Gramophonesin the GalleryCharting the museum’s adoption ofmedia in the gallery and beyond
Museums have always been media producers
Museums have always been media producers• Right from the outset, museums were publishers• Their “product” fell into 3 main...
Museums have always been media producersDusseldorfGallery:
American Museum of Natural History 1908
American Museum of Natural History 1908• In 1908, the American Museumof Natural History used coinoperated gramophones toen...
Media innovation within the museum
Media innovation within the museum• The first planetarium was set upat the Deutches Museum,Munich in 1923• The technology ...
Film
Film• Museums were using film in thefield as early as 1912• In the 1920s and 1930s manyinstalled small film projectionthea...
The first audio guide
The first audio guide
The first audio guide• The Stedelijk Museum in theNetherlands and electronicsgiant Phillips developed the firstaudio guide...
Broadcasting: “What in the World?”
Broadcasting: “What in the World?”• A game show format broadcastfrom 1951 on CBS• Chaired by Froelich Rainey,director of t...
Computer technology• Graphical user interfaces forrelatively low-cost computersemerged in the mid 1980s• Some museums quic...
www• The world wide web (as andistinct service within the widernetwork of the internet) beganto take off in the mid 1990s•...
BYOD (Bring Your Own Device)
Apps• Explorer: The American Museumof Natural History– Released 15th July 2010– Later introduced satnav-like “turn byturn”...
World Stories Young Voices
World Stories Young Voices• Surface Impression was commissioned to produce theAV (audio visual) content for the gallery• O...
Production networkKioskScreenMobileOwncomputerContentResponsesTextsClipsClipsImagesEditingRaw materialProcessingPlatformAu...
KioskScreenMobileOwncomputerContentResponsesTextsClipsClipsImagesEditingObject Object ObjectCuratorialSource communityInte...
KioskScreenMobileOwncomputerContentResponsesTextsClipsClipsImagesEditingObject Object ObjectCuratorialSource communityInte...
KioskScreenMobileOwncomputerContentResponsesTextsClipsClipsImagesEditingObject Object ObjectCuratorialSource communityInte...
KioskScreenMobileOwncomputerContentResponsesTextsClipsClipsImagesEditingObject Object ObjectCuratorialSource communityInte...
KioskScreenMobileOwncomputerContentResponsesTextsClipsClipsImagesEditingObject Object ObjectCuratorialSource communityInte...
KioskScreenMobileOwncomputerContentResponsesTextsClipsClipsImagesEditingObject Object ObjectCuratorialSource communityInte...
Peter Pavementpeterp@surfaceimpression.comwww.surfaceimpression.com@peterpavement
Gramophones in the Gallery
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Gramophones in the Gallery

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Charting the museum's adoption of media in the gallery and beyond. Slides for paper given at the Museum Ethnographers Conference in Brighton, April 2013

