Smart Phone


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  • Most of the CPU used in smart phones today are based on ARM architecture ARM is used in all types of embedded systems.
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  • Smart Phone

    1. 1. Smart Phone Xiaohua Du Xiaoyi Sheng
    2. 2. Overview 1 Hardware 2 Software Platform Services and Applications 4 3
    3. 3. Evolution of Cell Phones OK chief, I’ll get on it right away! Date 1983 1989 1996 2005 Model: DynaTAC MicroTAC StarTAC Razor V3 Size: (high) 10 inches (25cm) 9 inches 3.9 inches 3.7 inches Weight: 28 ounces (793g) 12.3 ounces 4.3 ounces 3.3 ounces Talk Time: 2 hr 3 hr 5 hr Stand by Time: 24 hr 60 hr 170 hr Picture source: Wikipedia
    4. 4. Personal Digital Assistants <ul><li>Personal Digital Assistants (PDA ’ s) are personal handheld computers. </li></ul><ul><li>They are used to keep schedules, and have features that include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typewriting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Address Book </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calendar </li></ul></ul>Picture source: Wikipedia
    5. 5. PDA vs. Cell Phone <ul><li>Both PDAs and Cell Phones are popular, but there is a difference between the two devices. </li></ul><ul><li>The cell phone ’ s main function is making phone calls </li></ul><ul><li>On the other hand the PDA is more of a information storing device and only has a few communication features, such as IrDA, WLAN, Bluetooth. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Smart Phone = PDA + Cell Phone <ul><li>In recent years, many manufacturers have begun to blur the line between the PDA and the cell phone. </li></ul><ul><li>A new device has been introduced to the market …… .. The SMART PHONE </li></ul>= +
    7. 7. Smart Phone market <ul><li>According to IDC's Worldwide Quarterly Mobile Phone Tracker, global smart phone shipments reached 35.5 million units in last quarter of 2007, which was more than four times the size of the market for personal digital assistants. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2008 36% of the mobile handset market will be smart phones, equivalent to shipments of 240 million units. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Why the Mobile Explosion? Devices dropping in price and increasing in capabilities Smart phone penetration will be 21% by 2012 Increased network competition Networks are getting faster, and data packages are getting cheaper Fundamental platform transition 14.0% of US homes are mobile only while 12.3% of homes land-line only
    9. 9. Overview 1 Hardware 2 Software Platform 3 Services and Applications 4
    10. 10. <ul><li>CPU </li></ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Display </li></ul><ul><li>Battery </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion storage </li></ul><ul><li>Antenna </li></ul><ul><li>Camera, GPS, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>KEY: </li></ul><ul><li>A Balance Of Function and Power Consumption </li></ul>Smart Phone Hardware
    11. 11. <ul><ul><li>ARM – The leading 32-bit embedded processor architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced reduced instruction set computer (RISC) machine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Dominated by </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Texas Instrument OMAP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intel Xscale (sold to Marvell) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Samsung </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Clock speed 200MHz ~ 600MHz, up to 1GHz </li></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>Typical RISC architecture features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A large uniform register file </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A load/store architecture, where data-processing operations only operate on register contents, not directly on memory contents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>simple addressing modes, with all load/store addresses being determined from register contents and instruction fields only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>uniform and fixed-length instruction fields, to simplify instruction decode. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Additional features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>control over both the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) and shifter in most data-processing instructions to maximize the use of an ALU and a shifter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>auto-increment and auto-decrement addressing modes to optimize program loops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Load and Store Multiple instructions to maximize data throughput </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>conditional execution of almost all instructions to maximize execution throughput. </li></ul></ul>Source: http://www.arm.comj
    13. 13. <ul><li>Graphics Accelerator </li></ul><ul><li>Video Accelerator </li></ul><ul><li>Image Signal Processor (ISP) </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Signal Processor (DSP) </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>iPhone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>620   MHz ARM   1176, underclocked to 412   MHz </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Palm Treo 750 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>300mhz Samsung Processor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nokia N Series </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TI OMAP 2420 </li></ul></ul>Picture source: ,
