slides and resources: tinyurl.com/OCCpeerinstruction

HOW PEOPLE LEARN
Peter Newbury, Ph.D.
Center for Teaching Developmen...
peer
instruction

how
people
learn
2

How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
Survey
Which of these do you associate with a typical college
or university lecture?
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)

3

listening
absorbin...
The traditional lecture is based on the
transmissionist learning model

4

How (you can help) People Learn (using peer ins...
Let’s have a learning experience…

5

How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
Here is an important new number
system. Please learn it.

1=

7=

2=

5=

8=

3=

6

4=

6=

9=

How (you can help) People...
Test
What is this number?

7

How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
Scientifically Outdated, a Known Failure

We must abandon the tabula rasa
“blank slate” and “students as
empty vessels” mo...
New Number System
Here’s the structure of the “tic-tac-toe” code:

1

3

4

5

6

7

9

2

8

9

How (you can help) People...
Test
What is this number?

10

How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
Constructivist Theory of Learning
New learning is built on existing knowledge.

You store things in long term memory
throu...
12

How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
How People Learn
National Research Council (2000).
How People Learn: Brain, Mind,
Experience, and School: Expanded
Edition...
Key Finding 1
Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about
how the world works. If their initial understanding...
Key Finding 2
To develop competence in an area, students must:
a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge,
b) understa...
Key Finding 3
A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help
students learn to take control of their own learning by
d...
Aside: metacognition
Metacognition refers to one’s knowledge concerning one’s
own cognitive processes or anything related ...
Key Finding 3
A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help
students learn to take control of their own learning by
d...
Please break into groups of 3-4...
Sort your cards into 3 sets of 3:
Implication
for Teaching

Key Finding

2

Implication...
20
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
Key Finding 1
Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about
how the world works. If their initial understanding...
Implications for Teaching 1
Teachers must draw out and work with the preexisting
understandings that their students bring ...
New Coding System
Please memorize this code:
1=

4=

7=

1

2

3

2=

5=

8=

4

5

6

3=

6=

9=

7

8

9

unsupported, u...
Classroom Environments 1
Schools and classrooms must be learner centered.
(How People Learn, p 23.)

24

How (you can help...
Learning requires interaction [4]

25

How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
Learning requires interaction [4]
Learning gain:
100%

0.50

0

26

% of class time
NOT lecturing
pre-test

How (you can h...
Learning requires interaction [4]
1

3
27

2

4

How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
Key Finding 2
To develop competence in an area, students must:
a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge,
b) understa...
29
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
Implications for Teaching 2
Teachers must teach some subject matter in depth,
providing many examples in which the same co...
Development of Mastery [5]
Behavior

conscious

unconscious

incompetent

competent

Level of Expertise
31

How (you can h...
Development of Mastery [5]

incompetent

competent

Level of Expertise
32

How (you can help) People Learn (using peer ins...
Development of Mastery [5]
Behavior

conscious

unconscious
adikko.deviantart.com

33

How (you can help) People Learn (us...
Development of Mastery [5]
Behavior

conscious

unconscious

incompetent

competent

Level of Expertise
34

How (you can h...
Development of Mastery [5]
Behavior

conscious

unconscious

1
incompetent

competent

Level of Expertise
35

How (you can...
Development of Mastery [5]
Behavior

conscious

unconscious

2
1
incompetent

competent

Level of Expertise
36

How (you c...
Development of Mastery [5]
Behavior

conscious

unconscious

2

3

1
incompetent

competent

Level of Expertise
37

How (y...
Development of Mastery [5]
conscious

Behavior

3

1

4

incompetent

unconscious

2

competent

Level of Expertise
38

Ho...
Why Your Students Don’t Understand You
Expert brains differ from novice brains because novices:
 lack rich, networked con...
Key Finding 3
A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help
students learn to take control of their own learning by
d...
Implications for Teaching 3
The teaching of metacognitive skills should be
integrated into the curriculum in a variety of ...
traditional lecture
42

How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)

student-centered instruction
peer instruction with clickers
interactive demonstrations
surveys of opinions
reading quizzes
worksheets
discussions
video...
Clicker question
Melt chocolate over low heat. Remove the chocolate
from the heat. What will happen to the chocolate?
A) I...
Typical episode of peer instruction
1. Instructor poses a conceptually-challenging
multiple-choice question.
2. Students t...
In effective peer instruction
 students teach each other while
they may still hold or remember
their novice preconception...
Effective peer instruction requires
1. identifying key concepts, misconceptions
2. creating multiple-choice questions that...
Clicker Question
The molecules making up the dry mass of wood that
forms during the growth of a tree largely come from
A) ...
49
How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
Student-centered instruction takes time
Five minutes of student-centered instruction every 15
minutes means 25% of class t...
Effective peer instruction requires
51

 students be prepared to engage in conceptuallychallenging discussions
 TIME! Fi...
Traditional classroom
1. learn easy
stuff together

2. learn hard
stuff alone

1. Transfer: first exposure to material is ...
Flipped classroom
1. learn easy
stuff alone

2. learn hard
stuff together

1. Transfer: student learns easy content at hom...
References
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.
6.
54

National Research Council (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind,
Experience, and Scho...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)

474 views

Published on

The patterns of "How People Learn' (NAP, 2002), what instructors should do to leverage those patterns, and why peer instruction with clickers is so effective. Presented at Orange Coast College 11/15/2013 with i>clicker.

