Robot Control

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  • Reference: http://www.robotics.utexas.edu/rrg/learn_more/history/
  • Our fascination with robots began more than 100 years ago. Looking back, it's easy to get confused about what is and is not a robot. Robotics' history is tied to so many other technological advances that today seem so trivial, we don't even think of them as robots. How did a remote-controlled boat lead to autonomous metal puppies?
  • Tesla's submersible Croatian-American scientist Nikola Tesla invented many things, including the alternating current system we use for power today. But Tesla was an eccentric scientist who talked about interplanetary communication, and his experiments were far ahead of their time. The common man had never even heard of radio in 1897. So Tesla's remote-controlled, submersible boat left many people thinking he must have stuck a midget in the hull. They were wrong -- the boat really was acting on radio signals. Reference : http://www.msnbc.com/modules/robot_history/ http://www.thelightningguy.com/tesla.htm
  • The first person to use the word robot wasn't a scientist, but a playwright. Czechoslovakian writer Karel Capek first used the word robot in his satirical play, R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots). Taken from the Czech word for forced labor, the word was used to describe electronic servants who turn on their masters when given emotions. This was only the beginning of the bad-mouthing robots would receive for the next couple of decades. Many people feared that machines would resent their role as slaves or use their steely strength to overthrow humanity. Reference: http://www.msnbc.com/modules/robot_history/ http://capek.misto.cz/obrazky/divadlo/theater.html
  • World War II was a big catalyst in the development of two important robot components: artificial sensing and autonomous control. Radar was essential for tracking the enemy. The U.S. military also created auto-control systems for mine detectors that would sit in front of a tank as it crossed enemy lines. If a mine was detected, the control system would automatically stop the tank before it reached the mine. The Germans developed guided robotic bombs that were capable of correcting their trajectory. Reference: http://www.msnbc.com/modules/robot_history/
  • Mathematician Charles Babbage dreamed up the idea for an "analytical engine" in the 1830s, but he was never able to build his device. It would take another 100 years before John Atanassoff would build the world's first digital computer. In 1946 the University of Pennsylvania completed the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator), a massive machine made up of thousands of vacuum tubes. But these devices could only handle numbers. The UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Computer) would be the first device to deal with letters. Reference: http://www.msnbc.com/modules/robot_history/
  • For robotics, the '40s and '50s were full of over-the-top ideas. The invention of the transistor in 1948 increased the rate of electronic growth and the possibilities seemed endless. Ten years later, the creation of silicon microchips reinforced that growth. The Westinghouse robot Elecktro showed how far how far science and imagination could go. The seven-foot robot could smoke and play the piano. Ads from the era suggest that every household would soon have a robot. Reference: http://www.msnbc.com/modules/robot_history/
  • As the demand for cars grew, manufacturers looked for new ways to increase the efficiency of the assembly line through telecherics. This new field focused on robots that mimicked the operator's movements from a distance. In 1961 General Motors installed the applied telecherics system on their assembly line. The one-armed robot unloaded die casts, cooled components and delivered them to a trim press. In 1978 the PUMA (Programmable Universal Machine for Assembly) was introduced and quickly became the standard for commercial telecherics. Reference: http://www.msnbc.com/modules/robot_history/
  • With the rise of the personal computer came the personal robot craze of the early '80s. The popularity of Star Wars didn't hurt either. The first personal robots looked like R2D2. The RB5X and the HERO 1 robots were both designed as education tools for learning about computers. The HERO 1 featured light, sound and sonar sensors, a rotating head and, for its time, a powerful microprocessor. But the robots had a lighter side too. In demo mode, HERO 1 would sing. The RB5X even attempted to vacuum, but had problems with obstacles. Reference: http://www.msnbc.com/modules/robot_history/ http://www.mlc-engineering.com/rb5x01.htm
  • Once earthlings traveled to space, we wanted to build things there. One of NASA's essential construction tools is the Canadarm. First deployed in the 1981 aboard the Columbia, the Canadarm has gone on to deploy and repair satellites, telescopes and shuttles. Jet Propulsions Laboratories (JPL) in California has been working on several other devices for space construction since the late eighties. The Ranger Neutral Buoyancy Vehicle's many manipulators are tested in a large pool of water to simulate outer space. Reference: http://www.msnbc.com/modules/robot_history/
  • While robots haven't replaced doctors, they are performing many surgical tasks. In 1985 Dr. Yik San Kwoh invented the robot-software interface used in the first robot-aided surgery, a stereo tactic procedure. The surgery involves a small probe that that travels into the skull. A CT scanner is used to give a 3D picture of the brain, so that the robot can plot the best path to the tumor. The PUMA robots that are commonly used learn the difference between healthy and diseased tissue, using tofu for practice. Reference: http://www.msnbc.com/modules/robot_history/