    15. 15. <ul><li>Volatile Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Static RAM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>64MB~128MB run-time memory of software applications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-volatile Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flash ROM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>128MB~ 256MB contains operating system , software and user data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External Flash Memory through I/O extension interfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 16GB--Compact Flash (CF), Secure Digital (SD), MultiMedia Memory Cards (MMC) </li></ul></ul></ul>Picture Source:
    16. 16. <ul><li>Thin-film transistor (TFT) LCD display </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resolution: QVGA 320x240 and VGA 640x480, up to WVGA 800x480 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size: 2~5 inches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Color depth: 65K(16bit), 260K (18bit) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant power consumption </li></ul></ul>Picture source:
    17. 17. <ul><ul><li>Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) display </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not require a backlight to function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumes far less power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Much thinner (0.2 mm) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be made foldable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shorter life </li></ul></ul>Picture source:
    18. 18. Overview 1 Hardware 2 Software Platform 3 Services and Applications 4 1
    19. 19. Software Platforms <ul><li>A software platform essentially provides a complete solution to application development on smart phones. It is defined as the combination of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating system for a collection of compatible mobile devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application programming interfaces (APIs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software development libraries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programming tools </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Market Share of O.S. Source: wikipedia
    21. 22. Comparisons of Mobile Software Platforms <ul><li>Microsoft Smartphone, Palm OS, and BREW (Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless) are proprietary systems in that they only provide largely restricted APIs. On the other hand, Symbian, Linux, and J2ME are completely open systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to its supreme portability and established support in the mobile application developer community, J2ME is well positioned for next-generation mobile application development. </li></ul><ul><li>Considering the heterogeneity of mobile devices in terms of hardware and software platforms, J2ME and .Net compact framework are likely to flourish. </li></ul>
    22. 23. Introduction to Android <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Android is a software platform for mobile devices based on the Linux operating system and developed by Google and the Open Handset Alliance. </li></ul><ul><li>OS: Linux kernel - version 2.6 </li></ul><ul><li>Emulator: on Mac, Windows, Linux </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware support: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GSM Telephony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bluetooth, 3G, and WiFi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Camera, GPS, compass, and accelerometer </li></ul></ul>
    23. 24. Introduction to Android <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Android is a software platform for mobile devices based on the Linux operating system and developed by Google and the Open Handset Alliance. </li></ul><ul><li>OS: Linux kernel - version 2.6 </li></ul><ul><li>Emulator: on Mac, Windows, Linux </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware support: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GSM Telephony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bluetooth, 3G, and WiFi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Camera, GPS, compass, and accelerometer </li></ul></ul>
    24. 25. Android Architecture Linux Kernel <ul><li>Android relies on Linux version 2.6 for core system services such as security, memory management, process management, network stack, and driver model. </li></ul><ul><li>The kernel also acts as an abstraction layer between the hardware and the rest of the software stack. </li></ul>
    25. 26. Android Architecture Runtime <ul><ul><li>Every Android application runs in its own process, with its own instance of the Dalvik virtual machine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dalvik has been written so that a device can run multiple VMs efficiently. The Dalvik VM executes files in the Dalvik Executable (.dex) format which is optimized for minimal memory footprint. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The VM is register-based, and runs classes compiled by a Java language compiler that have been transformed into the .dex format by the included &quot;dx&quot; tool. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Dalvik VM relies on the Linux kernel for underlying functionality such as threading and low-level memory management. </li></ul></ul>
    26. 27. Android Architecture Libraries <ul><li>Android includes a set of C/C++ libraries used by various components of the Android system. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface Manager - manages access to the display subsystem and seamlessly composites 2D and 3D graphic layers from multiple applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media Libraries - support playback and recording of many popular audio and video formats, as well as static image file </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FreeType - bitmap and vector font rendering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SQLite - a powerful and lightweight relational database engine available to all applications </li></ul></ul>
