Teaching (and Learning) with Peer Instruction

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A presentation I gave at California State University, Los Angeles on February 25, 2013 about using peer instruction with clickers to create interactive, student-centered instruction.

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  • The how is most important… and it also applies to teaching any course.
  • Teaching (and Learning) with Peer Instruction

    1. 1. TEACHING (ANDLEARNING) WITH PEERINSTRUCTION Peter Newbury, Ph.D. Center for Teaching Development, University of California, San Diego pnewbury@ucsd.edu @polarisdotca ctd.ucsd.edu #ctducsd Unless otherwise Monday, February 25, 2013 noted, content is licensed under a Cal State LA Creative Commons Attribution
    2. 2. 2 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction
    3. 3. The traditional lecture is based on the transmissionist learning model (Image by um.dentistry on flickr CC)3 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction
    4. 4. Scientifically Outdated, a Known Failure We must abandon the tabula rasa “blank slate” and “students as empty vessels” models of teaching and learning.4 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction
    5. 5. Let’s have a learning experience…5 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction
    6. 6. Here is an important new number system. Please learn it. 1= 4= 7= 2= 5= 8= 3= 6= 9=6 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction
    7. 7. Test What is this number?7 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction
    8. 8. New Number System Here’s the structure of the “tic-tac-toe” code: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 98 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction
    9. 9. Test What is this number?9 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction
    10. 10. Constructivist theory of learning We know How People Learn [1]. There is research that informs us. Let’s exploit the patterns of learning to make instruction more effective.10 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction
    11. 11. What are the patterns of how people learn? (And how do we use them?) 11Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction (Image: entropy memory creativity by jef_safi on flickr CC)
    12. 12. Key Finding 1 Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding is not engaged, they may fail to grasp the new concepts and information that are taught, or they may learn them for the purposes of a test but revert to their preconceptions outside of the classroom. Learn, p. 14) (How People Instructors must draw out Instruction must students’ pre- be student- existing centered. understandings.12 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction
    13. 13. Learning requires interaction [2]13 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction
    14. 14. Learning requires interaction [2] Learning gain: 100% 0.50 % of class time NOT 0 lecturing pre-test post-test14 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction
    15. 15. Learning requires interaction [2] 1 2 3 415 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction
    16. 16. Key Finding 2 To develop competence in an area, students must: a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge, b) understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework, and c) organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application.(How People Learn, p. 16) These are characteristics of There’s another… expertize.16 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction
    17. 17. Key Finding 3 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them. (How People Learn, p. 18)17 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction
    18. 18. Aside: metacognition Metacognition refers to one’s knowledge concerning one’s own cognitive processes or anything related to them…. For example, I am engaging in metacognition if I notice that I am having more trouble learning A than B. (Flavell [3, 4], p. 232)18 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction
    19. 19. Key Finding 3 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them. (How People Learn, p. 18) Instructors need to provide opportunities for students to practice being metacognitive – thinking about their own thinking19 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction
    20. 20. constructivist 20Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction (Image: stool II by tilaneseven on flickr CC)
    21. 21. traditional lecture student-centered instruction21 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction
    22. 22. student-centered instruction peer instruction w clickers worksheets videos interactive demonstrations surveys of opinions reading quizzes discussions22 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction
    23. 23. Evolution of the Solar System Today, we’ve been learning about the formation of the Solar System. Just like a geologist studies the exposed layers on a cliff-face, we study landforms on other planets and moons to find the chronology (sequence) of processes. (Image: NASA)23 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction
    24. 24. Clicker question X Are features X and Y ridges or valleys? A) X=ridge, Y=valley B) X=valley, Y=ridge Y C) both are ridges crater D) both are valleys (EOSC / CWSEI, UBC)24 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction
    25. 25. Typical episode of peer instruction Alternating with 10-15 minute mini-lectures, 1. Instructor poses a conceptually-challenging multiple-choice question. 2. Students think about question on their own. 3. Students vote for an answer using clickers, colored/ABCD voting cards,... 4. The instructor reacts, based on the distribution of votes.25 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction
    26. 26. In effective peer instruction  students teach each other while students they may still hold or remember learn and their preconceptions practice  students discuss the concepts in their to how own (novice) language think, communicat e like  the instructor finds out what the students know (and don’t know) and reacts experts26 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction
    27. 27. Effective peer instruction requires 1. identifying key concepts, misconceptions 2. creating multiple-choice questions that before require deeper thinking and learning class 3. facilitating peer instruction episodes that spark student discussion during 4. resolving the misconceptions class27 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction
    28. 28. Clickers help students learn... the learning cycle BEFORE DURING AFTER setting up developing assessing instruction knowledge learning28 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction Adapted from Rosie Piller, Ian Beatty, Stephanie Chasteen
