How People Learn

What do you notice?
What do you wonder?
1
How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)

impaled by Yersinia...
slides available at tinyurl.com/HPLBiologyWi14

HOW PEOPLE LEARN
Peter Newbury, Ph.D.
Center for Teaching Development,
Uni...
3

How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
Survey
Which of these do you associate with a typical
university lecture?
A) listening
B) absorbing
C) note-taking
D) lear...
The traditional lecture is based on the
transmissionist learning model

5

How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)

(Ima...
Let’s have a learning experience…

6

How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
Here is an important new number
system. Please learn it.

1=

7=

2=

5=

8=

3=

7

4=

6=

9=

How (You Can Help) People...
Test
What is this number?

8

How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
Scientifically Outdated, a Known Failure

We must abandon the tabula rasa
“blank slate” and “students as
empty vessels” mo...
New Number System: tic-tac-toe code

1

3

4

5

6

7

10

2

8

9

How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
What is this number?

11

How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
Constructivist Theory of Learning
New learning is based on knowledge
you already have.
You store things in long term memor...
What are the patterns of
how people learn?
How do we use them?
13

How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
How People Learn
National Research Council (2000).
How People Learn: Brain, Mind,
Experience, and School: Expanded
Edition...
Key Finding 1
Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about
how the world works. If their initial understanding...
Key Finding 2
To develop competence in an area, students must:
a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge,
b) understa...
Key Finding 3
A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help
students learn to take control of their own learning by
d...
Aside: metacognition
Metacognition refers to one’s knowledge concerning one’s
own cognitive processes or anything related ...
Key Finding 3
A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help
students learn to take control of their own learning by
d...
Please gather into groups of 2-3
Each set of colored cards has
 3 Key Findings
 3 Implications for Teaching
 3 Designin...
21
How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
Key Finding 1
Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about
how the world works. If their initial understanding...
Implications for Teaching 1
Teachers must draw out and work with the preexisting
understandings that their students bring ...
New Coding System
Please memorize this code:
1=

4=

7=

1

2

3

2=

5=

8=

4

5

6

3=

6=

9=

7

8

9

unsupported, u...
Classroom Environments 1
Schools and classrooms must be learner centered.
(How People Learn, p 23.)

25

How (You Can Help...
Learning requires interaction

26

How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)

[4]
Learning requires interaction
Learning gain:
100%

0.50

0

27

% of class time
NOT lecturing

How (You Can Help) People L...
Learning requires interaction
52 classes of sizes 25 to >100 students, at
2- and 4-yr colleges and research
universities a...
Learning requires interaction

[4]

1

3
29

2

4

How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
Key Finding 2
To develop competence in an area, students must:
a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge,
b) understa...
31
How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
Implications for Teaching 2
Teachers must teach some subject matter in depth,
providing many examples in which the same co...
Development of Mastery

[5]

Behavior

conscious

unconscious

incompetent

competent

Level of Expertise
33

How (You Can...
Development of Mastery

incompetent

competent

Level of Expertise
34

How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)

[5]
Development of Mastery
Behavior

conscious

unconscious
adikko.deviantart.com

35

How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biolog...
Development of Mastery

[5]

Behavior

conscious

unconscious

incompetent

competent

Level of Expertise
36

How (You Can...
Development of Mastery

[5]

Behavior

conscious

unconscious

1
incompetent

competent

Level of Expertise
37

How (You C...
Development of Mastery
Behavior

conscious

unconscious

2
1
incompetent

competent

Level of Expertise
38

[5]

How (You ...
Development of Mastery
Behavior

conscious

unconscious

2

3

1
incompetent

competent

Level of Expertise
39

[5]

How (...
Development of Mastery
conscious

[5]

Behavior

3

1

4

incompetent

unconscious

2

competent

Level of Expertise
40

H...
Why Your Students Don’t Understand You
Expert brains differ from novice brains because novices:
 lack rich, networked con...
Key Finding 3
A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help
students learn to take control of their own learning by
d...
Implications for Teaching 3
The teaching of metacognitive skills should be
integrated into the curriculum in a variety of ...
Putting theory into practice
traditional lecture
45

How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)

student-centered instruction
peer instruction with clickers
interactive demonstrations
What do you notice?
What do you wonder?
surveys of opinions
read...
Clicker Question
The molecules making up the dry mass of wood that
forms during the growth of a tree largely come from
A) ...
Typical Episode of Peer Instruction (PI)
1. Instructor poses a conceptually-challenging
multiple-choice question.
2. Stude...
In effective peer instruction
 students teach each other while
they may still hold or remember
their novice preconception...
peer instruction with clickers
interactive demonstrations
What do you notice?
What do you wonder?
surveys of opinions
read...
Chemistry Day 4 by pennstatenews on flickr CC-BY-NC
51
How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
Clicker question
A ball is rolling around
the inside of a circular
track. The ball
leaves the track
at point P.

