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  1. 1. Robotics Classification Envelopes Accuracy Repeatability
  2. 2. History c3000 BC Egyptian water clocks and mechanical dolls c500 BC Herodotus describes the wooden foot of Hegesistratus c360 BC Archytas of Tarentum - wooden bird that could fly c218 BC Roman general Marcus Sergius has an iron replacement made for his severed hand c200 BC Chinese mechanical orchestra c150 BC Hero of Alexandria - De Automatis described a mechanical theatre with marching and dancing figures c1250 Albertus Magnus invents household automaton to open doors c1400 Swiss and German android clocks developed 1509 Götz von Berlichingen’s iron hand is made with gearing for manipulating mechanical fingers and thumb 1643 Blaise Pascal develops mechanical adding machine, the Pascaline 1720 Bouchon and Falcon in Lyons, France, design looms for weaving patterns into silk 1738 Jacques de Vauconson builds mechanical duck that quacked, bathed, drank water, and ate, digested, and voided grain 1770 Pierre and Henri-Louis Jacquet Droz built 3 android automatons: a young boy who wrote letters, and older boy who drew pictures, and a girl who played piano 1774 John Winkinson invents boring machine to help build steam engine 1787 James Watt invents flyball governor to control speed of steam engine 1795 Evan's Flour Mill in Philadelphia introduced continuous process Artificial Intelligence and Robotics 2 Robotics
  3. 3. 1800 Metal lathe invented by Henry Maudslay 1801 Joseph Marie Jacquard invents punch card controlled automatic loom in France 1812 Charles Babbage begins difference engine to compute mathematical tables automatically 1818 Eli Whitney invents milling machine 1818 Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley wrote Frankenstein or the Modern Prometheus 1830 Charles Babbage conceives the analytical engine, develops many basic principles of computing, Ada Augusta Lovelace writes the software 1873 C. M. Spencer invents fully automatic lathe or automatic screw machine 1887 Herman Hollerith begins to mechanize the U.S. census using punched card concept 1892 Steward Babbitt invents motorized rotary crane with gripper for removing ingots from a furnace 1909 Henry Ford mass produced automobiles with a 1.5 minute cycle time 1921 Karel Capek wrote play R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots), coining the word robot from the Czech word robotit which means worker, drudge, or forced labor 1930 Vannevar Bush builds analog computer (differential analyzer) to solve integral equations mechanically 1931 IBM 601 performs decimal multiplication using plugboard programming and electromechanical memory, arithmetic, and control 1937 Howard Aiken of Harvard with IBM support develops Mark I electromechanical computer as an extension of punched-card technology - completed in 1944 1938 John Atanasoff develops a prototype electronic computer - completed in 1942 Artificial Intelligence and Robotics 3 Robotics
  4. 4. 1938 William Pollard and Harold Roseland invent a spray painting machine with recorded paths for DeVilbiss 1942 Punched paper tapes used to control differential analyzer 1944 Goertz invented master-slave manipulator 1945 J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly invent ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator) full scale electronic computer at University of Pennsylvania 1945 John von Neumann develops concept of stored program in the EDVAC computer - completed in 1949 1946 Forrester and Everett develop Whirlwind at MIT general purpose digital computer (16 bits, 42K ips, 5 bit op code, 11 bit address, 5K tubes, 256 word memory) 1946 George Devol invented a playback device for machine control, used it on an electromechanical feedback manipulator 1948 Bardeen, Bratton, and Shockley invent transistor at Bell Laboratories 1948 Norbert Wiener publishes Cybernetics describing concepts of communications and control in electronic, mechanical, and biological systems 1949 EDSAC stored program computer developed at Cambridge University 1950 Lincoln Lab founded at MIT 1951 Parsons Corporation and MIT developed APT (Automatically Programmed Tools) language using Whirlwind computer to control a Cincinatti Hydrotel milling machine using flexowrite tape - NC component completed 1954, APT completed by Douglas Ross and others in 1956 Artificial Intelligence and Robotics 4 Robotics
