How People Learn (Preventative Medicine edition)

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Peter Newbury
Center for Teaching Development, UCSD
ctd.ucsd.edu
April 19, 2013

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How People Learn (Preventative Medicine edition)

  1. 1. slides and resources: tinyurl.com/HPLPrevMedHOW PEOPLE LEARN Peter Newbury, Ph.D. Center for Teaching Development, University of California, San Diego pnewbury@ucsd.edu @polarisdotca ctd.ucsd.edu #ctducsd Friday, April 19, 2013 Preventative Medicine, UCSD
  2. 2. 2 How People Learn
  3. 3. The traditional lecture is based on the transmissionist learning model3 How People Learn (Image by um.dentistry on flickr CC)
  4. 4. Scientifically Outdated, a Known Failure We must abandon the tabula rasa “blank slate” and “students as empty vessels” models of teaching and learning.4 How People Learn
  5. 5. Let’s have a learning experience…5 How People Learn
  6. 6. Here is an important new number system. Please learn it. 1= 4= 7= 2= 5= 8= 3= 6= 9=6 How People Learn
  7. 7. Test What is this number?7 How People Learn
  8. 8. New Number System Here’s the structure of the “tic-tac-toe” code: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 98 How People Learn
  9. 9. Test What is this number?9 How People Learn
  10. 10. Constructivist theory of learning We know How People Learn [1]. There is research that informs us. Let’s exploit the patterns of learning to make instruction more effective.10 How People Learn
  11. 11. Key Finding 1 Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding is not engaged, they may fail to grasp the new concepts and information that are taught, or they may learn them for the purposes of a test but revert to their preconceptions outside of the classroom. (How People Learn , p 14.) Instructors must draw out students’ Instruction must be pre-existing student-centered. understandings.11 How People Learn
  12. 12. Learning requires interaction [2]12 How People Learn
  13. 13. Learning requires interaction [2] Normalized learning gain: 100% 0.50 % of class time NOT lecturing 0 pre-test post-test13 How People Learn
  14. 14. Learning requires interaction [2] 1 2 3 414 How People Learn
  15. 15. Key Finding 2 To develop competence in an area, students must: a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge, b) understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework, and c) organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application. (How People Learn, p 16.)15 How People Learn
  16. 16. 16 How People Learn
  17. 17. Key Finding 2 To develop competence in an area, students must: a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge, b) understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework, and c) organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application. (How People Learn, p 16.) These are characteristics of There’s another… expertize.17 How People Learn
  18. 18. Key Finding 3 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them. (How People Learn, p 18.)18 How People Learn
  19. 19. Aside: metacognition Metacognition refers to one’s knowledge concerning one’s own cognitive processes or anything related to them. For example, I am engaging in metacognition if I notice that I am having more trouble learning A than B. (Flavell [3], p. 232, [4]) (Image adapted from Mark A. Hicks19 How People Learn school.discoveryeducation.com/clipart/category/stud.html)
  20. 20. Key Finding 3 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them. (How People Learn, p 18.) Instructors need to provide opportunities for students to practice being metacognitive – thinking about their own thinking20 How People Learn
  21. 21. traditional lecture student-centered instruction21 How People Learn
  22. 22. peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations surveys of opinions reading quizzes worksheets discussions videos student-centered instruction22 How People Learn
  23. 23. Clicker question Melt chocolate over low heat. Remove the chocolate from the heat. What will happen to the chocolate? A) It will condense. B) It will evaporate. C) It will freeze. (Question: Sujatha Raghu from Braincandy via LearningCatalytics) (Image: CIM9926 by number657 on flickr CC)23 How People Learn
  24. 24. Critical Care Orientation A 70-year-old female is admitted to your unit with shortness of breath. Crackles are heard in all lung fields and her respiratory rate is labored at 36. Her skin in cool to the touch and she is diaphoretic. She has an arterial line and a Swan–Ganz catheter. The initial parameters are as follows: (see hand-out) Irene Knokh, Department of Professional Development and Education for Nursing, University of Michigan24 How People Learn
  25. 25. CCO Clicker question What would be the best intervention to address the patient’s respiratory status? A) Increase the O2 supply B) Intubation and ventilatory support C) No intervention D) Call RT to administer a breathing treatment with IPPB Irene Knokh, Department of Professional Development and Education for Nursing, University of Michigan25 How People Learn
  26. 26. Typical episode of peer instruction Alternating with 10-15 minute mini-lectures, 1. Instructor poses a conceptually-challenging, multiple-choice question. 2. Students think about question on their own. 3. Students vote for an answer using clickers, smart phones, colored/ABCD voting cards, Poll Everywhere,… 4. The instructor reacts, based on the distribution of votes.26 How People Learn
