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  1. 1. Robots and Artificial Intelligence
  2. 2. Some definitions <ul><li>Cyborg - ‘cybernetic organism’ - part organic, part machine e.g. human cyborgs (humans augmented with technology OR machine cyborgs (machines incorporating organic components) </li></ul><ul><li>Robot - an automated machine designed to carry out functions usually performed by humans (usually controlled by a computer program) - includes industrial robots as well as humanoid robots ( androids ) </li></ul><ul><li>The word ‘robot’ first used by Karel Capek in 1920 in a play called R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots). Capek derived the word 'robot' from the Czech word 'robota' meaning ‘slave labour' </li></ul>
  3. 3. Some definitions <ul><li>A.I. - artificial intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>the branch of computer science that deals with writing computer programs that can solve problems creatively ; the aim of AI scientists is to imitate or duplicate intelligence in computers and robots [source:] </li></ul><ul><li>intelligence exhibited by anything manufactured (i.e. artificial) by humans or other sentient beings or systems (should such things ever exist on Earth or elsewhere) [source:] </li></ul><ul><li>I.A. - intelligence augmentation/amplification </li></ul><ul><li>using computer systems to aid human mental processes and thinking </li></ul>
  4. 4. Conceptual Dilemmas in AI <ul><li>How do we judge if an AI is truly intelligent? </li></ul><ul><li>1997 - IBM’s Big Blue defeats Kasparov </li></ul><ul><li>Who really won, Big Blue or the programmers? </li></ul><ul><li>What is ‘intelligence’? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the Turing Test a true test of intelligence? </li></ul><ul><li>(Annual Loebner prize) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Conceptual Dilemmas in AI <ul><li>Strong AI - a system that is ‘truly’ intelligent, i.e. exhibits self-awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Weak AI - a system that simulates intelligence or intelligent behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Expert systems v. ‘rounded’ human intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Embodied versus disembodied intelligence </li></ul>
  6. 6. Conceptual Dilemmas in AI <ul><li>Embodiment and disembodiment: </li></ul><ul><li>Fantasy of disembodied consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>How important is a body to intelligence and consciousness? </li></ul><ul><li>Embodied intelligence has proved to be very difficult to program/create </li></ul>
  7. 7. Development of mobile robots <ul><li>The development of mobile, autonomous robots has proved far more difficult than originally anticipated </li></ul><ul><li>Building and programming robots to be able to interact in real-world environments is very difficult (hardware and software issues) </li></ul><ul><li>“ common sense” difficult to program - mobile robots require sophisticated multi-tasking and problem solving abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Safety issues </li></ul>
  8. 8. Artificial Intelligence Approaches <ul><li>top down, load data into a computer </li></ul><ul><li>bottom up, let the computer learn like people do </li></ul><ul><li>connectionism: models [via neural nets] the massively parallel architecture of the brain with its huge numbers of connected components </li></ul>
  9. 9. AI - top down approaches <ul><li>Cyc (pronounced &quot;psych&quot;) developed by Douglas Lenat, CEO of Cycorp since 1984. Cyc is programmed with common sense rules and data about the world and an 'inference engine' that allows it to learn from what it already knows. ( </li></ul><ul><li>IBM’s Big Blue chess playing AI </li></ul><ul><li>ALICE chatterbot created in 1995 by Dr. Richard Wallace ( </li></ul>
  10. 10. MIT’s COG - bottom up approach Image source: mit-news-cog-alone.jpg <ul><li>Rodney Brooks has been devloping Cog since 1992. </li></ul><ul><li>Cog learns about the world the same way an infant does by interacting with it. </li></ul><ul><li>Cog can see and hear and has sensors on its fingers allowing it to interact with the world. </li></ul>
  11. 11. MIT’s Kismet Kismet is a robot designed at MIT to act like a human child and display emotional responses. Image source:
  12. 12. Robot predictions <ul><li>&quot;By 2010 we will see mobile robots as big as people but with cognitive abilities similar in many respects to those of a lizard. The machines will be capable of carrying out simple chores, such as vacuuming, dusting, delivering packages and taking out the garbage. By 2040, I believe, we will finally achieve the original goal of robotics and a thematic mainstay of science fiction: a freely moving machine with the intellectual capabilities of a human being.” </li></ul><ul><li>Hans Moravec ( Carnegie Mellon University Robotics Institute) </li></ul><ul><li>Source: &quot;Rise of the Robots&quot;, Scientific American, December 1999 pp.124-135 Available: </li></ul>
  13. 13. Companion Robots <ul><li>Companion robots are embodied, mobile AIs that are designed to carry out a variety of functions in a domestic environment </li></ul><ul><li>Providing companionship </li></ul><ul><li>Helping the elderly </li></ul><ul><li>Performing simple domestic tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Some examples ... </li></ul>
  14. 14. Sony’s AIBO Image source:
  15. 15. RoboScience’s RS-01 RoboDog Image source:
  16. 16. NEC’s PaPeRo (Partner-type Personal Robot) Image source: <ul><li>incorporates artificial intelligence technology including behaviour control and conversation skills </li></ul><ul><li>has speech recognition and speech synthesis capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>communicates using natural language and LEDs to generate facial expressions </li></ul>
  17. 17. Mitsubishi’s Wakamaru Image source: Wakamaru is designed to interact with a human family and become ‘part of the family’
  18. 18. Honda’s ASIMO robots Image source: ASIMO can navigate homes, offices and streets. According to a company press release ASIMO can &quot;greet approaching people, follow them, move in the direction they indicate, and even recognize their faces and address them by name&quot;. Prototype version only - not currently for sale.