Peter Newbury
University of California, San Diego
ctd.ucsd.edu

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
474
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
9
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)

  1. 1. slides and resources: tinyurl.com/OCCpeerinstruction HOW PEOPLE LEARN Peter Newbury, Ph.D. Center for Teaching Development, University of California, San Diego pnewbury@ucsd.edu @polarisdotca ctd.ucsd.edu November 15, 2013 Orange Coast College Unless otherwise noted, content is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommericial 3.0 License.
  2. 2. peer instruction how people learn 2 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  3. 3. Survey Which of these do you associate with a typical college or university lecture? A) B) C) D) E) 3 listening absorbing note-taking learning other How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  4. 4. The traditional lecture is based on the transmissionist learning model 4 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction) (Image by um.dentistry on flickr CC)
  5. 5. Let’s have a learning experience… 5 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  6. 6. Here is an important new number system. Please learn it. 1= 7= 2= 5= 8= 3= 6 4= 6= 9= How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  7. 7. Test What is this number? 7 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  8. 8. Scientifically Outdated, a Known Failure We must abandon the tabula rasa “blank slate” and “students as empty vessels” models of teaching and learning. 8 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  9. 9. New Number System Here’s the structure of the “tic-tac-toe” code: 1 3 4 5 6 7 9 2 8 9 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  10. 10. Test What is this number? 10 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  11. 11. Constructivist Theory of Learning New learning is built on existing knowledge. You store things in long term memory through a set of connections with existing memories. Learning involves neurons firing and linking up in networks or patterns. 11 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction) (Images by Rebecca-Lee on flickr CC)
  12. 12. 12 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  13. 13. How People Learn National Research Council (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. J.D. Bransford, A.L Brown & R.R. Cocking (Eds.), Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Available for free as PDF www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=9853 13 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  14. 14. Key Finding 1 Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding is not engaged, they may fail to grasp the new concepts and information that are taught, or they may learn them for the purposes of a test but revert to their preconceptions outside of the classroom. (How People Learn, p 14.) 14 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  15. 15. Key Finding 2 To develop competence in an area, students must: a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge, b) understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework, and c) organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application. (How People Learn, p 16.) 15 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  16. 16. Key Finding 3 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them. (How People Learn, p 18.) 16 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  17. 17. Aside: metacognition Metacognition refers to one’s knowledge concerning one’s own cognitive processes or anything related to them. For example, I am engaging in metacognition if I notice that I am having more trouble learning A than B. ([3], [4]) meta cognition 17 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  18. 18. Key Finding 3 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them. (How People Learn, p 18.) 18 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  19. 19. Please break into groups of 3-4... Sort your cards into 3 sets of 3: Implication for Teaching Key Finding 2 Implication for Teaching Implication for Teaching 19 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction) Designing Classroom Environments
  20. 20. 20 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  21. 21. Key Finding 1 Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding is not engaged, they may fail to grasp the new concepts and information that are taught, or they may learn them for the purposes of a test but revert to their preconceptions outside of the classroom. (How People Learn, p 14.) 21 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  22. 22. Implications for Teaching 1 Teachers must draw out and work with the preexisting understandings that their students bring with them. (How People Learn, p 19.) 22 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  23. 23. New Coding System Please memorize this code: 1= 4= 7= 1 2 3 2= 5= 8= 4 5 6 3= 6= 9= 7 8 9 unsupported, unfamiliar content 23 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction) built on pre-existing knowledge (tic-tac-toe board)
  24. 24. Classroom Environments 1 Schools and classrooms must be learner centered. (How People Learn, p 23.) 24 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  25. 25. Learning requires interaction [4] 25 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  26. 26. Learning requires interaction [4] Learning gain: 100% 0.50 0 26 % of class time NOT lecturing pre-test How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction) post-test
  27. 27. Learning requires interaction [4] 1 3 27 2 4 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  28. 28. Key Finding 2 To develop competence in an area, students must: a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge, b) understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework, and c) organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application. (How People Learn, p 16.) 28 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  29. 29. 29 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  30. 30. Implications for Teaching 2 Teachers must teach some subject matter in depth, providing many examples in which the same concept is at work and providing a firm foundation of factual knowledge. (How People Learn, p 20.) Classroom Environments 2 To provide a knowledge-centered environment, attention must be given to what is taught (information, subject matter), why it is taught (understanding), and what competence or mastery looks like. (How People Learn, p 24.) 30 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  31. 31. Development of Mastery [5] Behavior conscious unconscious incompetent competent Level of Expertise 31 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  32. 32. Development of Mastery [5] incompetent competent Level of Expertise 32 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  33. 33. Development of Mastery [5] Behavior conscious unconscious adikko.deviantart.com 33 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  34. 