  27. 27. Typical “choreography” 1. Students think and answer on their own (“solo vote”) 2. Instructor says, “Interesting! Please turn to your neighbors and convince them you’re right.” Walks around the classroom, eavesdropping on conversations. 3. Students discuss question. As things quiet down, instructor says, “I’ve heard some great discussions. Please vote again.” (“group vote”) 4. Class-wide discussion, concluding with why the right answer(s) is right and the wrong answers are wrong. Depending on the solo vote distribution, agile instructors can try other variations on 2 – 4.27 How People Learn
  28. 28. In effective peer instruction  students teach each other immediately, students learn while they may still hold or remember and practice their novice preconceptions how to think,  students discuss the concepts in their communicate own (novice) language like experts  the instructor finds out what the students know (and don’t know) and reacts, building on their initial understanding and preconceptions.28 How People Learn
  29. 29. Development of Mastery [5] conscious Behavior unconscious incompetent competent Level of Expertise29 How People Learn
  30. 30. Development of Mastery incompetent competent Level of Expertise30 How People Learn
  31. 31. Development of Mastery conscious Behavior unconscious adikko.deviantart.com31 How People Learn
  32. 32. Development of Mastery conscious Behavior unconscious incompetent competent Level of Expertise32 How People Learn
  33. 33. Development of Mastery conscious Behavior unconscious 1 incompetent competent Level of Expertise33 How People Learn
  34. 34. Development of Mastery conscious 2 Behavior unconscious 1 incompetent competent Level of Expertise34 How People Learn
  35. 35. Development of Mastery conscious 2 3 Behavior unconscious 1 incompetent competent Level of Expertise35 How People Learn
  36. 36. Development of Mastery conscious 2 3 Behavior unconscious 1 4 incompetent competent Level of Expertise36 How People Learn
  37. 37. Why Your Students Don’t Understand You Expert brains differ from novice brains because novices:  lack rich, networked connections, cannot make inferences, cannot reliably retrieve information  have preconceptions that distract or confuse  lack automization, resulting in cognitive overload37 How People Learn
  38. 38. Development of Mastery conscious 2 3 Behavior unconscious 1 4 incompetent competent Level of Expertise38 How People Learn
  39. 39. Development of Mastery conscious 2 3 Behavior unconscious 1 4 incompetent competent Level of Expertise39 How People Learn
  40. 40. Effective peer instruction takes time Five minutes of peer instruction every 15 minutes means 25% of class time is spent on interactive, students- centered instruction. Where does that time come from?40 How People Learn
  41. 41. Traditional classroom 1. learn easy 2. learn hard stuff together stuff alone 1. Transfer: first exposure to material is in class, content is transmitted from instructor to student 2. Assimilate: learning occurs later when student struggles alone to complete homework, essay, project (Mazur [6])41 How People Learn
  42. 42. Flipped classroom 1. learn easy 2. learn hard stuff alone stuff together 1. Transfer: student learns easy content at home: definitions, basis skills, simple examples. Frees up class time for... 2. Assimilate: students come to class prepared to tackle challenging concepts in class, with immediate feedback from peers, instructor (Mazur [6])42 How People Learn
  43. 43. How People Learn Learning is not about what instructors do. It’s about what students do!43 How People Learn
  44. 44. How People Learn Learning is not about what instructors do. It’s about what students do! Students will not learn (just) by listening to the instructor explain.44 How People Learn
  45. 45. slides and resources: tinyurl.com/HPLPrevMedHOW PEOPLE LEARN Peter Newbury, Ph.D. Center for Teaching Development, University of California, San Diego pnewbury@ucsd.edu @polarisdotca ctd.ucsd.edu #ctducsd Friday, April 19, 2013 Preventative Medicine, UCSD
  46. 46. References 1. National Research Council (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. J.D. Bransford, A.L Brown & R.R. Cocking (Eds.),Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 2. Prather, E.E, Rudolph, A.L., Brissenden, G., & Schlingman, W.M. (2009). A national study assessing the teaching and learning of introductory astronomy. Part I. The effect of interactive instruction. Am. J. Phys. 77, 4, 320-330. 3. Flavell, J. H. (1976). Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence (pp.231-236). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. 4. Brame, C. (2013). Thinking about metacognition. [blog] January, 2013, Available at: http://cft.vanderbilt.edu/2013/01/thinking-about- metacognition/ [Accessed: 14 Jan 2013]. 5. Sprague, J., & Stuart, D. (2000). The speaker’s handbook. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt College Publishers. 6. Mazur, E. (2009). Farewell, Lecture? Science, 323, 5910, 50-51.46 How People Learn
  47. 47. Critical Care Orientation (Irene Knokh, Department of Professional Development and Education for Nursing, University of Michigan) A 70-year-old female is admitted to your unit with shortness of breath. Crackles are heard in all lung fields and her respiratory rate is labored at 36. Her skin in cool to the touch and she is diaphoretic. She has an arterial line and a Swan–Ganz catheter. The initial parameters are as follows: BP 80/40 HR 100 sinus rhythm Hemodynamic parameters: Preload: RA 10, PA 60/40, PAOP 38, Afterload: SVR 2800, PVR 250 Contractility: CO 2.8, CI 1.8, SvO2 55% ABG Ph 7.30, pCO2 58, pO2 52, Bicarbonate 26, SaO2 88% Blood work: Na 138, K 3.1, Creatinine 1.6, Hb 9.847 How People Learn

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