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# How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)

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How people learn and how peer instruction support that learning. Presented at San Diego State University on April 8, 2014.

Peter Newbury
University of California, San Diego
ctd.ucsd.edu

Published in: Education, Technology
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### How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)

1. 1. HOW PEOPLE LEARN Peter Newbury, Ph.D. Center for Teaching Development, University of California, San Diego pnewbury@ucsd.edu @polarisdotca #ctducsd ctd.ucsd.edu slides and resources: tinyurl.com/SDSUpeerinstruction April 8, 2014 San Diego State University Unless otherwise noted, content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commericial 3.0 License.
2. 2. How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction) 2 peer instruction how people learn (Image: iStock by Getty Images)
3. 3. Survey How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)3 Which of these do you associate with a typical college or university lecture? A) listening B) absorbing C) note-taking D) learning
4. 4. The traditional lecture is based on the transmissionist learning model How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)4 (Image by um.dentistry on flickr CC)
5. 5. Let’s have a learning experience… 5 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
6. 6. Here is an important new number system. Please learn it. How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)6 1 = 4 = 7 = 2 = 5 = 8 = 3 = 6 = 9 =
7. 7. Test How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)7 What is this number?
8. 8. Scientifically Outdated, a Known Failure 8 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction) We must abandon the tabula rasa “blank slate” and “students as empty vessels” models of teaching and learning.
9. 9. New Number System = tic-tac-toe code How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
10. 10. Test How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)10 What is this number?
11. 11. You store things in long term memory through a set of connections made with your existing memories. Constructivist Theory of Learning How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)11 New learning is based on knowledge you already have. (Image by Rebecca-Lee on flickr CC) learning is done by individuals
12. 12. How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)12
13. 13. How People Learn How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)13 National Research Council (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. J.D. Bransford, A.L Brown & R.R. Cocking (Eds.), Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Available for free as PDF www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=9853
14. 14. Key Finding 1 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)14 Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding is not engaged, they may fail to grasp the new concepts and information that are taught, or they may learn them for the purposes of a test but revert to their preconceptions outside of the classroom. (How People Learn, p 14.)
15. 15. Key Finding 2 15 To develop competence in an area, students must: a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge, b) understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework, and c) organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application. (How People Learn, p 16.) How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
16. 16. Key Finding 3 16 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them. (How People Learn, p 18.) How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
17. 17. Aside: metacognition How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)17 Metacognition refers to one’s knowledge concerning one’s own cognitive processes or anything related to them. For example, I am engaging in metacognition if I notice that I am having more trouble learning A than B. ([2], [3]) cognitionmeta
18. 18. Key Finding 3 18 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them. (How People Learn, p 18.) How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
19. 19. Please break into groups of 3-4... How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)19 Sort your cards into 3 sets of 3: Key Finding 2 Implication for Teaching Implication for Teaching Implication for Teaching Designing Classroom Environments
20. 20. 20 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
21. 21. Key Finding 1 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)21 Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding is not engaged, they may fail to grasp the new concepts and information that are taught, or they may learn them for the purposes of a test but revert to their preconceptions outside of the classroom. (How People Learn, p 14.)
22. 22. Implications for Teaching 1 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)22 Teachers must draw out and work with the preexisting understandings that their students bring with them. (How People Learn, p 19.)
23. 23. How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)23 1 = 4 = 7 = 2 = 5 = 8 = 3 = 6 = 9 = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 unsupported, unfamiliar content built on pre-existing knowledge (tic-tac-toe board) Transmissionist Constructivist
24. 24. Classroom Environments 1 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)24 Schools and classrooms must be learner centered. (How People Learn, p. 23) Students need to encounter safe yet challenging conditions in which they can try, fail, receive feedback, and try again without facing summative evaluation. (What the best college teachers do, p.108)
25. 25. Learning requires interaction [5] How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)25 1 2 3 4
26. 26. Key Finding 2 26 To develop competence in an area, students must: a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge, b) understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework, and c) organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application. How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction) (How People Learn, p 16.)
27. 27. How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction) 27
28. 28. Why Your Students Don’t Understand You How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)28 Expert brains differ from novice brains because novices:  lack rich, networked connections, cannot make inferences, cannot reliably retrieve information  have preconceptions that distract, confuse, hinder  lack automization (“muscle memory”) resulting in cognitive overload
