What do you
notice?

What do you
wonder?

(All images by ttrentham on flickr CC)

1
Week 3: Developing Expertise
The College Classroom
October 15 and 17, 2013
Deliberate practice [1]
3

 activity that’s explicitly intended to improve
performance
 that reaches for objectives just...
10,000 hours

collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu
#tccucsd

Wayne Gretzy (Image: Wikimedia Commons CC)

Serena Williams (Image by Ca...
There’s something about this that
bothers me: a 5-foot NBA star? Huh?
1. If it’s bothering me, then it’s probably
botherin...
Clicker question
6

With 10,000 hours of deliberate practice, a 5-ft tall
man can be a basketball star in the NBA.
A) true...
Clicker question
7

With 10,000 hours of deliberate practice, a 5-ft tall
man can be a basketball star in the NBA.
A) tota...
8

Certainly some important traits are partly inherited, such
as physical size and particular measures of intelligence,
bu...
Tip Sheet: Perfect Practice [1]
9

1

3

5

Approach each critical task with an explicit
goal of getting much better at it...
In a moment but not yet, each table will discuss how one tip is revealed
in your fields of expertise. Use the whiteboard t...
Intelligence is grown
11

Dr. Carol Dweck – Stanford
Shown that convincing people to adopt a “growth
mindset” (not “fixed ...
Part 2:
Teaching the development of expertise
Development of Mastery [3]
13

Behavior

conscious

unconscious

incompetent

competent

Level of Expertise
collegeclassro...
Development of Mastery [3]
14

Behavior

Wait! When introducing
conscious
a graph for the first time,
explain the “archite...
Development of Mastery [3]
15

incompetent

competent

Level of Expertise
collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu

#tccucsd
Development of Mastery [3]
16

Behavior

conscious

unconscious
adikko.deviantart.com

collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu

#tccucsd
Development of Mastery [3]
17

Behavior

conscious

unconscious

incompetent

competent

Level of Expertise
collegeclassro...
Development of Mastery [3]
18

Behavior

conscious

1

unconscious

incompetent

competent

Level of Expertise
collegeclas...
Development of Mastery [3]
19

conscious

Behavior

2
1

unconscious

incompetent

competent

Level of Expertise
collegecl...
Development of Mastery [3]
20

conscious

Behavior

2

3

1

unconscious

incompetent

competent

Level of Expertise
colle...
Development of Mastery [3]
21

conscious

3

1

4

incompetent

competent

Behavior

2

unconscious

Level of Expertise
co...
Development of Mastery [3]
22

conscious

3

1

4

incompetent

competent

Behavior

2

unconscious

Level of Expertise
co...
Why Students Don’t Understand
Your Lectures
23

Expert brains differ from novice brains because novices:
 lack rich, netw...
Think about the house you grew up in
24

How many windows?
As you counted the windows, did you see them
from the outside o...
“different pre-existing knowledge”
and motivation
25

The discovery that students don't love the new teacher's
content are...
The next time you teach a course, what will you
do to get your students to do these things?
26

1

3

5

Approach each cri...
Deliberate Practice Findings: for you
27

 Reach for objectives JUST beyond where you are:



Work on incrementally har...
your
Deliberate Practice Findings: for students
you
28

 Reach for objectives JUST beyond where you are:
Set



Work on...
Big Question
29

Where does the motivation
to engage in deliberate
practice come from?

collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu

#tccucs...
30

Next week: Learning Outcomes
Watch the blog for next week’s
readings and assignments
 short paper
 math worksheet
 ...
References
31

1.

2.
3.
4.

5.
6.

Colvin, G. (2006, October 19). What it takes to be great. Fortune, 88- 96. Available a...
Based on Biology and Expertise:
How do we support learning?
32






Spaced engagement (time to rest between sessions)...
Students in UCSD CSE course
(Beth Simon, heavy use of peer instruction with clickers)
33

Couldn’t you PLEASE just tell it...
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The College Classroom Week 3: Developing Expertise through Deliberate Practice

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The College Classroom
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Peter Newbury
Fall 2013

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The College Classroom Week 3: Developing Expertise through Deliberate Practice

