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WORLD WAR 1: THE HUMAN COST OF
TOTAL WAR
ANNA HARRINGTON
Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Durham_Light_Infa...
Goal: Students will be able to
articulate the human costs (death,
injury, etc.) of war on soldiers during
World War I
Esse...
All Quiet on the Western Front
“The dull thud of the gas-shells mingles with the crashes of the light
explosives. A bell s...
Question: What is the purpose behind the
poster? Why was it created and for what
audience? Is it a reliable source?
Source...
Edward Henry Cecil Stewart, undated, France. Born: 13
November 1891, Regiment: 1/5 Grenadier Company, London Rifle
Brigade...
Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_history_of_Canada_during_World_War_I
The Rear-Guard ~ Siegfried Sasson
(Hin...
Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_in_World_War_I
Questions: Is this
an accurate
depiction of a
trench in...
Reflection:
I am conflicted about my thoughts on the Document Based Lesson project. On the
one hand, I thought it was a very...
Exploring History Vol IV
University of Portland Students

Peter Pappas, Editor
This eBook is a collaborative project of Peter Pappas 

and his Fall 2016 Social Studies Methods Class 

School of Educati...
Peter Pappas, editor 

School of Education ~ University of Portland
His popular blog, Copy/Paste features downloads of his...
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Human Cost of Total War

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An interactive DBQ by Anna Harrington explores the human costs (death, injury, etc.) of war on soldiers during World War I. A chapter excerpt from Exploring History Vol IV. http://bit.ly/2iyHMaX