  • The team who created the Honda Humanoid robot took a lesson from our own bodies to build this two-legged robot. When they began in 1986, the idea was to create an intelligent robot that could get around in a human world, complete with stairs, carpeting and other tough terrain. Getting a single robot mobile in a variety of environments had always been a challenge. But by studying feet and legs, the Honda team created a robot capable of climbing stairs, kicking a ball, pushing a cart, or tightening a screw. Reference: http://www.msnbc.com/modules/robot_history/ http://www.honda.co.jp/robot/movie/ http://www.cooltoolawards.com/hardware/Humanoid.htm
  • As scientific knowledge grew so did the level of questioning. And, as with space exploration, finding the answers could be dangerous. In 1994 the CMU Field Robotics Center sent Dante II, a tethered walking robot to explore Mt. Spurr in Alaska. Dante II aids in the dangerous recovery of volcanic gases and samples. These robotic arms with wheels (a.k.a. mobile applied telecherics) saved countless lives defusing bombs and investigating nuclear accident sites. The range of self-control, or autonomy, on these robots varies. Reference: http://www.msnbc.com/modules/robot_history/
  • Some robots mimic the humans, while others resemble lower life forms. Mark Tilden's BEAM robots look and act like big bugs. The name BEAM is an acronym for Tilden's philosophy: biology, electronics, aesthetics, and mechanics. Tilden builds simple robots out of discrete components and shies away from the integrated circuits most other robots use for intelligence. Started in the early 1990s, the idea was to create inexpensive, solar-powered robots ideal for dangerous missions such as landmine detection. Reference: http://www.msnbc.com/modules/robot_history/
  • By the 1990s NASA was looking for something to regain the public's enthusiasm for the space program. The answer was rovers. The first of these small, semi-autonomous robot platforms to be launched into space was the Sojourner, sent to Mars in 1996. Its mission involved testing soil composition, wind speed and water vapor quantities. The problem was, it could only travel short distances. NASA went back to work. In 2004, twin robot rovers caught the public's imagination again , sending back amazing images in journeys of kilometers, not meters. Reference: http://www.msnbc.com/modules/robot_history/
  • In the late '90s there was a return to consumer-oriented robots. The proliferation of the Internet also allowed a wider audience to get excited about robotics, controlling small rovers via the Web or buying kits online. One of the real robotic wonders of the late '90s was AIBO the robotic dog, made by Sony Corp. Using his sensor array, AIBO can autonomously navigate a room and play ball. Even with a price tag of over $2,000, it took less than four days for AIBO to sell out online. Other "pet robots" followed AIBO, but the challenge of keeping the pet smart and the price low remains. Reference: http://www.msnbc.com/modules/robot_history/
  • Quasi can make responses based on guest input and can recognize speech patterns, track faces, detect proximity, dispense candy and even perform a karaoke duet. The software used to create interactive experiences with Quasi consists of both off-the-shelf multimedia applications as well as custom-created authoring tools. Alias Maya, a 3D modeling and animation package is used to create all of Quasi's movements. The custom Behavior Authoring Tool (BAT) allows someone with little to no programming experience to create rich, complex character personalities for Quasi. Reference: http://www.cmu.edu/PR/releases05/050923_quasi.html http://www.tomshardware.com/site/videos/index.html
  • One of the main aims of humanoid robotics is to develop robots that are capable of interacting naturally with people. However, to understand the essence of human interaction, it is crucial to investigate the contribution of behavior and appearance. The android’s motions must closely match human performance to avoid looking strange, including such autonomic responses as the shoulder movements involved in breathing. The researchers propose a method to implement motions that look human by mapping their three-dimensional appearance from a human performer to the android and then evaluating the verisimilitude of the visible motions using a motion capture system. It focused on copying a person’s moving joint angles to a robot. They embed as many actuators as possible to provide many degree of freedom thus does not interfere with making the android look as human as possible. They assumed the kinematics of the robot to be similar to a human body. Reference: http://www.ed.ams.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp/development/Humanoid/ReplieeQ2/ReplieeQ2_eng.htm http://199.246.67.28/exnmedia/exn20050324-android.asf Generating Natural Motion in an Android by Mapping Human Motion Daisuke Matsui ∗ , Takashi Minato ∗ , Karl F. MacDorman † , and Hiroshi Ishiguro ∗‡ ∗ Department of Adaptive Machine Systems, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University
  • The graph Uncanny valley means the relationship between how humanlike a robot appears and a subject’s perception of familiarity. A robot familiarity increases with its similarity until a certain point is reached at which slight “nonhuman” imperfections cause the robot to appear repulsive.