  1. 1. What do you notice? What do you wonder? (All images by ttrentham on flickr CC) 1
  2. 2. Week 3: Developing Expertise The College Classroom October 15 and 17, 2013
  3. 3. Deliberate practice [1] 3  activity that’s explicitly intended to improve performance  that reaches for objectives just beyond one’s level of competence  provides feedback on results  involves high levels of repetition collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  4. 4. 10,000 hours collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd Wayne Gretzy (Image: Wikimedia Commons CC) Serena Williams (Image by Carine06 on flickr CC) Tiger Woods (Image: Wikimedia Commons) Expertise Development 4 4 hours/day deliberate practice
  5. 5. There’s something about this that bothers me: a 5-foot NBA star? Huh? 1. If it’s bothering me, then it’s probably bothering some of my students. 2. Maybe one of my students has a solution or explanation – their diversity is an asset 3. How can I stimulate a conversation for everyone in the classroom rather than the few who would raise their hands if I asked? 5 collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  6. 6. Clicker question 6 With 10,000 hours of deliberate practice, a 5-ft tall man can be a basketball star in the NBA. A) true B) false collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  7. 7. Clicker question 7 With 10,000 hours of deliberate practice, a 5-ft tall man can be a basketball star in the NBA. A) totally true – I’m so sure about this, I could stand up in class and convince everyone B) maybe true – I think it’s true but I’m not exactly sure why C) maybe false – I think it’s false but I’m not exactly sure why D) absolutely false – I’m so sure about this, I could stand up in class and convince everyone collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  8. 8. 8 Certainly some important traits are partly inherited, such as physical size and particular measures of intelligence, but those influence what a person doesn’t do more than what he does; a five-footer will never be an NFL lineman, and a seven-footer will never be an Olympic gymnast. Geoffrey Colvin [1] collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  9. 9. Tip Sheet: Perfect Practice [1] 9 1 3 5 Approach each critical task with an explicit goal of getting much better at it. As you do the task, focus on what’s happening and 2 why you’re doing it the way your are. After the task, get feedback on your performance from multiple sources. Make changes in your behavior as necessary. Continually build mental models of your situation – 4 your industry, your company, your career. Enlarge the models to encompass more factors. Do these steps regularly, not sporadically. Occasional practice does not work collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  10. 10. In a moment but not yet, each table will discuss how one tip is revealed in your fields of expertise. Use the whiteboard to capture ideas. One person on the table will present the ideas to the class. 10 1 3 5 Approach each critical task with an explicit Prompts students to goal of getting much better at it. listen to entire set of As you do the task, focus on what’s happening and 2 instructions way you why you’re doing it thebefore are. After the task, getbeginning. your performance from feedback on [2] multiple sources. Make changes in your behavior as necessary. Continually build mental models of your situation – Students company, your career. Enlarge the put their finished ideas on 4 your industry, your models to poster paper. Whiteboards can encompass more factors. (should!) be used Occasional Do these steps regularly, not sporadically. to capture practice does not work thinking along the way. collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  11. 11. Intelligence is grown 11 Dr. Carol Dweck – Stanford Shown that convincing people to adopt a “growth mindset” (not “fixed mindset”) leads to higher GPAs, higher graduation rates. [See Week 7: Fixed/Growth] Dr. Anders Ericcson – Florida State Univ. Studies development of expertise (sports figures, pianists, chess players). Expertise is not an innate trait, it is developed through  Long (10,000 hours)  Daily (4 hours a day)  Deliberate Practice collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  12. 12. Part 2: Teaching the development of expertise
  13. 13. Development of Mastery [3] 13 Behavior conscious unconscious incompetent competent Level of Expertise collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  14. 14. Development of Mastery [3] 14 Behavior Wait! When introducing conscious a graph for the first time, explain the “architecture” of the graph before addressing the data and message it unconscious contains. competent incompetent Level of Expertise collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  15. 15. Development of Mastery [3] 15 incompetent competent Level of Expertise collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  16. 16. Development of Mastery [3] 16 Behavior conscious unconscious adikko.deviantart.com collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  17. 17. Development of Mastery [3] 17 Behavior conscious unconscious incompetent competent Level of Expertise collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  18. 18. Development of Mastery [3] 18 Behavior conscious 1 unconscious incompetent competent Level of Expertise collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  19. 19. Development of Mastery [3] 19 conscious Behavior 2 1 unconscious incompetent competent Level of Expertise collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  20. 20. Development of Mastery [3] 20 conscious Behavior 2 3 1 unconscious incompetent competent Level of Expertise collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  21. 21. Development of Mastery [3] 21 conscious 3 1 4 incompetent competent Behavior 2 unconscious Level of Expertise collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  22. 