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Human Cost of Total War

  1. 1. WORLD WAR 1: THE HUMAN COST OF TOTAL WAR ANNA HARRINGTON Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Durham_Light_Infantry_Battle_of_Menin_Road_20-09-1917_IWM_Q_5966.jpg
  2. 2. Goal: Students will be able to articulate the human costs (death, injury, etc.) of war on soldiers during World War I Essential Question: What are the human costs of total war? Assessment: Students will showcase their knowledge through a journal entry assignment. They will be tasked with assuming the role of a soldier in World War 1. They are fighting and living in the trenches. They will write letters back home to tell their loved ones about their experiences in the trenches. Students will create 5-6 journal entries. Creativity is encouraged! Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Australian_Imperial_Force
  3. 3. All Quiet on the Western Front “The dull thud of the gas-shells mingles with the crashes of the light explosives. A bell sounds between the explosions, gongs, and metal clappers warning everyone - Gas- Gaas. These first minutes with the mask decide between life and death: is it air tight? I remember the awful sights in the hospital: the gas patients who lay in day-long suffocation cough up their burnt lungs in clots. Cautiously, the mouth applied to the valve, I breathe. The gas still creeps over the ground… like a big, soft, jelly fish… Inside the gas-mask my head booms and roars- it is nigh bursting. My lungs are tight, they breathe always the same hot, used up air, the veins on my temples are swollen. I feel I am suffocating. (pg. 68-70)” Question: From whose perspective is this passage written? What evidence from the text supports your opinion? What are they experiencing? Source: Remarque, E. M., & Wheen, A. W. (1929). All quiet on the western front.
  4. 4. Question: What is the purpose behind the poster? Why was it created and for what audience? Is it a reliable source? Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:%22Designed_for_Living%22_-_NARA_-_514110.jpg
  5. 5. Edward Henry Cecil Stewart, undated, France. Born: 13 November 1891, Regiment: 1/5 Grenadier Company, London Rifle Brigade, Regiment number: 1167; 300717, Rank: Private, Died: 1 July 1916 Source: http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/education/resources/letters-first-world-war-1915/trenches-swept- continually-shells/ Letter from the Trenches … As long as you kept your head down you were comparatively safe, so as it went on, this was where I had my first escape. I was on sentry duty for a couple of hours, from 1am to 3am and was instructed to keep a sharp look out. I did not care for the idea of keeping my head above the trench and looking for beastly Germans, however it had to be done, it was quite uncanny to watch the enemy trench which appeared somewhat like a black wave and only sixty yards in front, then you would suddenly see the flash of their rifles and machine guns immediately after would come the report and nasty thuds on the sandbags which you might be resting against. I fired about five shots Questions: How would you summarize his experience in the trenches? Was it positive or negative?
  6. 6. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_history_of_Canada_during_World_War_I The Rear-Guard ~ Siegfried Sasson (Hindenburg Line, April 1917) Groping along the tunnel, step by step, He winked his prying torch with patching glare From side to side, and sniffed the unwholesome air. Tins, boxes, shapes and too vauge to know; A mirror smashed, the mattress from a bed; And he, exploring fifty feet below The rosy gloom of battle overhead. Tripping, he grabbed the wall; saw someone lie Humped at his feet, half-hidden by a rug. And stooped to give the sleeper’s arm a tug. “I’m looking for headquarters.” No reply. “God blast your neck!” (For days he’d had no sleep.) “Get up and guide me through this stinking place.” Savage, he kicked a soft, unanswering heap, And flashed his beam across the livid face Terribly glaring up, whose eyes yet wore Agony dying hard of ten days before; And fists of fingers clutched a blackening wound. Alone he staggered on until he found Dawn’s ghost that filtered down a shafted stair To the dazed, muttering creatures underground Who hear the boom of shells in muffled sound. At last, with sweat and horror in his hair, He climbed through darkness to twilight air, Unloading hell behind him step by step. Source: Counter-attack, and Other Poems (1918) Questions: Is the character viewed positively or negatively? What language does the author use to support their perspective?
  7. 7. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_in_World_War_I Questions: Is this an accurate depiction of a trench in WWI? What specific elements support your claim from the picture?
  8. 8. Reflection: I am conflicted about my thoughts on the Document Based Lesson project. On the one hand, I thought it was a very clever way to learn and work with many digital programs. More specifically, we learned how to build a Google site and create a chapter using a specific software. All of the assignments were scaffolded in such a way that prepared you for the ultimate goal of creating a chapter in an ebook. I thought it was clever to have us create a Google site as our rough draft of the information we wanted to have in our chapter. Learning how to use Google sites was valuable. Many teachers create their own webpage to house their assignments, calendars, and agendas to help students stay organized. It was helpful to learn how to make one, in case I want to use it in the future. Although I thought that the overall goals and objectives of the assignment were valuable, it took up a good portion of our time at the end of the term. That time could have been spent learning additional methods that we could bring into classrooms that do not have access to digital platforms. Also, the majority of the schools in Oregon use Chrome books and do not have access to the particular resources we were using. Therefore, it would be difficult to replicate this project in our classrooms. Plus, many students do not have access to the programs at home either, so that would provide a massive barrier for students to complete the project even if they had access to an  device at school. As an alternative, I think it would be helpful to discuss more methods that do not require the use of technology. There is a digital divide in schools. Even if that does decrease in the future, it is important to also be equipped with tools that you can use in instances where technology is limited. I really enjoyed our lesson on group discussions. I think there could have been an additional day devoted to that topic because that is a large part of what we do as social studies teachers... lead discussions. I'm sure there are other areas that we didn't cover this term that could also be beneficial to implement in our instruction.  Therefore, I am conflicted about the necessity of the DBQ lesson. Connect with the author! LinkedIn: Anna Harrington
  9. 9. Exploring History Vol IV University of Portland Students
 Peter Pappas, Editor
  10. 10. This eBook is a collaborative project of Peter Pappas 
 and his Fall 2016 Social Studies Methods Class 
 School of Education ~ University of Portland, Portland Ore. Graduate and undergraduate level pre-service teachers were assigned the task of developing an engaging research question, researching supportive documents and curating them into a DBQ suitable for middle or high school students. For more on this class, visit the course blog EdMethods 
 For more on this book project and work flow tap here.
 Chapters in chronological order 1. Mysterious Bronze Age Collapse by Sam Hicks 2. From Revolution to Government by Valerie Schiller 3. Imagination, Innovation & Space Exploration by Molly Pettit 4. The Real Romanovs by Kelly Marx 5. World War I: The Human Cost of Total War by Anna Harrington 6. Collectivization and Propaganda in Stalin’s Soviet Union by Clarice Terry 7. Holy Propaganda Batman! by Karina Ramirez Velazquez 8. The Nicaraguan Literacy Crusade by Scott Hearron EXPLORING HISTORY: VOL IV i Engaging questions and historic documents empower students to be the historian in the classroom.
  11. 11. Peter Pappas, editor 
 School of Education ~ University of Portland His popular blog, Copy/Paste features downloads of his instructional resources, projects and publications. Follow him at Twitter @edteck. His other multi-touch eBooks are available at here. © Peter Pappas and his students, 2016 The authors take copyright infringement seriously. If any copyright holder has been inadvertently or unintentionally overlooked, the publisher will be pleased to remove the said material from this book at the very first opportunity. ii Cover design by Anna Harrington Cover image: Timeless Books
 By Lin Kristensen from New Jersey, USA 
 [CC BY 2.] 
 via Wikimedia Commons

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