  • The researchers transfer human motion measured by a motion capture system to the android by coping changes in the positions of body surfaces because the android’s appearance demands movements that look human bit its kinematics is sufficiently different that copying joint-angle information would not yield good results. By comparing the similarity of the android’s visible movement enables us to develop more natural movements for the android. Repliee Q2 is modeled after a Japanese woman. The standing height is about 160 cm. The skin is composed of a kind of silicone that has a humanlike feel and neutral temperature. The silicone skin covers the upper torso, neck, head and forearms with clothing covering other body parts. The soft skin gives the android a human look and enable natural interaction. It has forty-two highly sensitive tactile sensors composed of peizo diaphragms are mounted under the android’s skin and clothes throughout the body except for the shins, calves and feet.
  • The android is driven by air actuators that give it 42 degrees of freedom (DoFs) from the waist up which can generate a wide range of motions and gestures as well as various kinds of micro-motions such as the shoulder movements typically caused by human breathing.
  • This is an experiment to transfer human motion to the android Repliee Q2. They used 21 of the android’s 42 DoFs by excluding the 13 DoFs of the face, the 4 of the wrists, and the 4 of the fingers ( n = 21). They used a Hawk Digital System, which can track more than 50 markers in real-time. The system is highly accurate with a measurement error of less than 1 mm. Twenty markers were attached to the performer and another 20 to the android as shown in Fig. 6 ( m = 20). Because the android’s waist is fixed, the markers on the waist set the frame of reference for an android-centered coordinate space.
  • Hawk Digital System By Motion Analysis Corp. Consists of Hawk Digital Camera, Eagle Hub and EVaRT software that can capture complex motion with extreme accuracy. Reference: http://www.motionanalysis.com/applications/movement/sports/hawksystem.html
  • To facilitate learning, they introduce a representation of the marker position as shown in Fig.7. The effect of waist motions are removed with respect to the markers on the head. To avoid accumulating the position errors at the end of the arms, vectors connecting neighboring pairs of markers represent the positions of the markers on the arms. They used arc tangents for the transformation T , in which the joint angle is an angle between two neighboring links where a link consists of a straight line between two markers. There are 60 nodes in the input layer (20 markers × x, y, z ), 300 in the hidden layer, and 21 in the output layer (for the 21 DoFs). Using 300 units in the hidden layer provided a good balance between computational efficiency and accuracy. Using significantly fewer units resulted in too much error, while using significantly more units provided only marginally higher accuracy but at the cost of slower convergence.
  • When the performer started to make the posture at step 0, error increased rapidly because network learning had not yet converged. The control input decreases as learning progresses. This shows that the feedforward controller learned so that the feedback control input converges to zero.
  • The performer also gave an arbitrary fixed posture. The position errors and the feedback control input both increased as the learning of the feedforward network converged. The result shows the feedforward network learned the mapping from the performer’s posture to the android control input, which allows the android to adopt the same posture.
  • The performer put his right hand on his knee and quickly raised the hand right above his head. Fig. 10 shows the height of the fingers of the performer and android. The arm moved at roughly the maximum speed permitted by the hardware. The android arm cannot quite reach the performer’s position because the performer’s position was outside of the android’s range of motion. Clearly, the speed of the performer’s movement exceeds the android’s capabilities.
  • Fig. 11 shows the performer’s postures during a movement and the corresponding postures of the android. The android followed the performer’s movement with some delay. The trajectories of the positions of the android’s markers are considered to be similar to those of the performer, but errors still remain, and they cannot be ignored. Researchers recognized that the android is making the same gesture as the performer, the quality of the movement is not the same. There are few reasons that causing this problem: The kinematics of the android is too complicated to represent with an ordinary neural network. The method deals with a motion as a sequence of postures; it does not precisely reproduce higher order properties of motion such as velocity and acceleration because varying delays can occur between the performer’s movement and the android’s imitation of it. The proposed method is limited by the speed of motion. The android has absolute physical limitations such as a fixed compliance and a maximum speed that is less than that of a typical human being.
