Forms of Resistance
Active / passive
Open / covered
Individual / group
Aggressive / timid
Perspectives of Resistance
Resistance and Adaptation
Changes necessity changes
in the of adaptation in living
environment to environment beings
The change comes from outside:
the reference is the environment.
Resistance and Adaptation
in the congruency
environment Internal adjustments with the
until self-conservation changes
is reestablished in the
The change comes from inside:
the reference is the living being.
Groups are fundamental
elements of organizations
They are links between the
individual and the organization.
Generate more identity than the
organization as a whole.
Allow to share perceptions and
Groups are also a critical
element of change
Facilitate to “organize” resistance,
without exposing the individual.
Suggest the impression that the
collective is stronger than the sum
of the individuals.
Change tends to stimulate the
competition between groups.
Organizational change affects people
not only as employees but also as
“Classical” Project Management
might not be the best approach
to deal with organizational
Change should be strategic – that is
rather a program's issue.
PM’s main purpose is to deliver products
– change is different.
Its structure is temporary – change has to
It does not include some important tools
and techniques - organizational
Recognize the diversity of people.
Build up trust.
Orient the pace of change towards
people, not technology.
Reveal the value for the people, not
only for the organization.
Involve people actively.
Create, use and share the
Not all organizations need
to be identical ...
... but all should comply efficiently
with their mission and be a pleasant
place to work!
Some resources used:
• Bauer, Ruben (2009): Conhecimento e cognição. Apresentação no SBGC no Rio
• Bregman, Peter (2009): How to Counter Resistance to Change.
• Burke, Wyatt Warner (2007): Organization change. Theory and Practice. Los
Angeles: Sage Publications.
• Friess, Peter M. (2000): Systemische Konzepte für das Management von
• Neumann, Donald/Baureis, David/Stock, Torsten (2009): Capacidade de
Transformação: Gestão Ágil de Projetos em Estruturas Organizacionais
Transformáveis. In: Revista MundoPM, nº 26.
• Nicolette, Dave/ Kosekla, Lasse (2008): Overcoming Resistance to Change.
• Pfeiffer, Peter (2005): Gerenciamento de Projetos de Desenvolvimento.
Conceitos, Instrumentos e Aplicações. Rio de Janeiro: Brasport.
• Pfeiffer, Peter (2006) Facilitação de Projetos. Conceitos e técnicas para alavancar
equipes. Rio de Janeiro : Brasport.
• Schlichter, John (2009): Transformando a Cultura através do PMO e OPM3. In:
Revista MundoPM, nº 27.