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  1. 1. Robotics Introduction <ul><li>Course Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Etymology </li></ul><ul><li>Definition Robot </li></ul><ul><li>Definition Robotics </li></ul><ul><li>OK So what is a robot? </li></ul><ul><li>How new is robotics? </li></ul><ul><li>What do I need to know to work in robotics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Math and language is mostly common </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matrix Algebra </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of Robots  </li></ul>
  2. 2. Etymology <ul><li>The Word Robot has its root in the Slavic languages and means worker, compulsory work, or drudgery. It was popularized as a word for intelligent machines by the Czechoslovakian playwright Karel Kapek in Rossum’s Universal Robot 1921 </li></ul><ul><li>1950s Isaac Asimov Came up with laws of robotics in I Robot </li></ul><ul><li>1. A robot may not injure a human being, or through inaction allow a human being to come to harm. </li></ul><ul><li>2. A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with the first law. </li></ul><ul><li>3. A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the first or second law. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Definitions <ul><li>Robot: Many Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>American Heritage Dictionary: ro·bot (rbt, -bt) n. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1: A mechanical device that sometimes resembles a human being and is capable of performing a variety of often complex human tasks on command or by being programmed in advance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2: A machine or device that operates automatically or by remote control. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3: A person who works mechanically without original thought, especially one who responds automatically to the commands of others. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Websters: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 a : a machine that looks like a human being and performs various complex acts (as walking or talking) of a human being; also : a similar but fictional machine whose lack of capacity for human emotions is often emphasized b : an efficient insensitive person who functions automatically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 : a device that automatically performs complicated often repetitive tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 : a mechanism guided by automatic controls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RIA defines a robot as: &quot;A programmable multi-function manipulator designed to move material, parts, or specialized devices through variable programmed motion for the performance of a variety of tasks &quot; (RIA) </li></ul><ul><li>McKerrow, in 1986 used &quot;A robot is a machine which can be programmed to do a variety of tasks in the same way a computer is an electronic circuit which can be programmed to do a variety of tasks” </li></ul>
  4. 4. OK so what is a robot? <ul><li>Is it R 2 D 2 ? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it an industrial welding robot? </li></ul><ul><li>A pick and place machine? </li></ul><ul><li>A Machine Tool? </li></ul><ul><li>A Back Hoe? </li></ul><ul><li>A car on cruse control? </li></ul><ul><li>A robot is an integration of mechanical electrical and software components that can be reprogrammed to perform a variety of tasks both with and without human intervention. </li></ul><ul><li>Robotics: The study of robots design, programming and control. </li></ul>
  5. 5. So is robotics a new field? <ul><li>800 BC Homer describes walking tripods in the Iliad </li></ul><ul><li>350 BC Aristotle envisions mechanisms that work by &quot;obeying or anticipating the will of others&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>1801 Joseph-Marie Jacquard invents an automated textile loom controlled by punched cards </li></ul><ul><li>1892 Seward Babbitt designs a motorized crane and gripper to remove steel ingots from a furnace </li></ul><ul><li>1890s Nikola Tesla, after working briefly for Edison, demonstrates various radio-controlled vehicles, including a submersible boat </li></ul><ul><li>1926 Fritz Lang's movie Metropolis features Maria, a robot seductress </li></ul><ul><li>1939 For the New York World's Fair, Westinghouse Electric Corp. builds a mechanical man and dog: Electro danced, counted to 10, smoked, and described Westingouse's products -- and his dog walked, stood on its hind legs, and barked </li></ul><ul><li>1954 Devol designs a programmable factory robot (patent granted in 1961) aimed at &quot;Universal Automation,&quot; later trimmed to Unimation. First commercial industry robot goes online in 1961 (Engleburger) </li></ul>
  6. 6. New Continued? <ul><li>1976 NASA provides Mars landers with robot arms for its Viking I and II missions </li></ul><ul><li>1977 Asea Brown Boveri Ltd. introduces microcomputer-controlled robots </li></ul><ul><li>1977 Star Wars stars an android, C3PO, and a mobile robot, R2D2. By the early 1980s, R2D2 lookalikes are vacuuming floors and singing songs in </li></ul><ul><li>1978 Brooks Founded </li></ul><ul><li>1982 PRI Automation, founded in </li></ul><ul><li>1983 A six-leg walking robot is unwrapped by Odetics Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>1984 Brooks Introduces Frog Leg </li></ul><ul><li>1986 Honda Motor Co. launches a secret project to build a humanoid robot </li></ul><ul><li>1990 Robodoc, developed by Dr. William Bargar and Howard Paul of Integrated Surgical Systems Inc. and the University of California at Davis, performs a hip-replacement operation on a dog -- and in 1992, on a human patient </li></ul><ul><li>2000 At RoboCup 2000, three humanoid robots meet for the first time: Johnny Walker from the University of Western Australia, the Mk-II from Japan's Aoyama Gakuin University, and Pino from Kitano Symbiotic Systems Project </li></ul>
  7. 7. Vocabulary <ul><li>DOF: Degree of Freedom. Free space has 6, a plane 3 , the surface of a sphere 3. A point in space is defined by 3. A line of unit length in space can be defined by a point and 3 angles. </li></ul><ul><li>Joint: Same as a human joint. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revolute: Rotational Joint similar to elbow or wrist. 1DOF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prismatic: Like an elevator 1DOF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knuckle: Universal Joint 2DOF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spherical: Ball and Socket 3DOF Not Common. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kinematics: The relationship between the positions, and the positions derivatives of the robot and its links. Kinematics is motion without forces or mass. </li></ul><ul><li>Forward (direct) Kinematics: Given the joint trajectories find the link’s or end-effector’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Inverse Kinematics: Given a path calculate the motion of the joints. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Kinetics: Relates motion and forces  </li></ul><ul><li>Statics: Study of forces without motion </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamics: Study of motion and forces contain both kinetics and kinematics. Still have inverse and forward. </li></ul><ul><li>Force or Torque: Four Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coriolis: Coupling between Axes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Centripetal: Like a ball on a string. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inertial: Due to acceleration of deceleration of a mass. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gyroscopic: Changing the angle of a quickly spinning mass. Drill or Router. </li></ul></ul>Vocabulary 2
  9. 9. Vocabulary 3 <ul><li>Manipulator: A robot arm. </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulation: The act of grasping and or moving an object. </li></ul><ul><li>Gripper: Attaches to a robot to allow an object to be picked up  </li></ul><ul><li>End-Effector: Part of robot that affects the world. This can be a gripper, a welding torch, a light, or a sensor. </li></ul><ul><li>Cartesian Coordinates: X Y Z  </li></ul><ul><li>Right Hand Rule: Standard for defining coordinate frames and positive motion. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Point Fingers of right hand down positive X axes, thump down positive Z axes, Curl fingers by 90 degrees. They will point in the Y direction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Point thumb of right hand down any axes. Positive rotation is indicated by curling you fingers around the axes </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Vocabulary 4 <ul><li>Reference Frame: Coordinate system. Can be stationary or in motion. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tool: Coordinate system that is attached to the tool or end-effector. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>World: Coordinate system that the robot is relative to. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global: Coordinate system that is stationary. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DH Parameters: Denavit-Hartenberg Parameters. Robot parameters obtained by a convention for defining the coordinate frames of a robot. </li></ul>