  5. 5. 1951 Eckert and Mauchly develop mass produced commercial computer UNIVAC (Universal Numerical Integrator and Calculator) 1951 Third generation programming language compilers written 1951 Raymond Goertz invents teleoperator-equipped articulated arm for the Atomic Energy Commission 1952 IBM 701 computer marketed - delivered in 1953 1953 SAGE (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment) air defense system development project started 1955 Pennsylvania Railroad leased IBM 705 to handle the paperwork 1956 FORTRAN developed 1956 George Devol invents programmable robot, calls it univeral automation, founds Unimation 1956 Cincinnati Milacron introduce numerical control machine tool 1957 Tidewater Oil's "Refinery of the Future" used IBM 650 to monitor complex refinery operations 1957 Barnes drilling machine had 4 spindles for automatic tool changing 1958 AN/FSQ-7 Sage (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment) computer delivered for NORAD combat centers (25K tubes, 30,000 sq. ft., 32 bits, 175 tons, 1500 KW power) 1958 Wallace E. Brainard developed automatic tool changer for Kearney and Trecker Milwaukee Matic maching center 1959 LISP and Cobol developed 1959 Ferranti developed a coordinate measuring machine using linear diffraction gratings 1959 Planet introduces a commerical pick-and-place robot controlled by limit switches and cams 1960 Unimate robot installed at Ford Motor to tend die- casting machine Artificial Intelligence and Robotics 5 Robotics
  6. 6. 1960 AMF introduces VERSATRAN commercial robot 1961 Unimation introduces servo-controlled industrial robot 1961 Gordon Moore and Robert Noyce form INTEL 1961 Collins prosthetic hand developed 1961 Ernst arm, a teleoperator slave arm equipped with touch sensors, is connected to a computer at MIT’s Lincoln Laboratory 1961 General Motors installs Unimate robot on a production line 1962 Ivan Sutherland developed Sketchpad (MIT) - a CRO driven by a Lincoln TX2 - beginning of computer graphics 1963 Coon include APT in computer graphics functions 1963 American Airlines developes SABRE reservation system for IBM 7090 computer 1963 American Machine and Foundry Versatile Transfer developed (Prab) 1963 Roehampton arm development begun 1963 Edinburg arm developed 1964 GM announced DAC-1 (Design Augmented by Computer) console installed on IBM 7094 computer (Dr. Harranty) 1965 Expert system DENDRAL developed by Edward Fiegenbaum at Stanford 1965 Bell Lab announced GRAPHIC 1 remote display system 1966 IBM Component Division implemented a system to aid A.C. module design for sytem 360 1967 Freeman worked out a hidden-line algorithm 1968 Stanford Reserach Institute develops Shakey, a mobile robot with vision 1968 Kawasaki Heavy Industries negotiates license from Unimation 1969 General Electric develops experimental walking truck for U.S. Army Artificial Intelligence and Robotics 6 Robotics
  7. 7. 1969 Unix 1969 Williamson developed a flexible manufacturing system in the Molins System 24 1970 Stanford Arm with camera and computer stacks colored blocks 1970 First National Symposium on Industrial Robots 1970 Unimate robot used for die casting at GM 1970 Japanese National Railways placed seven lathes under simultaneous control, introducing DNC (direct numerical control) 1970 Ted Codd proposed relational database management 1970 200 robots in use worldwide 1971 Japan Industrial Robot Association formed 1972 RCA announced GOLD system for I.C. layout 1972 Geometrical modelling systems PADL were developed at the University of Rochester 1973 Richard Hohn of Cincinnati Milacron introduces T3 (The Tomorrow Tool) minicomputer-controlled industrial robot that tracks objects on a moving conveyor 1973 Chasen justified the CAD system (Lockheed) 1974 Scheinman forms Vicarm to market version of Stanford Arm with minicomputer control for industrial applications 1974 ASEA introduces electric drive industrial robot 1974 3500 robots in use worldwide 1975 Robot Institute of America formed 1976 Viking II lands on Mars 1977 ASEA Brown Boveri Robotics Inc. introduces two sizes of micocomputer controlled electric drive industrial robots 1977 British Robot Association formed 1977 6500 robots in use worldwide 1978 Unimation with G.M. help and Vicarm technology develops the PUMA (Programmable Universal Machine for Assembly) robot Artificial Intelligence and Robotics 7 Robotics
  8. 8. 1978 HP's microporcessor-based raster scan display 1979 GM, Boeing described how to bridge gap between CAD and CAM 1979 Visicalc spreadsheet introduced on Apple computers 1980 Fujitsu Fanuc Company of Japan develops automated factory 1980 MAZAK flexible manufacturing factory is built in Florence, KY 1980 14,000 robots in use worldwide, 4000 robots in use in US 1981 Robotics International/SME formed 1982 Microbot and Rhino introduce first educational robots 1982 27,000 robots in use worldwide, (table 1-1) 1983 Heath introduces Hero1 robot 1984 Adept Corp. introduces electric direct-drive robot arms to eliminate need for gear or chain drives 1985 68,500 robots in use worldwide 1988 Richard S. Muller invents micromachine at Berkeley 1990 150,000 robots in use worldwide 1990 ASEA Brown Boveri Robotics, Inc. purchases robotics division of Cincinnati Milacron 1992 William Barger employs Robodoc, a robotic arm, in hip-replacement surgery Artificial Intelligence and Robotics 8 Robotics
