longer than they are wide • Shaft with heads situated at both ends • Contain mostly compact bone • All of the bones of the limbs (except wrist, ankle, and kneecap bones) • Example: • Femur • Humerus
  11. 11. Figure 5.2a
  12. 12. Figure 5.3a Distal epiphysis Diaphysis Proximal epiphysis Articular cartilage Spongy bone Epiphyseal line Periosteum Compact bone Medullary cavity (lined by endosteum) (a)
  13. 13. Types of Bone Cells •Osteocytes—mature bone cells •Osteoblasts—bone-forming cells •Osteoclasts—giant bone-destroying cells • Bone cells • live in a matrix of flexible protein fibers and hard calcium salts and • are kept alive by blood vessels, hormones, and nerves.
  14. 14. Lamella Osteocyte Figure 5.4b Canaliculus Lacuna Central (Haversian) canal (b)
  15. 15. Anatomy of a Long Bone •Epiphyseal plate •Flat plate of hyaline cartilage seen in young, growing bone •Epiphyseal line •Remnant of the epiphyseal plate •Seen in adult bones
  16. 16. Figure 5.3a Distal epiphysis Diaphysis Proximal epiphysis Articular cartilage Spongy bone Epiphyseal line Periosteum Compact bone Medullary cavity (lined by endosteum) (a)
  17. 17.  The human skeleton consists of an – axial skeleton – that supports the axis or trunk of the body and – consists of the skull, vertebrae, and ribs and – appendicular skeleton – that includes the appendages and the bones that anchor the appendage and – consists of the arms, legs, shoulders, and pelvic girdles. 30.3 EVOLUTION CONNECTION: Vertebrate skeletons are variations on an ancient theme © 2012 Parson Education, Inc.
  18. 18. Figure 30.3A Skull Sternum Ribs Vertebra Clavicle Scapula Pectoral girdle Humerus Radius Ulna Pelvic girdle Carpals Phalanges Metacarpals Femur Patella Tibia Fibula Tarsals Metatarsals Phalanges Mandible xiphoid process
  19. 19. Figure 5.8b (b) Posterior view Fibula Tibia Femur Metacarpals Phalanges Carpals Radius Ulna Vertebra Humerus Rib Scapula Clavicle Cranium Bones of pectoral girdle Upper limb Bones of pelvic girdle Lower limb
  20. 20.  Cartilage at the ends of bones – cushions joints and – reduces friction of movements. 30.4 Bones are complex living organs © 2012 Parson Education, Inc. Articular cartilage
  21. 21.  Long bones have – a central cavity storing fatty yellow bone marrow – spongy bone located at the ends of bones containing red bone marrow, that produces blood cells. 30.4 Bones are complex living organs © 2012 Parson Education, Inc.
  22. 22.  Osteoporosis is – a bone disease, – characterized by low bone mass and structural deterioration, and – less likely if a person – has high levels of calcium in the diet, – exercises regularly, and – does not smoke. 30.5 CONNECTION: Healthy bones resist stress and heal from injuries © 2012 Parson Education, Inc.
  23. 23. 30.6 Joints permit different types of movement  Joints allow limited movement of bones.  Different joints permit various movements. – Ball-and-socket joints enable rotation in the arms and legs. – Hinge joints in the elbows and knees permit movement in a single plane. – Pivot joints enable the rotation of the forearm at the elbow. © 2012 Parson Education, Inc.
  24. 24. Figure 30.6 Head of humerus Humerus Scapula Ulna Ball-and-socket joint Hinge joint Ulna Pivot joint Radius
  25. 25.  Muscles and bones interact to produce movement.  Muscles – are connected to bones by tendons – can only contract, requiring an antagonistic muscle to reverse the action – Example: Flexion of forearm – biceps brachii, extension of forearm – triceps brachii 30.7 The skeleton and muscles interact in movement © 2012 Parson Education, Inc.
  26. 26. Figure 30.7A Biceps contracted, triceps relaxed Biceps Triceps Tendons Triceps Biceps Triceps contracted, biceps relaxed Flexion Extension
  27. 27.  Muscle fibers (skeletal muscle cells) are cells that consist of bundles of myofibrils – are cylindrical, – have many nuclei, and – are oriented parallel to each other.  Myofibrils contain sacromeres – thick filaments composed primarily of the protein myosin – thin filaments composed primarily of the protein actin. 30.8 Each muscle cell has its own contractile apparatus © 2012 Parson Education, Inc.
  28. 28. Figure 6.3a Sarcolemma Myofibril Dark (A) band Light (I) band Nucleus (a) Segment of a muscle fiber (cell)
  29. 29.  Sarcomeres are – repeating groups of overlapping thick and thin filaments – the contractile unit—the fundamental unit of muscle action. 30.8 Each muscle cell has its own contractile apparatus © 2012 Parson Education, Inc.
  30. 30. Figure 30.8 Muscle Several muscle fibers Single muscle fiber (cell) Plasma membrane Nuclei Myofibril Light band Dark band Light band Z line Sarcomere Sarcomere Z lineZ line Thick filaments (myosin) Thin filaments (actin)
  31. 31. Figure 30.8_3 Sarcomere Z lineZ line Thick filaments (myosin) Thin filaments (actin) Light band Dark band Light band Z line Sarcomere
  32. 32.  According to the sliding-filament model of muscle contraction, a sarcomere contracts (shortens) when its thin filaments slide across its thick filaments. – Contraction shortens the sarcomere without changing the lengths of the thick and thin filaments. – When the muscle is fully contracted, the thin filaments overlap in the middle of the sarcomere. 30.9 A muscle contracts when thin filaments slide along thick filaments © 2012 Parson Education, Inc.
  33. 33. Figure 6.7a–b Myosin Actin Z H I Z A I (a) (b) Z I A I Z Relaxed Contracted
  34. 34.  A motor neuron – carries an action potential to a muscle cell, – releases the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (Ach) from its synaptic terminal, and – initiates a muscle contraction. 30.10 Motor neurons stimulate muscle contraction © 2012 Parson Education, Inc.
  35. 35. Figure 6.5
  36. 36.  A motor unit consists of – a neuron and – the set of muscle fibers it controls.  More forceful muscle contractions result when additional motor units are activated. 30.10 Motor neurons stimulate muscle contraction © 2012 Parson Education, Inc.
  37. 37. Figure 30.10C Spinal cord Motor neuron cell body Nerve Motor neuron axon Synaptic terminals Muscle Tendon Muscle fibers (cells) Nuclei Bone Motor unit 1 Motor unit 2
  38. 38. Facial • Masseter Shoulder • Trapezius • Deltoid Arm • Triceps brachii • Biceps brachii Forearm • Brachioradialis Thigh (Quadriceps) • Rectus femoris • Vastus lateralis • Vastus medialis Facial • Orbicularis oculi • Orbicularis oris Neck • Sternocleidomastoid Thorax • Pectoralis major Abdomen • Rectus abdominis • External oblique • Internal oblique Leg • Gastrocnemius
  39. 39. Arm • Triceps brachii Leg • Gastrocnemius Calcaneal (Achilles) tendon Neck • Sternocleidomastoid • Trapezius Shoulder/Back • Deltoid • Latissimus dorsi Hip • Gluteus medius • Gluteus maximus Thigh • Hamstrings: Biceps femoris Semitendinosus Semimembranosus

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