C

B
A

D...
peer instruction with clickers
interactive demonstrations
What do you notice?
What do you wonder?
surveys of opinions
read...
What do you notice?
What do you wonder?
54
How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)

impaled by Yersinia on flickr CC-BY-...
peer instruction with clickers
interactive demonstrations
What do you notice?
What do you wonder?
surveys of opinions
read...
Veritasium (Derek Muller)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2KZb2_vcNTg

As you watch the
video, notice how
Derek talks to th...
Active Learning in Discussion Sections
 peer instruction with clickers, colored ABCD cards, ABCDE
pdf on smartphones,…
 ...
How People Learn
Learning is not about what the
instructor does. It’s about what
students do for themselves.

58

How (You...
How People Learn
Learning is not about what the
instructor does. It’s about what
students do for themselves.
Students need...
How People Learn
Learning is not about what the
instructor does. It’s about what
students do for themselves.

Students wil...
How People Learn
Learning is not about what the
instructor does. It’s about what
students do for themselves.

Students wil...
If in doubt, ask yourself…

Who is doing the work,
you or the students?

62

How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
References
1.

2.

Flavell, J. H. (1976). Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. In L. B. Resnick
(Ed.), The nature of ...
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How (you can help) People Learn (biology)

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Peter Newbury
Center for Teaching Development
University of California, San Diego
ctd.ucsd.edu

27 January 2014

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How (you can help) People Learn (biology)