29. 29. Implications for Teaching 2 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)29 Teachers must teach some subject matter in depth, providing many examples in which the same concept is at work and providing a firm foundation of factual knowledge. Classroom Environments 2 To provide a knowledge-centered environment, attention must be given to what is taught (information, subject matter), why it is taught (understanding), and what competence or mastery looks like. (How People Learn, p 20.) (How People Learn, p 24.)
30. 30. Key Finding 3 30 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them. (How People Learn, p 18.) How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
31. 31. Implications for Teaching 3 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)31 The teaching of metacognitive skills should be integrated into the curriculum in a variety of subject areas. Classroom Environments 3 Formative assessments — ongoing assessments designed to make students’ thinking visible to both teachers and students — are essential. Instructors need to give students opportunities to practice being metacognitive: having an internal dialogue about their own thinking (How People Learn, p 21.) (How People Learn, p 24.)
32. 32. How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)32 student-centered instructiontraditional lecture
33. 33. Evidence-Based Instructional Strategies (EBIS) How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)33 peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations surveys of opinions reading quizzes worksheets simulations discussions videos student-centered instruction
34. 34. Introductory Chemistry How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)34 Today, we’ll be learning about changes of state. Remember, there are 3 states (also called “phases”) of matter:  solid  liquid  gas
35. 35. Clicker question How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)35 Melt chocolate over low heat. Remove the chocolate from the heat. What will happen to the chocolate? A) It will condense. B) It will evaporate. C) It will freeze. (Question: Sujatha Raghu from Braincandy via LearningCatalytics) (Image: CIM9926 by number657 on flickr CC)
36. 36. Chemistry learning outcomes How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)36 Students will be able to  name all 6 changes of state  translate back and forth between technical (“melt”) and plain English (“solid into liquid”) Imagine… misconception?
37. 37. Typical episode of peer instruction How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)37 1. Instructor poses a conceptually-challenging multiple-choice question. 2. Students think about question on their own and vote using clickers, colored ABCD cards, smartphones,… 3. The instructor prompts students, “Turn to your neighbors and convince them you’re right.” 4. After the peer-to-peer discussion, [the students vote again and] the instructor leads a class-wide discussion concluding with why the right answer(s) is right and the wrong answers are wrong.
38. 38. In effective peer instruction How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)38  students teach each other while they may still hold or remember their novice preconceptions  students discuss the concepts in their own (novice) language  each student finds out what s/he does(n’t) know  the instructor finds out what the students (don’t) know and reacts, building on their initial understanding and preconceptions. students learn and practice how to think, communicate like experts
39. 39. Effective peer instruction requires How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)39 1. identifying key concepts, misconceptions 2. creating multiple-choice questions that require deeper thinking and learning 3. facilitating peer instruction episodes that spark and support student discussion 4. leading a class-wide discussion to clarify the concept, resolve the misconception 5. reflecting on the question: note curious things you overheard, how they voted, etc. before class during class after class
40. 40. Clicker Question 40 The molecules making up the dry mass of wood that forms during the growth of a tree largely come from A) sunlight. B) the air. C) the seed. D) the soil. Question credit: Bill WoodHow (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
41. 41. 41 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
42. 42. reduce course content by 25% Effective peer instruction requires How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)42  students be prepared to engage in conceptually- challenging discussions  TIME! 5 minutes of student-centered activity every 10 – 15 minutes means 25% of class time is not lecturing. Where does that time come from? But I’ve got material to fill (more than) 100% of my lecture!
43. 43. Traditional classroom How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)43 1. Transfer: first exposure to material is in class, content is transmitted from instructor to student 2. Assimilate: learning occurs later when student struggles alone to complete homework, essay, project (Mazur [6]) 1. learn easy stuff together 2. learn hard stuff alone
44. 44. Flipped classroom How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)44 1. Transfer: student learns easy content at home through reading, video, etc.: definitions, basis skills, simple examples. 2. Assimilate: students come to class prepared to immediately tackle challenging concepts, with timely, formative feedback from peers, TAs, instructor (Mazur [6]) 2. learn hard stuff together 1. learn easy stuff alone
45. 45. How People Learn 45 Learning is not about what the instructor does. It’s about what students do for themselves. How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
46. 46. How People Learn 46 Learning is not about what the instructor does. It’s about what students do for themselves. Students won’t learn just by listening to the instructor explain. How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
47. 47. How People Learn 47 Learning is not about what the instructor does. It’s about what students do for themselves. Students won’t learn just by listening to the instructor explain. BE LESS HELPFUL How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
48. 48. References How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)48 1. National Research Council (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. J.D. Bransford, A.L Brown & R.R. Cocking (Eds.),Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 2. Flavell, J. H. (1976). Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence (pp.231-236). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. 3. Brame, C. (2013). Thinking about metacognition. [blog] January, 2013, Available at: http://cft.vanderbilt.edu/2013/01/thinking-about- metacognition/ [Accessed: 14 Jan 2013]. 4. Bain, K. (2004). What the best college teachers do. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 5. Prather, E.E, Rudolph, A.L., Brissenden, G., & Schlingman, W.M. (2009). A national study assessing the teaching and learning of introductory astronomy. Part I. The effect of interactive instruction. Am. J. Phys. 77, 4, 320-330. 6. Mazur, E. (2009). Farewell, Lecture? Science, 323, 5910, 50-51.