  9. 9. Definition of a Robot Generic types of robots Industrial - "An industrial robot is a reprogrammable, multi- functional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices, through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks" - examples: Cincinatti Milacron, Asea, Unimate Educational - Hero Entertainment - C3PO, R2D2 Human-like - (droid) Artificial Intelligence and Robotics 9 Robotics
  10. 10. Robot Capabilities Motion - Axes of motion/degrees of freedom - Work envelope - Coordinate system Power/Precision/Repeatability Speed Sensing - Sight (vision) / light - Sound (acoustic) - Proximity (range) - Touch - Force Output - Speech - Computer Signals - Displays What robots can do (Table 2-1) Artificial Intelligence and Robotics 10 Robotics
  11. 11. Robot Classification Cartesian (or rectangular) Robots - 3 linear axes, supported from a base Gantry Robots (also rectangular)- 3 linear axes, supported from a gantry Cylindrical Robots - 2 linear axes, 1 rotary axis Spherical (or polar) Robots - 1 linear axis, 2 rotary axes - a fading breed Articulated (jointed arm, revolute) Robots - 3 rotary axes - major offering of robotics industry SCARA Robots - (Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm) - more than 3 axes, combination of articulated (with rotary axes mounted vertically) and cylindrical - allows some floatation at final position for parts insertion - becoming quite popular Work Envelope (Figures 2-1 and 2-2) Artificial Intelligence and Robotics 11 Robotics
  12. 12. Additional Axes of Motion Robots, in addition to the three major axes of motion, can have both minor axes of motion and an additional major axis of motion An additional major axis of motion can be obtained by mounting the entire robot on a traverse track on the floor or overhead. Sometimes this axis of motion is not programmable Minor axes of motion of a robot are contained in a wrist assembly, mounted to the end of the robot arm. An additional 1 to 3 axes of motion are provided. Names used for these axes of motion are pitch, yaw, roll, bend, and swivel. As the names imply, these are generally all rotary axes. Artificial Intelligence and Robotics 12 Robotics
  13. 13. Robot Control Non-servo point-to-point robots low technology - about 10% of U.S. market "pick and place," "limited sequence," "bang-bang" more human intervention needed to re-program (adjust stops) $4000 to $35000 pneumatic or hydrolic control (no electric) payload from ounces to 75 lbs (because of decelleration) no jointed arms available Servo-controlled point-to-point robots medium technology - about 80% of U.S. market general purpose robots use servomechanisms capable of stopping the robot at any point along any axis of motion $13,500 to $220,000 electric, hydrolic, or (rarely) pneumatic control payload from ounces up to tons - all types of arms available Servo-controlled continuous path robots about 10% of U.S. market, 90% of which used in spray painting specialized designs based on intended use intermediate as well as endpoint data stored on a time basis, frequently programmed by leading it through the pattern $55,000 to $225,000 - usually hydrolic control, jointed arm Artificial Intelligence and Robotics 13 Robotics
  14. 14. Robot Tradeoffs Payload - specified at 100% (or 75%) or arm extension - can be tons vs. Velocity - can be in excess of 200 inches/second vs. Repeatability - how close it comes to previous location Accuracy - how close it comes to desired location Artificial Intelligence and Robotics 14 Robotics
  15. 15. Robot Applications Application 1980 1990 Spot Welding 41% 3% Arc Welding 4% 14% Painting/Finishing 11% 5% Materials Handling (machine load/ 29% 31% unload) Assembly 6% 37% Other 9% 10% Artificial Intelligence and Robotics 15 Robotics
  16. 16. Comparison Points When Choosing A Robot Degrees of freedom Cost Drive type Software available Kinematic construction Closed loop/open loop Payload in grams How many I/O ports Repeatability Operational radius Movement limited or wide in all axes Speed Multiple vs. single speed Teach pendant On-line with host I/O External communications protocol Hard home Sensing via gripper Transmission Feedback Off-line programming Courseware availability/curriculum Number of program lines allowed XYZ program Design of work cell Program parameters Artificial Intelligence and Robotics 16 Robotics
  17. 17. Artificial Intelligence and Robotics 17 Robotics