  1. 1. How People Learn What do you notice? What do you wonder? 1 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology) impaled by Yersinia on flickr CC-BY-NC-SA
  2. 2. slides available at tinyurl.com/HPLBiologyWi14 HOW PEOPLE LEARN Peter Newbury, Ph.D. Center for Teaching Development, University of California, San Diego pnewbury@ucsd.edu @polarisdotca ctd.ucsd.edu #ctducsd January 27, 2014
  3. 3. 3 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  4. 4. Survey Which of these do you associate with a typical university lecture? A) listening B) absorbing C) note-taking D) learning 4 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  5. 5. The traditional lecture is based on the transmissionist learning model 5 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology) (Image by um.dentistry on flickr CC)
  6. 6. Let’s have a learning experience… 6 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  7. 7. Here is an important new number system. Please learn it. 1= 7= 2= 5= 8= 3= 7 4= 6= 9= How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  8. 8. Test What is this number? 8 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  9. 9. Scientifically Outdated, a Known Failure We must abandon the tabula rasa “blank slate” and “students as empty vessels” models of teaching and learning. 9 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  10. 10. New Number System: tic-tac-toe code 1 3 4 5 6 7 10 2 8 9 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  11. 11. What is this number? 11 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  12. 12. Constructivist Theory of Learning New learning is based on knowledge you already have. You store things in long term memory through a set of connections that are learning is done made with your existing memories. by individuals Creating memories (aka learning) involves having neurons fire and link up in networks or patterns. (fMRI is allowing us to observe learning as it happens.) 12 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology) (Images by Rebecca-Lee on flickr CC)
  13. 13. What are the patterns of how people learn? How do we use them? 13 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  14. 14. How People Learn National Research Council (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. J.D. Bransford, A.L Brown & R.R. Cocking (Eds.), Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Available for free as PDF www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=9853 14 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  15. 15. Key Finding 1 Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding is not engaged, they may fail to grasp the new concepts and information that are taught, or they may learn them for the purposes of a test but revert to their preconceptions outside of the classroom. (How People Learn, p 14.) 15 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  16. 16. Key Finding 2 To develop competence in an area, students must: a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge, b) understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework, and c) organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application. (How People Learn, p 16.) 16 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  17. 17. Key Finding 3 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them. (How People Learn, p 18.) 17 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  18. 18. Aside: metacognition Metacognition refers to one’s knowledge concerning one’s own cognitive processes or anything related to them. For example, I am engaging in metacognition if I notice that I am having more trouble learning A than B. ([2], [3]) meta cognition 18 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  19. 19. Key Finding 3 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them. (How People Learn, p 18.) 19 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  20. 20. Please gather into groups of 2-3 Each set of colored cards has  3 Key Findings  3 Implications for Teaching  3 Designing Classroom Environments TASK: Match the cards into Key Finding 3 sets of 3 cards 2 Key Finding 3 20 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology) Designing Classroom Environment Implications for Teaching
  21. 21. 21 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  22. 22. Key Finding 1 Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding is not engaged, they may fail to grasp the new concepts and information that are taught, or they may learn them for the purposes of a test but revert to their preconceptions outside of the classroom. (How People Learn, p 14.) 22 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  23. 23. Implications for Teaching 1 Teachers must draw out and work with the preexisting understandings that their students bring with them. (How People Learn, p 19.) 23 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  24. 24. New Coding System Please memorize this code: 1= 4= 7= 1 2 3 2= 5= 8= 4 5 6 3= 6= 9= 7 8 9 unsupported, unfamiliar content 24 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology) built on pre-existing knowledge (tic-tac-toe board)
  25. 25. Classroom Environments 1 Schools and classrooms must be learner centered. (How People Learn, p 23.) 25 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  26. 26. Learning requires interaction 26 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology) [4]
  27. 27. Learning requires interaction Learning gain: 100% 0.50 0 27 % of class time NOT lecturing How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology) pre-test post-test [4]
  28. 28. Learning requires interaction 52 classes of sizes 25 to >100 students, at 2- and 4-yr colleges and research universities across US, wrote an astronomy pre- and post-test. Each point shows a class’ learning gain. 28 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology) [4]
  29. 29. Learning requires interaction [4] 1 3 29 2 4 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  30. 30. Key Finding 2 To develop competence in an area, students must: a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge, b) understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework, and c) organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application. (How People Learn, p 16.) 30 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  31. 31. 31 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  32. 32. Implications for Teaching 2 Teachers must teach some subject matter in depth, providing many examples in which the same concept is at work and providing a firm foundation of factual knowledge. (How People Learn, p 20.) Classroom Environments 2 To provide a knowledge-centered environment, attention must be given to what is taught (information, subject matter), why it is taught (understanding), and what competence or mastery looks like. (How People Learn, p 24.) 32 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  33. 33. Development of Mastery [5] Behavior conscious unconscious incompetent competent Level of Expertise 33 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  34. 34. Development of Mastery incompetent competent Level of Expertise 34 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology) [5]
  35. 35. Development of Mastery Behavior conscious unconscious adikko.deviantart.com 35 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology) [5]
