   Weather is the state of the atmosphere at a    given time and place.   Weather is measured and described in a    vari...
   Climate: The composite or generally prevailing    weather conditions of a region averaged over a    series of years.
   According to NASA, “Weather is what    conditions of the atmosphere are over a short    period of time, and climate is...
   Climate models simulate the Earth’s, a    continent’s, or a region’s climate using    fundamental understandings from ...
   Physical laws (laws of    motion, thermodynamics, etc.)   Topography & surface features   Distribution of land and w...
   Model must “predict” the behavior of the    climate system. How?   Venus   Jupiter   Predict the past.   Make pred...
   How would you “predict” the past?
   What happens if you change the ice albedo    effect?   What happens if you move Earth farther from    the sun?   Wha...
Climate, weather, & climate models
Climate, weather, & climate models
Climate, weather, & climate models
Climate, weather, & climate models
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Climate, weather, & climate models

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Climate, weather, & climate models

  1. 1.  Weather is the state of the atmosphere at a given time and place. Weather is measured and described in a variety of ways by meteorologists, scientists who study and predict weather. Air temperature and air pressure, the amount and type of precipitation (hail, sleet, snow, rain, etc.) the strength and direction of wind, and the types of clouds in the sky (cirrus, stratus, cumulus, etc.)
  2. 2.  Climate: The composite or generally prevailing weather conditions of a region averaged over a series of years.
  3. 3.  According to NASA, “Weather is what conditions of the atmosphere are over a short period of time, and climate is how the atmosphere "behaves" over relatively long periods of time.” Weather is particular and fine-grained over short time scales. Climate is general and broadly conceived over longer time scales.
  4. 4.  Climate models simulate the Earth’s, a continent’s, or a region’s climate using fundamental understandings from the natural sciences to generate predictions of the climate’s behavior.
  5. 5.  Physical laws (laws of motion, thermodynamics, etc.) Topography & surface features Distribution of land and water* Atmospheric contents** Temperatures Insolation Albedo*** Size of the planet Gravity Speed of its rotation
  6. 6.  Model must “predict” the behavior of the climate system. How? Venus Jupiter Predict the past. Make predictions about future climate behavior.
  7. 7.  How would you “predict” the past?
  8. 8.  What happens if you change the ice albedo effect? What happens if you move Earth farther from the sun? What happens if you change CO2? What if you change H2O concentration?

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