The College Classroom (Wi14) Week 6: Cooperative Learning and Peer Instruction

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Peter Newbury and Beth Simon
Center for Teaching Development
University of California, San Diego
13 February 2014

collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu

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The College Classroom (Wi14) Week 6: Cooperative Learning and Peer Instruction

  1. 1. Week 6: Cooperative Learning and Peer Instruction The College Classroom Winter 2014
  2. 2. Cooperative Learning Strategies 2 PBL – problem-based learning POGIL – process-oriented guided inquiry learning PLTL – peer-led team learning PI – peer instruction collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  3. 3. Cooperative Learning Strategies 3 PBL – problem-based learning POGIL – process-oriented guided inquiry learning PLTL – peer-led team learning PI – peer instruction Why are we talking about these today? collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  4. 4. 2010–2011 Higher Education Research Initiative (HERI) Faculty Survey [1] 4  published October 23, 2012  based on responses from 23,824 full-time faculty at 417 four-year colleges and universities  “faculty member” = any employee of an accredited 4-year college or university who spend at least some of his or her time teaching undergraduates collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  5. 5. What do you see? 5 collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  6. 6. What do you see? 6 Identify the most interesting item in Table 1. Record your thoughts on the whiteboard and be prepared to share your group’s opinion. collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  7. 7. Meta Moment: Efficient Group Activities 7 • Why group activities? • • Before this class: Keeps people awake Now: Everyone constructs their own understanding; Just because words come out of my mouth doesn’t mean learning occurred • But “it takes up time” • Optimization: 2 things 1 to each 1/2 of class collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  8. 8. What do you see? 8 collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  9. 9. What do you see? 9 collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  10. 10. What do you see? 10 collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  11. 11. HERI: Cooperative Learning 11 [C]ooperative learning is a teaching practice that has the most well-defined literature base, and research consistently has revealed positive effects of cooperative learning on student achievement across experimental and quasi-experimental studies on college students. ([1], p. 8) collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  12. 12. HERI: Cooperative Learning 12 It is important to note, however, that we see the starkest gender gaps across fields in faculty’s use of cooperative learning. The majority of women in all other fields (71.8%) use cooperative learning techniques in all or most of their courses, and it is encouraging that 60.3% of women teaching in STEM use cooperative learning in the classroom, a figure that exceeds both men in STEM (40.7%) and men in all other fields (52.6%). ([1], p. 8) collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  13. 13. Key ideas 13  not just constructivism but social constructivism constructivism social constructivism recognizes that knowledge is constructed in the mind of the learner by the learner implies that this “building” process is aided through cooperative social interactions ([1], p.262) collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd ([1], p. 262)
  14. 14. Which of the following do you think contributes most to the student benefits attributed to PI use? 14 A. B. C. D. E. Developing their own understanding Changed view of responsibility/expectations in class Pre-class preparation/reading Feedback on their understanding Positive experience of success in learning collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  15. 15. Exact process “recommended” for PI depends on goals for use… 15 • General Goals: Engage students in the kind of thinking done by experts, that help them develop expertise • ?? STEM Disciplines ?? • Analysis, often with a right answer • ?? Arts, Humanities and Social Science ?? • Argumentation skills, multiple answers can be defended After examples, you will create a question for a class in your discipline. collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  16. 16. An Example from History: 16 collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  17. 17. Why is a clicker required for this class? 1. To save trees and increase efficiency and feedback. 2. To increase discussion and help you develop analysis and argumentation skills (hopefully helping you on your papers!)
  18. 18. How this class will work Before Class Discussion Question A) B) C) 1st Thing in Class: Reading Quiz A) B) C) Lecture Share Thinking Tie to Reading Discuss What we Thought 1 3 2
  19. 19. How this class will work Before Class You must get these correct to get your “quiz points” Discussion Question A) B) C) 1st Thing in Class: Reading Quiz A) B) C) Lecture Share Thinking Tie to Reading You Discuss must vote we What Thought to get your “participation points” (often multiple answers can be defended) 1 3 2
  20. 20. Increase efficiency and feedback Reading quizzes give you the excuse to “stay up” with the reading* this incentive allowed me to keep on top of my course workload and to maintain a positive study habit As it mattered for our final grade we studied and did the readings every week instead of hoarding up the studying till before the midterms and final exams. *UCSD First Year Students
  21. 21. Increase discussion EVERYONE will get a chance to be involved (not just the 2-3 usual people) The green colored clicker questions forced me to interact with my peers and hence helped in forming good study groups as well as friends. Even though I never physically spoke during class lecture as a whole, I felt as if my voice was heard during the opinion clicker questions. In this class I feel included… in other classes I feel excluded.
  22. 22. Develop analysis and argumentation skills The "green” questions also facilitate some thought provoking perspectives on the material, and they've helped me formulate my own questions and analyses outside of class. I learn not only from professors' teaching, but also other students' ideas as they express themselves about green clicker questions. I believe the use of clickers really help us learn.