  19. 19. Fujitsu’s Maron-1 Image source: An Internet-enabled robot that can be operated by mobile phone for remote household monitoring and remote control of household appliances
  20. 20. Software robots - ‘softbots’ These are virtual robots simulated in cyberspace rather than physically embodied in the real world
  21. 21. Jeeves Image source: &quot;Greetings. What can I help you find today?&quot; Jeeves is a virtual butler (an intelligent agent) on the Ask Jeeves search engine. Jeeves responds to natural language questions rather than the usual Boolean search commands used by other search engines.
  22. 22. The Sims
  23. 23. Tamagotchi - virtual pets Image source: ecorp705.html
  24. 24. Kurzweil’s Ramona chatbot - click on Ramona Raymond Kurzweil's chatterbot Ramona acts as the avatar hostess of his website and is also a virtual performer and singer.
  25. 25. Robots and AIs in Sci-Fi
  26. 26. Capek - R.U.R. (Rossum’s Universal Robots) Image from a performance of R.U.R. in the 1930s
  27. 27. Maria - the robot from Fritz Lang’s Metropolis (1936)
  28. 28. Robby the Robot Forbidden Planet (1956) Image Source:
  29. 29. Data ( Star Trek: The Next Generation )
  30. 30. The Borg ( Star Trek: The Next Generation )
  31. 31. Pris in Bladerunner (19820
  32. 32. Bicentennial Man (1999) Image source:
  33. 33. Agent Smith in The Matrix (1999)
  34. 34. Stanley Kubrick’s A.I. (2001) David, a surrogate child, and Gigolo Joe a sex robot Image source:
  35. 35. Recurring Issues in Sci-Fi <ul><li>The human identity crisis - what does it mean to be human? </li></ul><ul><li>What separates humans from intelligent machines? </li></ul><ul><li>What is ‘special’ or unique about humans? </li></ul>
  36. 36. Recurring Issues in Sci-Fi <ul><li>Will AIs will supercede and dominate humans? </li></ul><ul><li>If AI intelligence equals or exceeds our own, will they compete for resources with us; will they try to subjugate or destroy humans, rendering the human race obsolete? </li></ul><ul><li>Will AIs abide by Asimov’s Three Laws of Robotics? </li></ul>
  37. 37. Asimov’s 3 laws of robotics <ul><li>A robot may not harm a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm. </li></ul><ul><li>A robot must obey the orders given to it by the human beings, except where such orders would conflict with the First Law. </li></ul><ul><li>A robot must protect its own existence, as long as such protection does not conflict the First or Second Law. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Ethical dilemmas in AI <ul><li>Will intelligent machines develop self-awareness or consciousness? </li></ul><ul><li>[i.e.will they develop the subjective capacity to experience the world, and the sense of personhood, that characterises humans?] </li></ul><ul><li>Will they develop emotion? </li></ul><ul><li>NB In Blade Runner , they use an emotion test rather than an intelligence test to detect replicants (robots) </li></ul>
  39. 39. Ethical dilemmas in AI <ul><li>If AI technologies develop consciousness and emotions, should they have rights, in the sense that humans have rights? </li></ul><ul><li>Are we creating a slave race? </li></ul><ul><li>Do we have an ethical responsibility to new lifeforms and AIs? (Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein story explored this issue) </li></ul><ul><li>Should there be a bill of rights for AIs? </li></ul><ul><li>Will we be able to turn them off or will this be tantamount to murder? </li></ul>
  40. 40. References <ul><li>In ARIN 1000 Reader </li></ul><ul><li>Lubar, S. (1993)‘Information: Beyond Computers’, in Infoculture , New York: Houghton Mifflin. </li></ul><ul><li>Online </li></ul><ul><li>Cleland, K. (2003) &quot;Domestic Robots&quot;, in, MESH #16 The House of Tomorrow, Melbourne: Experimenta -Available: </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia - </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperdictionary - </li></ul><ul><li> - </li></ul><ul><li>Honda - ASIMO - </li></ul><ul><li>Fujitsu - MARON-1 - </li></ul><ul><li>MIT robotics - </li></ul><ul><li>NEC - PaPeRo - </li></ul><ul><li>Cyc - </li></ul><ul><li>Sony AIBO - </li></ul>
  41. 41. References <ul><li>Additional Readings in Fi sher Reserve: </li></ul><ul><li>Boden, M. (1990) (ed), ‘Introduction’, The Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence , Oxford: Oxford University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Ford, K. M. and Hayes, P. J. (1998) ‘On Computational Wings: Rethinking the Goals of Artificial Intelligence’, Scientific American Presents: Exploring Intelligence , Vol. 9, No. 4, Winter 1998. </li></ul><ul><li>Garfinkel, S. (1997) ‘Happy Birthday HAL’, in Wired , January 1997. </li></ul><ul><li>Tofts, D. et al (eds.) (2002) Prefiguring Cyberculture: an intellectual history , Sydney: Power Publications; Cambridge, Mass.: MIT. </li></ul>