22. Development of Mastery [3] 22 conscious 3 1 4 incompetent competent Behavior 2 unconscious Level of Expertise collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  23. 23. Why Students Don’t Understand Your Lectures 23 Expert brains differ from novice brains because novices:  lack rich, networked connections: they cannot make inferences, cannot reliably retrieve information  have preconceptions that distract, confuse, impede  lack automization, resulting in cognitive overload   “Comparing Students’ and Experts’ Understanding of the Content of a Lecture” [4] “Why should I use peer instruction in my class?” [5] collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  24. 24. Think about the house you grew up in 24 How many windows? As you counted the windows, did you see them from the outside or from the inside of the house? Did you magically teleport from room to room or did you imagine walking there? Constructivism says, “Of course it’s hard for the professor to explain things so students can understand: the professor has different pre-existing knowledge.” collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  25. 25. “different pre-existing knowledge” and motivation 25 The discovery that students don't love the new teacher's content area is one of those school of hard knock lessons. Graduate education reinforces the centrality of discipline-based content knowledge. Having immersed themselves in its study for years and having been surrounded with colleagues equally enamored with the area, new faculty arrive at those first teaching jobs no longer objective about how the rest of the world views their content domain. Maryellen Weimer [6] collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  26. 26. The next time you teach a course, what will you do to get your students to do these things? 26 1 3 5 Approach each critical task with an explicit goal of getting much better at it. As you do the task, focus on what’s happening and 2 why you’re doing it the way your are. After the task, get feedback on your performance from multiple sources. Make changes in your behavior as necessary. Continually build mental models of your situation – 4 your industry, your company, your career. Enlarge the models to encompass more factors. Do these steps regularly, not sporadically. Occasional practice does not work collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  27. 27. Deliberate Practice Findings: for you 27  Reach for objectives JUST beyond where you are:   Work on incrementally harder problems. Try variations on ones from class, homework, quizzes.  Practice consistently (every day)  And practice a LOT  Get FEEDBACK on your practice  Or at least self-analyze “continuously observing results, making appropriate adjustments”  What to practice?  Maybe harder, but exam questions (if they are understandable) collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  28. 28. your Deliberate Practice Findings: for students you 28  Reach for objectives JUST beyond where you are: Set   Work on incrementally harder problems. Try variations on ones from class, homework, quizzes.  Practice consistently (every day)  And practice a LOT Give  Get FEEDBACK on your practice  Or them to helpat least self-analyze “continuously observing results, making appropriate adjustments”  What to practice?  Maybe harder, but exam questions (if they are understandable) collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  29. 29. Big Question 29 Where does the motivation to engage in deliberate practice come from? collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  30. 30. 30 Next week: Learning Outcomes Watch the blog for next week’s readings and assignments  short paper  math worksheet  read resources about teaching statements collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  31. 31. References 31 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Colvin, G. (2006, October 19). What it takes to be great. Fortune, 88- 96. Available at money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/2006/10/30/8391794/index.htm Cummings, M. In a Moment, But Not Yet. Retrieved October 14, 2013 from http://store.training-wheels.com/inmobutnotye.html Sprague, J., & Stuart, D. (2000). The speaker’s handbook. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt College Publishers. Hrepic, Z., Zollman, D.A., & Rebello, N.S. (2007) Comparing Students’ and Experts’ Understanding of the Content of a Lecture. Journal of Science Education and Technology 16, 213-224. Available at http://ksuperg.blogspot.com/2009/06/hrepic-zollman-rebello-journalof.html Newbury, P. (2011, June 15) Why should I use peer instruction in my class? Available at www.peternewbury.org/2011/06/why-should-i-use-peer-instruction-in-my-class/ Weimer, M. (2010). New Faculty: Beliefs That Prevent and Promote Growth, in the book Inspired College Teaching: A Career-Long Research for Professional Growth. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass. (Reprinted in Tomorrow’s Professor email Newsletter October 15, 2013) Available at http://cgi.stanford.edu/~dept-ctl/cgi-bin/tomprof/posting.php?ID=1279 collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  32. 32. Based on Biology and Expertise: How do we support learning? 32     Spaced engagement (time to rest between sessions) Repeated, effortful testing (not passive studying) Appropriate-level tasks Expert, detailed, frequent feedback collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
  33. 33. Students in UCSD CSE course (Beth Simon, heavy use of peer instruction with clickers) 33 Couldn’t you PLEASE just tell it to me? I know how to learn from lecture! Can’t you just explain it? Well, clickers were fun, but the professor made me learn it myself! It would have been easier if she’d just lectured! collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd

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