    29. 29. Clickers help students learn... the learning cycle BEFORE DURING AFTER setting up developing assessing instruction knowledge learning29 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction Adapted from Rosie Piller, Ian Beatty, Stephanie Chasteen
    30. 30. assess prior knowledge Clicker question Melt chocolate over low heat. Remove the chocolate from the heat. What will happen to the chocolate? A) It will condense. B) It will evaporate. C) It will freeze. (Question: Sujatha Raghu from Braincandy via LearningCatalytics) (Image: CIM9926 by number657 on flickr CC)30 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction
    31. 31. motivate Clicker question In your opinion, which had the most positive impact on the modern world? A) coffee B) tea C) chocolate D) spice E) sugar31 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction (Herbst, UCSD)
    32. 32. provoke thinking Clicker question A leopard goes into a deep cave where there is no light. After an hour, can it see in the dark? A) No because there is no light. B) No because its eyes have not had enough time to adjust. C) Yes because its eyes have adjusted to the darkness. D) Yes because leopards can see in the LearningCatalytics) (Question: Paul Simeon from Braincandy via dark. (Image: Villy at the “door” of his cave by Tambako the Jaguar on flickr32 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction CC)
    33. 33. predict Clicker question A ball is rolling around C the inside of a circular B D track. The ball A E leaves the track at point P. P Which path does the ball follow?33 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction (Mazur)
    34. 34. Clickers help students learn... the learning cycle BEFORE DURING AFTER setting up developing assessing instruction knowledge learning34 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction Adapted from Rosie Piller, Ian Beatty, Stephanie Chasteen
    35. 35. probe misconception Clicker question How many of these are reasons for the seasons?  the height of the Sun in the sky during the day  Earth’s distance from the Sun  how many hours the Sun is up each day A) none of them B) one C) two D) all three35 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction
    36. 36. analysis Clicker question Select the line that A Fast rode the knight B With spurs, hot and reeking, you feel has the C Ever waving an eager sword, strongest imagery D "To save my lady!" E Fast rode the knight, in “Fast rode the F And leaped from saddle to war. knight” by G Men of steel flickered and gleamed Stephen Crane H Like riot of silver lights, I And the gold of the knights good (1905). J banner K Still waved on a castle wall. L ..... M A horse, N Blowing, staggering, bloody thing, O Forgotten at foot of castle wall. P A horse Dead at foot of castle wall.36 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction (David Kurtz, via LearningCatalytics)
    37. 37. evaluation Clicker question Which of the following is an incorrect step when using the substitution method to evaluate the definite integral 4 2 3 x 1 x dx 0 3 u 1 x 1 4 A) C. u du 3 0 du 2 x dx B) 3 D. none of the above37 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction (adapted from Bruff (2009))
    38. 38. exercise skill Clicker question Susan throws a ball straight up into the air. It goes up and then falls back into her hand 2 seconds later. Draw a graph showing the velocity of the ball from the moment it leaves her hand until she catches it again. velocity time 0 2 sec38 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction (CWSEI UBC)
    39. 39. Which one is the closest match to your graph? exercise skillvelocity velocity A B time time 0 2 sec 0 2 secvelocity velocity C D time time 0 2 sec 0 2 sec E) some other graph39 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction (CWSEI UBC)
    40. 40. Clickers help students learn... the learning cycle BEFORE DURING AFTER setting up developing assessing instruction knowledge learning40 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction Adapted from Rosie Piller, Ian Beatty, Stephanie Chasteen
    41. 41. demonstrate success Clicker question Which point on the phylogenetic tree represents the closest relative of the frog? A B E D C (UBC CWSEI)41 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction
    42. 42. review / recap Clicker question For the data set displayed in the following histogram, which would be larger, the mean or the median? A) mean B) median C) can’t tell from the given histogram42 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction(Peck, mathquest.carroll.edu/resources.html)
    43. 43. “big picture” Clicker question In your opinion, which had the most positive impact on the modern world? A) coffee B) tea C) chocolate D) spice E) sugar43 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction (Herbst, UCSD)
    44. 44. Clickers help teachers teach... the learning cycle BEFORE DURING AFTER setting up developing assessing instruction knowledge learning44 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction
    45. 45. Clickers help teachers teach... Are they ready for the next topic? What do they already know? Do they care about this? What DO they care about, anyway? the learning cycle BEFORE DURING AFTER setting up developing assessing instruction knowledge learning45 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction
    46. 46. Clickers help teachers teach... Where are they in the activity? Are they getting it? Do I need to intervene? Did they notice key idea X? the learning cycle BEFORE DURING AFTER setting up developing assessing instruction knowledge learning46 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction
    47. 47. Clickers help teachers teach... Did they get it? Can I move to the next topic? Did that activity work? How did I do? the learning cycle BEFORE DURING AFTER setting up developing assessing instruction knowledge learning47 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction
    48. 48. constructivist peer instr’n w clickers Peter Newbury, Ph.D. Center for Teaching Development, University of California, San Diego pnewbury@ucsd.edu @polarisdotca ctd.ucsd.edu 48Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction (Image: stool II by tilaneseven on flickr CC)
    49. 49. References 1. National Research Council (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. J.D. Bransford, A.L Brown & R.R. Cocking (Eds.),Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 2. Prather, E.E, Rudolph, A.L., Brissenden, G., & Schlingman, W.M. (2009). A national study assessing the teaching and learning of introductory astronomy. Part I. The effect of interactive instruction. Am. J. Phys. 66, 64-74. 3. Flavell, J. H. (1976). Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence (pp.231-236). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. 4. Brame, C. (2013) Thinking about metacognition. [blog] January, 2013, Available at: http://cft.vanderbilt.edu/2013/01/thinking-about- metacognition/ [Accessed: 14 Jan 2013].49 Teaching (and learning) with peer instruction

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