  23. 23. Finally In this lecture we were asked to engage in a discussion about the past where as in other lectures I have had dates thrown at me and I was expected to memorize them without really understanding how they played into the big picture. I always wanted to come to class because lectures made me look at the past in a different way than I had before.
  24. 24. Sample History Question: 24 collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  25. 25. According to Augustine, which do you think was the most significant event in his conversion to Christianity? A. B. C. D. 25 Corporal punishments as a school-boy Student years of follies (studies and promiscuity) Stealing the pears from the neighbor’s tree Death of his classmate/friend collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  26. 26. According to Augustine, which do you think was the most significant event in his conversion to Christianity? A. B. C. D. Corporal punishments as a school-boy Student years of follies (studies and promiscuity) Stealing the pears from the neighbor’s tree Death of his classmate/friend Each of these can be discussed from the various readings. They bring up the critical points of Augustine’s personal life that previously the professor lectured on. 26 collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  27. 27. Which best describes your opinion about Rousseau’s proposal for the most legitimate form of government? A. B. C. D. E. 27 Necessary Appealing Nice, but unrealistic Risky Frightening/Offensive collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  28. 28. Which best describes your opinion about Rousseau’s proposal for the most legitimate form of government? A. B. C. D. E. Necessary Appealing Nice, but unrealistic Risky Frightening/Offensive Everyone should have form and defend an opinion. Students don’t just take this class to memorize facts, but to develop as critical/thinking citizens. 28 collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  29. 29. STEM – a slightly different motivation and process 29 collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  30. 30. How does this class work? This class is designed a bit differently from what you might normally be used to “Lecture” will be focused around YOU What YOU understand A “clicker” is required for this class It’s not optional, using it will be 10% of your grade Clickers are used to help both YOU and ME figure out what you understand and what you might need some help with So, lecture will be different Ever thought about why we have “lecture”?
  31. 31. Why do we have lecture?
  32. 32. Why do we have lecture?
  33. 33. Why do we have lecture?
  34. 34. GREAT Innovations: The printing press, The web You don’t have the trust the monk! Read it and analyze for YOURSELF! If I rephrase it for you, what purpose does that serve? Traditional class structures often look like: Lecture First Exposure Textbook Homework Exam Read Hard Stuff See if You Show Knowledge Know Hard Stuff Mastery You get very little opportunity for “expert” feedback
  35. 35. Peer Instruction-Based Design Lecture Homework Lab Exam Q U I Z First Exposure: With resources and Feedback Learn Hard Stuff: With teacher and discussion Practice Show Knowledge Knowledge Mastery Mastery Greater opportunity for expert feedback! Research on how people learn: Everyone constructs their own understanding I can’t dump understanding into your brain To learn YOU must actively work with a problem and construct your own understanding of it
  36. 36. How to “run” a Peer Instruction Question Individual Vote Group Vote Discussion Class-Wide Discussion 1 Instructor Modeling/Wrap-up 3 2 “What did you talk about in your group?” “Why is X wrong?”
  37. 37. If a semi-truck crashes with a Fiat is the force of the truck on the Fiat… 37 A. Greater than that of the Fiat on the truck B. Less than that of the Fiat on the truck C. Equal to that of the Fiat on the truck collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  38. 38. If a semi-truck crashes with a Fiat is the force of the truck on the Fiat… 38 A. Greater than that of the Fiat on the truck B. Less than that of the Fiat on the truck C. Equal to that of the Fiat on the truck No calculations. Practice using “physics terminology”. Confront misconception. Good “lead in” to create interest in mini-lecture on Newton’s 3rd Law. collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  39. 39. What does this code do? A. Makes the eskimo girl say Hello, then jump up and down B. Makes the eskimo girl say Hello WHILE jumping up and down C. Makes the eskimo girl say Hello D. None of the above
  40. 40. What does this code do? A. Makes the eskimo girl say Hello, then jump up and down B. Makes the eskimo girl say Hello WHILE jumping up Computers and down don’t do what ‘makes sense’, they do exactly what you tell them to. C. Makes the eskimo girl say Hello The “top” tile is the one that controls behavior. D. None of the above
  41. 41. Your first PI question: 41 1. Pick a goal (argumentation, analysis). 2. Does your question have ONE correct answer? 3. What is important for people to discuss? 1. Use this to select MCQ options 4. Review: 1. 2. 3. Is your question a question? Does it use as few words as possible? Does it “encourage” discussion? collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  42. 42. 42 Next Week: Improving the classroom climate: They’re not dumb, they’re different.
  43. 43. References 43 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Hurtado, S., Eagan, M. K., Pryor, J. H., Whang, H., & Tran, S. (2012). Undergraduate teaching faculty: The 2010–2011 HERI Faculty Survey. Los Angeles: Higher Education Research Institute, UCLA. www.heri.ucla.edu Eberlein, T. Kampmeier, J., Minderhout, V. Moog, R.S., Platt, T., Varma-Nelson, P., & White, H.B. (2008). Pedagogies of Engagement in Science: A Comparison of PBL, POGIL, and PLTL. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, 36, 4, 262–273. Crouch, C.H., & Mazur, E. (2001) Peer Instruction: Ten years of experience and results. American Journal of Physics, 69, 9, 970–977. #etmooc Massive Open Online Course on Educational Technology & Media etmooc.org Hanson, D.M. (2006). Instructor’s Guide to Process-Oriented Guided-Inquiry Learning. Lisle, IL: Pacific Crest. http://www.pogil.org/resources/implementation/instructors-guide Bain, K. (2004). What the best college teachers do. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Mazur, E. (2009). Farewell, Lecture? Science, 323, 5910, 50-51. collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd

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