    27. 28. Android Architecture Application Framework <ul><li>Android will ship with a set of core applications including an email client, SMS program, calendar, maps, browser, contacts, and others. All applications are written using Java. </li></ul><ul><li>Underlying all applications is a set of services and systems, including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A rich and extensible set of Views that can be used to build an application, including lists, grids, text boxes, buttons, and even an embeddable web browser </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content Providers that enable applications to access data from other applications (such as Contacts), or to share their own data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Resource Manager, providing access to non-code resources such as localized strings, graphics, and layout files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Notification Manager that enables all applications to display custom alerts in the status bar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An Activity Manager that manages the life cycle of applications and provides a common navigation backstack </li></ul></ul>
    28. 29. Overview 1 Hardware 2 Software Platform 3 Services and Applications 4
    29. 30. Generation Data Rate Protocols 2G 9.6 – 14.4 kbps GSM, CDMA, TDMA, PDC 2.5G 14.4 - 110 kbps GPRS 2.75G 144-384 kbps EDGE, CDMA2000 1x 3G 384k – 2 Mbps WCDMA, CDMA2000, TD-SCDMA, UWC-136, DECT+
    30. 31. Services and Applications <ul><li>Basic mobile phone services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile telephony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Voice over IP (VoIP) – 1~2 ¢ /min international calls (WLAN/3G) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Messaging Services </li></ul></ul>SMS EMS MMS <ul><li>Simple Text </li></ul><ul><li>Limited to 160 characters </li></ul><ul><li>Text and Simple Graphics </li></ul><ul><li>Uses same networks as SMS </li></ul>SMS is the highest ranked mobile service in terms of consumer preference of use, especially in Asia and Europe. Chinese people sent 592 billion in 2007. <ul><li>Audio and Video </li></ul><ul><li>Greeting Cards </li></ul><ul><li>Requires 2.5G systems </li></ul>
    31. 32. Personal Information Management <ul><li>email, calendar, task, address book, organizer, notepad, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be synchronized with computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MS active sync with Outlook </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Synchronization over-the-air </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yahoo! Intellisync – calendar, address book and notepad </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Email services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BlackBerry “ Push Email ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft “ Direct Push Technology ” on WM6 </li></ul></ul>Picture source:
    32. 33. Mobile Internet <ul><li>Through 2.5G/3G networks or wireless LAN </li></ul><ul><li>Smart phone customized websites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Google: search engine, map service, YouTube video streaming, etc ( ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convert any website into mobile version through Google ( ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Innovative web-browsers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>iPhone Safari </li></ul></ul>
    33. 34. Source:
    34. 35. Mobile Instant Messaging <ul><li>AOL Instant Messenger </li></ul><ul><li>MSN/Windows Live Messenger </li></ul><ul><li>ICQ messenger </li></ul><ul><li>Yahoo! Messenger </li></ul><ul><li>Google Talk </li></ul>
    35. 36. Mobile Multimedia Center <ul><li>DVD quality movie </li></ul><ul><li>Music download </li></ul><ul><ul><li>iTune </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Video and Music streaming </li></ul><ul><li>Video games </li></ul>
    36. 37. Location Based Services <ul><li>GPS navigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built-in/external GPS receiver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Point of interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enhanced 911 (E911) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency localization through cellular network or built-in GPS </li></ul></ul>
    37. 38. And Many More … <ul><li>Mobile Social Networking </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile ID </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Wallet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secured with fingerprint reader/facial recognition/iris scanner </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobile Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) </li></ul>
    38. 39. Summary <ul><li>Smart Phone – the convergence of “ 3C ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer Electronics </li></ul></ul>
    39. 40. Q&A <ul><li>Questions? </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you for your time. </li></ul>
    40. 41. References <ul><li>Pei Zheng, Lionel Ni. Smart Phone and Next Generation Mobile Computing, Morgan Kaufmann, December 16, 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Google Android </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia, &quot;Smartphone&quot;, </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>