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Gramophones in the Gallery

  1. 1. Gramophonesin the GalleryCharting the museum’s adoption ofmedia in the gallery and beyond
  2. 2. Museums have always been media producers
  3. 3. Museums have always been media producers• Right from the outset, museums were publishers• Their “product” fell into 3 main categories:– “inventory catalogue” – collection data– “expository guide” – an enhanced listing, to act as portablecaptions for the visitor– “presentation volume” – a prestige format edition, a highlyillustrated representation of the museum, often given todignitaries, high ranking stakeholders etc. (Waterfield, 1995)
  4. 4. Museums have always been media producersDusseldorfGallery:
  5. 5. American Museum of Natural History 1908
  6. 6. American Museum of Natural History 1908• In 1908, the American Museumof Natural History used coinoperated gramophones toenhance their Tuberculosisexhibition• The exhibition was an early“blockbuster” attracting over750,000 visitors in a seven-week run (Griffiths, 2007)
  7. 7. Media innovation within the museum
  8. 8. Media innovation within the museum• The first planetarium was set upat the Deutches Museum,Munich in 1923• The technology was developedby Carl Zeiss, a localphotographic lens-maker whowent on to establish asignificant photographycomponent brand
  9. 9. Film
  10. 10. Film• Museums were using film in thefield as early as 1912• In the 1920s and 1930s manyinstalled small film projectiontheatres• Dedicated in-gallery unitsappeared in the 30s. This is a“Dramagraph” from the AMNH
  11. 11. The first audio guide
  12. 12. The first audio guide
  13. 13. The first audio guide• The Stedelijk Museum in theNetherlands and electronicsgiant Phillips developed the firstaudio guide• It broadcasted from a centralrecording, via a form ofinduction loop in the building’sskirting boards• Picked up by a wireless receiver
  14. 14. Broadcasting: “What in the World?”
  15. 15. Broadcasting: “What in the World?”• A game show format broadcastfrom 1951 on CBS• Chaired by Froelich Rainey,director of the University ofPennsylvania Museum ofArchaeology and Anthropology• Featured curators and otherexperts from around the USA &guest stars like Vincent Price
  16. 16. Computer technology• Graphical user interfaces forrelatively low-cost computersemerged in the mid 1980s• Some museums quickly adoptedthe technology to enhance theirexhibition spaces• For example, the SmithsonianInstitutions “Laser at 25” (1988)featured animations, laserconfiguration simulation andquizzes
  17. 17. www• The world wide web (as andistinct service within the widernetwork of the internet) beganto take off in the mid 1990s• “Early adopter” museumsincluded University of CaliforniaMuseum of Palaeontology atBerkeley, The Natural HistoryMuseum and Museum of theHistory of Science, Oxford
  18. 18. BYOD (Bring Your Own Device)
  19. 19. Apps• Explorer: The American Museumof Natural History– Released 15th July 2010– Later introduced satnav-like “turn byturn” navigation around the galleries
  20. 20. World Stories Young Voices
  21. 21. World Stories Young Voices• Surface Impression was commissioned to produce theAV (audio visual) content for the gallery• Our strategy was to unify as much of the media outputinto one digital platform as we could• Film, information, interaction and audio are deliveredfrom one central resource, but consumed on the galleryscreens, the web or through the visitors’ mobile devices
  22. 22. Production networkKioskScreenMobileOwncomputerContentResponsesTextsClipsClipsImagesEditingRaw materialProcessingPlatformAudienceinterface
  23. 23. KioskScreenMobileOwncomputerContentResponsesTextsClipsClipsImagesEditingObject Object ObjectCuratorialSource communityInterpretation
  24. 24. KioskScreenMobileOwncomputerContentResponsesTextsClipsClipsImagesEditingObject Object ObjectCuratorialSource communityInterpretationGraphic designerWeb developerFilm makerExhibition designerIT supplierFit out contractorCopy writerProjectmanagementOrganisationScholarly textsPeersFundersStakeholdersDevice manufacturer
  25. 25. KioskScreenMobileOwncomputerContentResponsesTextsClipsClipsImagesEditingObject Object ObjectCuratorialSource communityInterpretationGraphic designerWeb developerFilm makerExhibition designerIT supplierFit out contractorCopy writerProjectmanagementOrganisationScholarly textsPeersFundersStakeholdersDevice manufacturerSourceReceptionENCODINGMuseumMedia production
  26. 26. KioskScreenMobileOwncomputerContentResponsesTextsClipsClipsImagesEditingObject Object ObjectCuratorialSource communityInterpretationGraphic designerWeb developerFilm makerExhibition designerIT supplierFit out contractorCopy writerProjectmanagementOrganisationScholarly textsPeersFundersStakeholdersDevice manufacturerSourceReceptionMuseumMedia productionENCODING
  27. 27. KioskScreenMobileOwncomputerContentResponsesTextsClipsClipsImagesEditingObject Object ObjectCuratorialSource communityInterpretationGraphic designerWeb developerFilm makerExhibition designerIT supplierFit out contractorCopy writerProjectmanagementOrganisationScholarly textsPeersFundersStakeholdersDevice manufacturerSourceReceptionMuseumMedia productionTextsClipsClipsImagesEditingInterpretationYoung peopleYoung peopleYoung peopleYoung people
  28. 28. KioskScreenMobileOwncomputerContentResponsesTextsClipsClipsImagesEditingObject Object ObjectCuratorialSource communityInterpretationGraphic designerWeb developerFilm makerExhibition designerIT supplierFit out contractorCopy writerProjectmanagementOrganisationScholarly textsPeersFundersStakeholdersDevice manufacturerSourceReceptionMuseumMedia productionRESPONSEENCODING
  29. 29. Peter Pavementpeterp@surfaceimpression.comwww.surfaceimpression.com@peterpavement

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