Damien Duffy URBACT Open Cities


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Presentation by Damien Duffy at the URBACT migration CityLab event in Brussels on 26 May 2009 dealing with the OPEN CITIES approach

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Damien Duffy URBACT Open Cities

  1. 1. URBACT II : CITY LAB Benefiting from Migration 26 th May 2009 Brussels Damian Duffy Lead Expert OPENCities
  2. 2. <ul><li>Free Trade/Geo-Political Shift </li></ul><ul><li>Since World War II and especially since the fall of the Soviet Bloc, there has been a strong commitment by many nations to free trade . </li></ul><ul><li>This is achieved in principle through reducing tariffs and other barriers to trade. </li></ul><ul><li>There have been numerous multi-lateral trade agreements between countries and overseen by the World Trade Organisation. </li></ul><ul><li>The establishment of the EU has allowed and encouraged the free movement of goods, services and capital between its member states. </li></ul><ul><li>Falling Transport Costs </li></ul><ul><li>An important factor that has driven globalisation over the last 50 years is the significant falls in the costs of transportation. </li></ul><ul><li>Containerisation and haulage have dramatically increased the capacity and speed with which goods can be transported around the globe and domestically. </li></ul><ul><li>This has reduced the need for goods to be manufactured near to the consumer. </li></ul><ul><li>Recently there has also been significant falls in the cost of air travel allowing people to move easily around the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Advances in Technology </li></ul><ul><li>There have been significant advances in information and communication technology over the last 20-30 years. </li></ul><ul><li>This has facilitated information exchange and has lowered transactions costs. </li></ul><ul><li>Combined with lower transportation costs, this has enabled firms to outsource different elements of their business to various locations and hence the growth of multinationals . </li></ul><ul><li>There is also a direct effect with new technology industries offering opportunities and a greater need for skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility of People </li></ul><ul><li>Both internal and international migration have been drivers of globalisation. </li></ul><ul><li>The willingness and ability of people to move has provided an increasingly flexible labour market </li></ul><ul><li>Internal both inter- and intra-regional migration has increased steadily over the last few decades. </li></ul><ul><li>International migration has also been on the increase, with indications suggesting that this trend will accelerate in the coming years, </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>OPENCities Drivers </li></ul>Long Term Drivers: Economic Internationalisation. Human mobility and demographics. Environmental change and challenge. Technology development. Urbanisation of poverty and inequality. Continental governance. How cities and regions respond matters. Governance, investment, strategy, leadership, marketing & branding, catalyst, collaboration, inclusion, openness …
  4. 4. <ul><li>OPENCities QUESTIONS ??? </li></ul><ul><li>What is Openness ? Openness is the ability of cities to attract and retain international populations over time… </li></ul><ul><li>What is an OPENCity ? </li></ul><ul><li>What is it OPEN for ? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is OPEN to ? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you plan to create more OPENCities ? </li></ul><ul><li>OPENCities is also about the positive aspects of the social and economic integration of economic migrants </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>OPENCities DRIVERs </li></ul><ul><li>W hat attracts (ATTRACTION) migrants to a particular city ? </li></ul><ul><li>What factors would encourage migrants to stay in a particular city (RETENTION) ? </li></ul><ul><li>ATTRACTION RETENTION </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>OPENCities DRIVERs </li></ul><ul><li>W hat attracts (ATTRACTION) migrants to a particular city ? </li></ul><ul><li>What factors would encourage migrants to stay in a particular city (RETENTION) ? </li></ul><ul><li>How can cities losing skilled workers adopt proactive approaches to seek the (RETURN) of their workers ? </li></ul><ul><li>ATTRACTION RETENTION RETURN </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>OPENCities – What are we trying to achieve ? </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the positive aspects of the attraction and retention of migrant workers </li></ul><ul><li>International populations contribution to cities success </li></ul><ul><li>Human capital is mobile and skilled workers can choose where they want to locate </li></ul><ul><li>In order to be attractive to international populations (economic migrants) cities need to be open </li></ul><ul><li>Accept that immigration has central role to play in Lisbon agenda, cities need access to flexible workforce to develop </li></ul><ul><li>OPENCities will try to identify the links between migration and cities competitiveness </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>OPENCities – Benefits of Migration </li></ul><ul><li>Offers competitive advantage of diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible workers with new skills </li></ul><ul><li>Intercultural interaction and dialogue enhances quality of life </li></ul><ul><li>Efforts should be made to exploit the huge potential of the cultural and social diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge economies require interaction and exchange of ideas </li></ul><ul><li>New arrivals are spur to creativity and innovation </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Openness Factors </li></ul>Economic Internationalisation Accessibilty Regulatory Risks and Security Leadership Amenity Cultural low qualified migrants
  10. 10. <ul><li>OPENCities Factors and Measures </li></ul>8 factors and 40 measures of Openness? Economic factors: Population, Employment, Enterprise, Skills & Qualifications. Regulatory factors: Citizenship, Welfare, Health, Housing, social inclusion. Cultural factors: Civic organisations, mixed marriages, creative expressions, media, food. Amenity factors: Signage/information, language, education, retail, and neighbourhood mix. Connectivity/Accessibility factors: Ports and Gateways, digital access, public transport, city centres. Internationalisation factors: International populations, business, events, institutions, visitors, and students. Risk factors: Crime, security, disasters, deportation, racism and xenophobia. Leadership factors: Diversity strategy, brand and belonging, voting and representation, active projects.
  11. 11. <ul><li>Refined Openness Factors Thematic Workshops </li></ul>Integration/ Inclusion Internationalisation Leadership and Governance low qualified migrants
  12. 12. <ul><li>OPENCities Emerging themes / Observations </li></ul><ul><li>Recent enlargement of EU has created flows of migrant workers across Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties in some cities in tracking and measuring how many and which nationalities </li></ul><ul><li>Economic growth creates demand for new arrivals </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure on public sector budgets to support new arrivals </li></ul><ul><li>Need to develop leadership resources for new groups to facilitate integration </li></ul><ul><li>Language barriers to integration across generations </li></ul><ul><li>Barriers to labour market, education and enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>Integration V Assimilation </li></ul><ul><li>Different groups of migrants – EU and third country nationals </li></ul><ul><li>Population decline in many larger cities amongst indigenous population </li></ul><ul><li>Need to ringfence ESF/ERDF funds to deal with integration challenges ???? </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>PAST IN IRELAND </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>PAST PRESENT </li></ul>
  15. 15. Damian Duffy OPENCities Lead Expert [email_address] www.tribalgroup.co.uk