The College Classroom Week 6: Cooperative Learning


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The College Classroom
Peter Newbury
Fall 2013

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The College Classroom Week 6: Cooperative Learning

  1. 1. Week 6: Cooperative Learning The College Classroom November 5 and 7, 2013
  2. 2. Cooperative Learning Strategies 2 PBL – problem-based learning POGIL – process-oriented guided inquiry learning PLTL – peer-led team learning PI – peer instruction Why are we talking about these today? #tccucsd
  3. 3. 2010–2011 Higher Education Research Initiative (HERI) Faculty Survey [1] 3  published October 23, 2012  based on responses from 23,824 full-time faculty at 417 four-year colleges and universities  “faculty member” = any employee of an accredited 4-year college or university who spend at least some of his or her time teaching undergraduates #tccucsd
  4. 4. What do you see? 4 #tccucsd
  5. 5. What do you see? 5 Identify the most interesting item in Table 1. Record your thoughts on the whiteboard and be prepared to share your group’s opinion. #tccucsd
  6. 6. What do you see? 6 #tccucsd
  7. 7. What do you see? 7 #tccucsd
  8. 8. What do you see? 8 #tccucsd
  9. 9. HERI: Cooperative Learning 9 [C]ooperative learning is a teaching practice that has the most well-defined literature base, and research consistently has revealed positive effects of cooperative learning on student achievement across experimental and quasi-experimental studies on college students. ([1], p. 8) #tccucsd
  10. 10. HERI: Cooperative Learning 10 It is important to note, however, that we see the starkest gender gaps across fields in faculty’s use of cooperative learning. The majority of women in all other fields (71.8%) use cooperative learning techniques in all or most of their courses, and it is encouraging that 60.3% of women teaching in STEM use cooperative learning in the classroom, a figure that exceeds both men in STEM (40.7%) and men in all other fields (52.6%). ([1], p. 8) #tccucsd
  11. 11. Cooperative Learning Strategies 11 PBL – problem-based learning PBL is driven by the premise that basic science concepts will be understood and remembered longer when they are learned, discussed, and applied in a practical, real-world context. An essential and distinctive feature of the approach is that problems come first and introduce content, rather than problems following a presentation of facts and concepts. Students learn on a need-to-know basis by group-directed exploration with the idea that they gain experience on the way to becoming self-directed learners.[Eberlein et al. [2]] POGIL – process-oriented guided inquiry learning Students work in self-managed teams during class on specially designed materials. These activities consist of a series of carefully crafted questions (the ‘‘guided inquiry’’) that generally follow the three-phase ‘‘learning cycle’’ approach [14–17] which includes an exploration phase, a concept invention phase, and an application phase. [2] #tccucsd
  12. 12. Cooperative Learning Strategies 12 PLTL– peer-led team learning peer-led groups meet weekly (separate from the lecture and the instructor) to work together on problems that are carefully structured to help students build conceptual understanding and problem-solving skills. [2] PI – peer instruction a class taught with PI is divided into a series of short presentations, each focused on a central point and followed by a related conceptual question which probes students’ understanding of the ideas just presented. Students are given one or two minutes to formulate individual answers and report their answers to the instructor. Students then discuss their answers with others sitting around them; the instructor urges students to try to convince each other of the correctness of their own answer by explaining the underlying reasoning. Finally, the instructor calls an end to the discussion, polls students for their answers again (which may have changed based on the discussion), explains the answer and moves onto the next topic. [Crouch & Mazur [3]] #tccucsd
  13. 13. Key ideas 13  not just constructivism but social constructivism constructivism social constructivism recognizes that knowledge is constructed in the mind of the learner by the learner implies that this “building” process is aided through cooperative social interactions ([1], p.262) #tccucsd ([1], p. 262)
  14. 14. Key ideas 14  PXnL activities and PI “intentionally create learning environments…” [1, p. 263] “the best teachers try to create a natural critical learning environment” [6, p. 99] students encounter the skills, habits, attitudes, and information they are trying to learn embedded in questions and tasks they find fascinating – authentic tasks that arouse curiosity and become intrinsically interesting #tccucsd students learn to think critically, to reason from evidence, to examine the quality of their reasoning using a variety of intellectual standards, to make improvements while thinking, and to ask probing and insightful questions about the thinking of other people
  15. 15. What is the role of lecture? 15 PBL  instructor facilitates discussions, keeping students on-track  may deliver lectures between PBL classes PI  lecture for 10-15 minutes when the students are prepared to learn:    PI has activated the concepts in their memories students have tried, failed, received feedback, tried again and are waiting for confirmation students are prepared to intellectually appreciate your expertise you’re about to share with them #tccucsd
  16. 16. Students’ preparation – PBL 16  “Students need to identify what they need to learn, look it up wherever they can, and be able to judge reliable sources.” [1, p. 269]  students prepare extensively before class each team member in charge of a specific component  in class, share their expertise with the others in the team to develop a solution #tccucsd
  17. 17. Students’ preparation - PI 17 Effective peer instruction requires  students be prepared to engage in conceptuallychallenging conversations  TIME! (alternate 5-minute episodes of PI with 1015 minutes mini-lectures) Where does that time come from?  reduce course content by 25%  reduce class content by 25% #tccucsd