34. Development of Mastery [5] Behavior conscious unconscious incompetent competent Level of Expertise 34 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  35. 35. Development of Mastery [5] Behavior conscious unconscious 1 incompetent competent Level of Expertise 35 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  36. 36. Development of Mastery [5] Behavior conscious unconscious 2 1 incompetent competent Level of Expertise 36 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  37. 37. Development of Mastery [5] Behavior conscious unconscious 2 3 1 incompetent competent Level of Expertise 37 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  38. 38. Development of Mastery [5] conscious Behavior 3 1 4 incompetent unconscious 2 competent Level of Expertise 38 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  39. 39. Why Your Students Don’t Understand You Expert brains differ from novice brains because novices:  lack rich, networked connections, cannot make inferences, cannot reliably retrieve information  have preconceptions that distract or confuse  lack automization, resulting in cognitive overload 39 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  40. 40. Key Finding 3 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them. (How People Learn, p 18.) 40 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  41. 41. Implications for Teaching 3 The teaching of metacognitive skills should be integrated into the curriculum in a variety of subject (How People Learn, p 21.) areas. Classroom Environments 3 Formative assessments — ongoing assessments designed to make students’ thinking visible to both teachers and (How People Learn, p 24.) students — are essential. Instructors need to provide opportunities for students to practice being metacognitive: an internal dialogue about their own thinking 41 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  42. 42. traditional lecture 42 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction) student-centered instruction
  43. 43. peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations surveys of opinions reading quizzes worksheets discussions videos student-centered instruction 43 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  44. 44. Clicker question Melt chocolate over low heat. Remove the chocolate from the heat. What will happen to the chocolate? A) It will condense. B) It will evaporate. C) It will freeze. (Question: Sujatha Raghu from Braincandy via LearningCatalytics) (Image: CIM9926 by number657 on flickr CC) 44 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  45. 45. Typical episode of peer instruction 1. Instructor poses a conceptually-challenging multiple-choice question. 2. Students think about question on their own and vote using clickers, colored ABCD cards, smartphones,… 3. The instructor asks students to turn to their neighbors and “convince them you’re right.” 4. After that “peer instruction”, the students vote again and the instructor leads a class-wide discussion concluding with why the right answer(s) is right and the wrong answers are wrong. 45 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  46. 46. In effective peer instruction  students teach each other while they may still hold or remember their novice preconceptions  students discuss the concepts in their own (novice) language students learn and practice how to think, communicate like experts  each student finds out what s/he does(n’t) know  the instructor finds out what the students know (and don’t know) and reacts, building on their initial understanding and preconceptions. 46 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  47. 47. Effective peer instruction requires 1. identifying key concepts, misconceptions 2. creating multiple-choice questions that require deeper thinking and learning before class 3. facilitating peer instruction episodes that spark and support student discussion 4. leading a class-wide discussion to clarify the concept, resolve the misconception 5. reflecting on the question: note curious things you overheard, how they voted, etc. 47 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction) during class after class
  48. 48. Clicker Question The molecules making up the dry mass of wood that forms during the growth of a tree largely come from A) sunlight. B) the air. C) the seed. D) the soil. 48 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction) Question credit: Bill Wood
  49. 49. 49 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  50. 50. Student-centered instruction takes time Five minutes of student-centered instruction every 15 minutes means 25% of class time is not lecturing. But you (already) have lecture material to fill 100% of the time! Where does that time come from? 50 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  51. 51. Effective peer instruction requires 51  students be prepared to engage in conceptuallychallenging discussions  TIME! Five minutes of student-centered instruction every 15 minutes means 25% of class time is not lecturing. But you already have lecture material to fill 100% (or more!) of the time. Where does that time come from?  reduce course content by 25% How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  52. 52. Traditional classroom 1. learn easy stuff together 2. learn hard stuff alone 1. Transfer: first exposure to material is in class, content is transmitted from instructor to student 2. Assimilate: learning occurs later when student struggles alone to complete homework, essay, project (Mazur [6]) 52 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  53. 53. Flipped classroom 1. learn easy stuff alone 2. learn hard stuff together 1. Transfer: student learns easy content at home through reading, video, etc.: definitions, basis skills, simple examples. 2. Assimilate: students come to class prepared to immediately tackle challenging concepts, with timely, formative feedback from peers, TAs, instructor (Mazur [6]) 53 How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)
  54. 54. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 54 National Research Council (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. J.D. Bransford, A.L Brown & R.R. Cocking (Eds.),Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Flavell, J. H. (1976). Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence (pp.231-236). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Brame, C. (2013). Thinking about metacognition. [blog] January, 2013, Available at: http://cft.vanderbilt.edu/2013/01/thinking-aboutmetacognition/ [Accessed: 14 Jan 2013]. Prather, E.E, Rudolph, A.L., Brissenden, G., & Schlingman, W.M. (2009). A national study assessing the teaching and learning of introductory astronomy. Part I. The effect of interactive instruction. Am. J. Phys. 77, 4, 320-330. Sprague, J., & Stuart, D. (2000). The speaker’s handbook. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt College Publishers. Mazur, E. (2009). Farewell, Lecture? Science, 323, 5910, 50-51. How (you can help) People Learn (using peer instruction)

×