  36. 36. Development of Mastery [5] Behavior conscious unconscious incompetent competent Level of Expertise 36 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  37. 37. Development of Mastery [5] Behavior conscious unconscious 1 incompetent competent Level of Expertise 37 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  38. 38. Development of Mastery Behavior conscious unconscious 2 1 incompetent competent Level of Expertise 38 [5] How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  39. 39. Development of Mastery Behavior conscious unconscious 2 3 1 incompetent competent Level of Expertise 39 [5] How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  40. 40. Development of Mastery conscious [5] Behavior 3 1 4 incompetent unconscious 2 competent Level of Expertise 40 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  41. 41. Why Your Students Don’t Understand You Expert brains differ from novice brains because novices:  lack rich, networked connections so they cannot make inferences, cannot reliably retrieve information  have preconceptions that distract, confuse, impede  lack automization, resulting in cognitive overload 41 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  42. 42. Key Finding 3 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them. (How People Learn, p 18.) 42 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  43. 43. Implications for Teaching 3 The teaching of metacognitive skills should be integrated into the curriculum in a variety of subject (How People Learn, p 21.) areas. Classroom Environments 3 Formative assessments — ongoing assessments designed to make students’ thinking visible to both teachers and (How People Learn, p 24.) students — are essential. 43 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  44. 44. Putting theory into practice
  45. 45. traditional lecture 45 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology) student-centered instruction
  46. 46. peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations What do you notice? What do you wonder? surveys of opinions reading quizzes worksheets discussions videos 46 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology) student-centered instruction
  47. 47. Clicker Question The molecules making up the dry mass of wood that forms during the growth of a tree largely come from A) sunlight. B) the air. C) the seed. D) the soil. Question credit: Bill Wood 47 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  48. 48. Typical Episode of Peer Instruction (PI) 1. Instructor poses a conceptually-challenging multiple-choice question. 2. Students think about question on their own and vote using clickers, colored ABCD cards, smartphones,… 3. The instructor asks students to turn to their neighbors and “convince them you’re right.” 4. After that “peer instruction”, the students vote again and the instructor leads a class-wide discussion concluding with why the right answer(s) is right and the wrong answers are wrong. 48 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  49. 49. In effective peer instruction  students teach each other while they may still hold or remember their novice preconceptions  students discuss the concepts in their own (novice) language students learn and practice how to think, communicate like experts  each student finds out what s/he does(n’t) know  the instructor finds out what the students know (and don’t know) and reacts, building on their initial understanding and preconceptions. 49 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  50. 50. peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations What do you notice? What do you wonder? surveys of opinions reading quizzes worksheets discussions videos 50 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology) student-centered instruction
  51. 51. Chemistry Day 4 by pennstatenews on flickr CC-BY-NC 51 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  52. 52. Clicker question A ball is rolling around the inside of a circular track. The ball leaves the track at point P. C B A D P Which path does the ball follow? 52 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology) (adapted from Mazur) E
  53. 53. peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations What do you notice? What do you wonder? surveys of opinions reading quizzes worksheets discussions videos 53 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology) student-centered instruction
  54. 54. What do you notice? What do you wonder? 54 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology) impaled by Yersinia on flickr CC-BY-NC-SA
  55. 55. peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations What do you notice? What do you wonder? surveys of opinions reading quizzes worksheets discussions videos 55 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology) student-centered instruction
  56. 56. Veritasium (Derek Muller) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2KZb2_vcNTg As you watch the video, notice how Derek talks to the people he interviews. 56 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  57. 57. Active Learning in Discussion Sections  peer instruction with clickers, colored ABCD cards, ABCDE pdf on smartphones,…  1-Minute papers: What is most confusing right now?  Problem Solving in Groups  Provide scaffold/structure  Ask what steps would you take to solve problem (versus actually solving them)  Critique or “fix” sample work/problem  overhead slides, document cameras, board?  If there’s a skill expert biologists have (drawing, identifying structures in diagram, etc.) give students a worksheet which gives them practice doing it. 57 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  58. 58. How People Learn Learning is not about what the instructor does. It’s about what students do for themselves. 58 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  59. 59. How People Learn Learning is not about what the instructor does. It’s about what students do for themselves. Students need to encounter safe yet challenging conditions in which they can try, fail, receive feedback, and try again without facing summative evaluation. (What the best college teachers do [6], p.108) 59 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  60. 60. How People Learn Learning is not about what the instructor does. It’s about what students do for themselves. Students will not learn (just) by listening to the instructor explain. 60 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  61. 61. How People Learn Learning is not about what the instructor does. It’s about what students do for themselves. Students will not learn (just) by listening to the instructor explain. BE LESS HELPFUL 61 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  62. 62. If in doubt, ask yourself… Who is doing the work, you or the students? 62 How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)
  63. 63. References 1. 2. Flavell, J. H. (1976). Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence (pp.231-236). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. 3. Brame, C. (2013). Thinking about metacognition. [blog] January, 2013, Available at: http://cft.vanderbilt.edu/2013/01/thinking-aboutmetacognition/ [Accessed: 14 Jan 2013]. 4. Prather, E.E, Rudolph, A.L., Brissenden, G., & Schlingman, W.M. (2009). A national study assessing the teaching and learning of introductory astronomy. Part I. The effect of interactive instruction. Am. J. Phys. 77, 4, 320-330. 5. Sprague, J., & Stuart, D. (2000). The speaker’s handbook. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt College Publishers. 6. 63 National Research Council (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. J.D. Bransford, A.L Brown & R.R. Cocking (Eds.),Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Bain, K. (2004). What the best college teachers do. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. How (You Can Help) People Learn (Biology)

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