  18. 18. Traditional classroom 18 1. learn easy stuff together 2. learn hard stuff alone 1. Transfer: first exposure to material is in class, content is transmitted from instructor to student 2. Assimilate: learning occurs later when student struggles alone to complete homework, essay, project #tccucsd (Mazur [7])
  19. 19. Flipped classroom 19 1. learn easy stuff alone 2. learn hard stuff together 1. Transfer: student learns easy content at home through reading, video, etc.: definitions, basis skills, simple examples. Frees up class time for... 2. Assimilate: students come to class prepared to tackle challenging concepts in class, with immediate feedback from peers, instructor #tccucsd (Mazur [7])
  20. 20. Ease of implementation 20 Rank the 4 cooperative learning activities PBL POGIL PLTL PI by ease of implementation (how hard they are for the facilitator to carry out) 1 = easiest … 4 = hardest When your group has reached consensus, write your rankings on the spreadsheet. #tccucsd
  21. 21. Student buy-in 21 Key elements in assuring acceptance from students include  clear explanation of the classroom format and expectations  an understanding of how the format is connected to research on learning, and  frequent reinforcement of how the classroom activities will benefit them. ([1], p. 269) #tccucsd
  22. 22. Communication 22 All of the [cooperative learning techniques] emphasize communication of conceptual understanding of course content. ([1], p. 269) What about MOOCs ? #tccucsd
  23. 23. MOOCs 23  xMOOC Participants, watch video lecture, complete assignments, learn about a subject or skill, usually by themselves.  cMOOC – connectivist MOOC The course is developed with a weak ‘centre’. While will provide a level of aggregation, detail, and direction, the majority of interactions are likely to occur within groups & networks, facilitated through various online spaces & services. [4] #tccucsd
  24. 24. What is a MOOC? by Dave Cormier @davecormier 24 From the video: A MOOC is a step on road to life long learning. It  promotes independence among learners  encourages participants to work in own spaces  creates authentic networks that last beyond the course How do we design a MOOC so this happens? #tccucsd
  25. 25. MOOCs 25 Educators who care about student-centered, cooperative learning are building interaction and communication into their MOOCs.  if you do nothing, it will happen “organically” (on it’s own) but maybe only by/with/for higherachieving students  cannot assume students know how to build and participate in an online community:   set it up for them coach them how to use it #tccucsd
  26. 26. MOOCs 26 Interested in learning more about MOOCs?  History and Future of Higher Education – January 2014 Cathy Davidson (Duke University, HASTAC) @CathyNDavidson  @derekbruff  @courosa #etmooc (educational technology MOOC) #tccucsd
  27. 27. Learning Communities 27  bring people together for shared learning, discovery, and the generation of knowledge  all participants take responsibility for achieving the learning goals  learning communities are the process by which individuals come together to achieve learning goals Center for the Integration of Research, Leaching, and Learning (CIRTL) #tccucsd
  28. 28. LC Core Ideas 28 1. Shared discovery and learning. Collaborative learning activities where participants share responsibility for the learning that takes place help the development of a learning community.  Rather than relying on traditional "expert centered" lecture formats, practitioners should include collaborative learning techniques so learners can see their contribution to the learning goals. Center for the Integration of Research, Leaching, and Learning (CIRTL) #tccucsd
  29. 29. LC Core Ideas 29 2. Functional connections among learners. Learning communities develop when the interactions among learners are meaningful, functional and necessary for the accomplishment of the "work" within the courses or learning activities.  meaningful connections must extend throughout the entire learning community - for example, among students, post-docs, faculty, and staff-rather than simply among cohort- or role-related peers Center for the Integration of Research, Leaching, and Learning (CIRTL) #tccucsd
  30. 30. LC Core Ideas 30 3. Connections to other related learning and life experiences. Learning communities flourish when implicit and explicit connections are made to experiences and activities beyond the course or program in which one participates.   connections help situate one's learning in a larger context by solidifying one's place in the broader campus community of learners and life experiences. connections decrease one's sense of curricular and personal isolation. Center for the Integration of Research, Leaching, and Learning (CIRTL) #tccucsd
  31. 31. LC Core Ideas 31 4. Inclusive learning environment. Learning communities succeed when the diverse backgrounds and experiences of learners are welcomed in such a way that they help inform the group's collective learning.  activities should be sought that help participants reach out and connect with others from backgrounds different from their own. #tccucsd
  32. 32. 32 Next Week: Improving the classroom climate: They’re not dumb, they’re different.
  33. 33. References 33 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Hurtado, S., Eagan, M. K., Pryor, J. H., Whang, H., & Tran, S. (2012). Undergraduate teaching faculty: The 2010–2011 HERI Faculty Survey. Los Angeles: Higher Education Research Institute, UCLA. Eberlein, T. Kampmeier, J., Minderhout, V. Moog, R.S., Platt, T., Varma-Nelson, P., & White, H.B. (2008). Pedagogies of Engagement in Science: A Comparison of PBL, POGIL, and PLTL. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, 36, 4, 262–273. Crouch, C.H., & Mazur, E. (2001) Peer Instruction: Ten years of experience and results. American Journal of Physics, 69, 9, 970–977. #etmooc Massive Open Online Course on Educational Technology & Media Hanson, D.M. (2006). Instructor’s Guide to Process-Oriented Guided-Inquiry Learning. Lisle, IL: Pacific Crest. Bain, K. (2004). What the best college teachers do. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Mazur, E. (2009). Farewell, Lecture? Science, 323, 5910, 50-51. #tccucsd