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Open science

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Keynote for the GMW16 conference: a pleading for open sciences, against patents at university

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Open science

  1. 1. open science
  2. 2. alchemie
  3. 3. alchemie
  4. 4. Negative results are disappearing from most disciplines and countries Daniele Fanelli Received: 1 July 2011 / Published online: 11 September 2011 Ó Akade´miai Kiado´, Budapest, Hungary 2011 Abstract Concerns that the growing competition for funding and citations might distort science are frequently discussed, but have not been verified directly. Of the hypothesized problems, perhaps the most worrying is a worsening of positive-ou that disfavours negative re Scientometrics (2012) 90:891–904DOI 10.1007/s11192-011-0494-7
  5. 5. Negative results are disappearing from most disciplines and countries Daniele Fanelli Received: 1 July 2011 / Published online: 11 September 2011 Ó Akade´miai Kiado´, Budapest, Hungary 2011 Abstract Concerns that the growing competition for funding and citations might distort science are frequently discussed, but have not been verified directly. Of the hypothesized problems, perhaps the most worrying is a worsening of positive-ou that disfavours negative re Scientometrics (2012) 90:891–904DOI 10.1007/s11192-011-0494-7 Incentives for Tr Scientific Utopia: II. Restructuring incentives and practices to promote truth over publishability Brian A. Nosek Jeffrey R. Spies Matt Motyl University of Virginia Quelle: »Everything is fucked: The syllabus« https://hardsci.wordpress.com/2016/08/11/everything-is-fucked-the-syllabus/
  6. 6. 1.Self citation and More Self Citation 2.Double publication 3.Rapid self citation 4.Goto SPIE Conference 5.Quote more references and cover up your act, the important is the number of self citation
  7. 7. »A method of swinging on a swing is disclosed, in which a user positioned on a standard swing suspended by two chains from a substantially horizontal tree branch induces side to side motion by pulling alternately on one chain and then the other.«
  8. 8. idee: zeitlich befristeter schutz, damit autor/erfinder (eine zeit lang) alleine davon profitieren kann. intellectual property
  9. 9. individuum hat tolle idee will damit reich werden will vor konkurrenz geschützt sein gesellschaft ist »framework« ür kreativität will idee verwenden will davon profitieren
  10. 10. kritik »[Patents] projected an artificial idol of the single inventor, radically denigrated the role of the intellectual commons, and blocked a path to this commons for other citizens — citizens who were all, on this account, potential inventors too. [...] Patentees were the equivalent of squatters on public land — or better, of uncouth market traders who planted their barrows in the middle of the highway and barred the way of the people.« (TL;DR: lange kette von quellen, die bei wikipedia endet.)
  11. 11. kritik –› niederlande schafft patentsystem 1869 ab –› schweiz verzögert ein ührung von patentrecht bis 1907 –› alle anderen: reformen.
  12. 12. heute üblich: 20 jahre beispiel lego: › jan 1958 zum patent angemeldet › 1988 ausgelaufen zb. patentrecht ergebnis ›
  13. 13. patentierbarkeit von software uspto
  14. 14. patentierbarkeit von software europäisches patentamt
  15. 15. patentierbarkeit von software Vorsitzender der BSA als Autor der Direktive!
  16. 16. 0 100000 200000 300000 400000 1790 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Angemeldet Bewilligt Software- Patente
  17. 17. beispiel »A system and process for ensuring the smooth flow of electronic ink is described« U.S. Patent 7,212,296
  18. 18. beispiel priority queues »A system and process for ensuring the smooth flow of electronic ink is described« »The invention is operational with numerous other general purpose or special purpose computing system environments or configurations. Examples of well known computing systems, environments, and/or configurations that may be suitable for use with the invention include, but are not limited to, personal computers, server computers, hand-held or laptop devices including smart phones, smart watches, and personal data assistants, multiprocessor systems, microprocessor-based systems, set top boxes, …«every imaginable computing system
  19. 19. problem software-patente oft unspezifische trivialpatente zb »Mobile entertainment and communication device«, erteilt am 22.1.2008 patentierbarkeit von software »...Further, the device includes sensors for sensing unusual conditions that may also be transmitted to a remote telephone...«
  20. 20. beispiel »Bread refreshing method« (U.S. Patent 6080436 A) This invention is concerned with the process and apparatus for refreshing bread products, particularly open face items such as sliced rolls, buns, muffins, and the like. An oven is provided that is capable of producing high intensity infrared radiation from a relatively high temperature source, in the range of 2500-4500 F., using fast cycle methods. A bread product is placed in an oven at ambient and then exposed to the above mentioned infrared radiation for a period of 3 to 90 seconds as appropriate.
  21. 21. patentierbarkeit von software »First, we conclude that, as measured by the stock market’s reaction to legal decisions expanding the patentability of software, there is no evidence that the expansion of software patentability benefited firms in the software industry.« »There is limited evidence of relatively negative effects on some types of software producers...« Bronwyn H. Hall, Megan MacGarvie, 2006: 
 The Private Value of Software Patents. 
 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  22. 22. patentierbarkeit von software »...we should also emphasize that the majority of the software patents acquired during the past twenty years have been acquired by non-software firms in the ICT sector...« Bronwyn H. Hall, Megan MacGarvie, 2006: 
 The Private Value of Software Patents. 
 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc. wie bitte?
  23. 23. patentierbarkeit von software »patent troll« Patent troll is a pejorative term used for a person or company that enforces its patents against one or more alleged infringers in a manner considered unduly aggressive or opportunistic, often with no intention to manufacture or market the patented invention.
  24. 24. »The door to Oasis's office was locked, and through the crack under the door we could see there were no lights were on inside. It turns out a lot of those companies in that corridor, maybe every single one of them, is doing exactly what Oasis Research is doing. They appear to have no employees. They are not coming up with new inventions. The companies are in Marshall, Texas because they are filing lawsuits for patent infringement.« When Patents Attack http://www.npr.org/sections/money/2011/07/26/138576167/when- patents-attack
  25. 25. »Academic Patenting: How universities and public research organizations are using their intellectual property to boost research and spur innovative start-ups« http://www.wipo.int/sme/en/documents/academic_patenting.html
  26. 26. »Patenting University Research Has Been A Dismal Failure, Enabling Patent Trolling. It's Time To Stop« http://http://innovationamerica.us
  27. 27. »Using tech transfer office expenses information, Valdivia estimates that 130 universities did not generate enough licensing income in 2012 to cover the wages of their technology transfer staff and the legal costs for the patents they file.« Walter D. Valdivia: University Start-Ups: Critical for Improving Technology Transfer. Center for Technology Innovation, Brooking Research Institute.
  28. 28. »Intellectual Ventures is the world's largest patent troll […] The crew at IV saw all the problems with tech transfer offices and saw an opportunity: IV went around from university to university and offered to buy patents in bulk. Mike Masnik: Patenting University Research Has Been A Dismal Failure, Enabling Patent Trolling. It's Time To Stop
  29. 29. wir brauchen… … neue modelle des austauschs … publikations-stopp in pay-per-view medien … systematische berücksichtigung von »non-impact« leistungen … patentverzicht in öffentlichen forschungseinrichtungen … forschungsfinanzierung nur mit offenheitsklausel polymath project galaxy zoo http://theconversation.com/should-writing-for-the-public-count-toward-tenure-63983 http://www.openscience.org/blog/?p=728 http://thecostofknowledge.com
  30. 30. @peterpur

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