  • Held for 11 days on June 9-19 in 2005 at the Morizo and Kiccoro Exhibition Center A grand exhibition of 63 prototypes Cosponsors: Japan Association for the 2005 World Exposition, New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization Reference: http://www.expo2005.or.jp/en/robot/robot_project_02.html
  • Robot Control

    1. 1. By Chun-Lung Lim Jay Hatcher Clay Harris Robot Control
    2. 2. Definition of a Robot <ul><li>Definition of a Robot According to The Robot Institute of America (1979) : &quot;A reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move materials, parts, tools, or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>According to the Webster dictionary: &quot;An automatic device that performs functions normally ascribed to humans or a machine in the form of a human (Webster, 1993).&quot; </li></ul>
    3. 3. A Brief History of Robotics <ul><li>Robotics' history is tied to so many other technological advances that today seem so trivial, we don't even think of them as robots. </li></ul><ul><li>How did a remote-controlled boat lead to autonomous metal puppies? </li></ul>
    4. 4. Nikola Tesla <ul><li>Croatian-American scientist Nikola Tesla. </li></ul><ul><li>Invented many things, including the alternating current system. </li></ul><ul><li>Remote-controlled, submersible boat was acting on radio signals. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Slaves of steel <ul><li>The first person to use the word robot was a playwright, Czechoslovakian writer Karel Capek first used the word robot in his satirical play, R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots). </li></ul>Cover page of the first edition
    6. 6. Wartime inventions <ul><li>World War II was a big catalyst in the development of two important robot components: artificial sensing and autonomous control. </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. military created auto-control systems for mine detectors that would sit in front of a tank as it crossed enemy lines </li></ul><ul><li>The Germans developed guided robotic bombs that were capable of correcting their trajectory. </li></ul>German robot bomb found in France
    7. 7. Calculators and computers <ul><li>John Atanassoff built the world's first digital computer. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1946 the University of Pennsylvania completed the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator), a massive machine made up of thousands of vacuum tubes. But these devices could only handle numbers. </li></ul><ul><li>The UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Computer) would be the first device to deal with letters. </li></ul>ENIAC computer
    8. 8. A robot in every pot <ul><li>The invention of the transistor in 1948 increased the rate of electronic growth and the possibilities seemed endless. </li></ul><ul><li>The creation of silicon microchips reinforced that growth. </li></ul><ul><li>The seven-foot robot could smoke and play the piano. </li></ul>Elecktro the smoking robot
    9. 9. Industrial-strength arms <ul><li>1961 General Motors installed the applied telecherics system on their assembly line. The one-armed robot unloaded die casts, cooled components and delivered them to a trim press. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1978 the PUMA (Programmable Universal Machine for Assembly) was introduced and quickly became the standard for commercial telecherics. </li></ul>PUMA industrial robot
    10. 10. Early personal robots RB5X Hero 1
    11. 11. Arms in space The Canadarm -- Canada's Hand in the Sky (NASA) From breadboard to on-board: small components were assembled and tested innumerable times before the final product was mated to the shuttle in 1981 (NASA)
    12. 12. Surgical tools <ul><li>In 1985 Dr. Yik San Kwoh invented the robot-software interface used in the first robot-aided surgery, a stereo tactic procedure. </li></ul><ul><li>The surgery involves a small probe that travels into the skull. </li></ul><ul><li>A CT scanner is used to give a 3D picture of the brain, so that the robot can plot the best path to the tumor. </li></ul>Dr. Yik San Kwoh with surgical robot
    13. 13. The Honda Humanoid
    14. 14. Hazardous duties <ul><li>Dante II aids in the dangerous recovery of volcanic gases and samples. </li></ul><ul><li>These robotic arms with wheels saved countless lives defusing bombs and investigating nuclear accident sites. </li></ul>Telecheric robot inspects suspicious package
    15. 15. Solar-powered insects <ul><li>Mark Tilden's BEAM robots look and act like big bugs. </li></ul><ul><li>Tilden builds simple robots out of discrete components and shies away from the integrated circuits most other robots use for intelligence. </li></ul><ul><li>Started in the early 1990s, the idea was to create inexpensive, solar-powered robots ideal for dangerous missions such as landmine detection. </li></ul>
    16. 16. A range of rovers <ul><li>Sojourner, semi-autonomous robot platforms to be launched into Mars in 1996. </li></ul><ul><li>The problem was, it could only travel short distances. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2004, twin robot rovers caught the public's imagination again, sending back amazing images in journeys of kilometers, not meters. </li></ul>Mars rover
    17. 17. Entertaining pets <ul><li>In the late '90s there was a return to consumer-oriented robots. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the real robotic wonders of the late '90s was AIBO the robotic dog, made by Sony Corp. </li></ul><ul><li>By using sensor array, AIBO can autonomously navigate a room and play ball. </li></ul>AIBO takes a spill
    18. 18. Siggraph 2005 – Los Angeles <ul><li>Quasi can make responses based on guest input and can recognize speech patterns, track faces, detect proximity, dispense candy and even perform a karaoke duet. </li></ul><ul><li>Softwares includes Alias Maya, BAT and so on. </li></ul>Quasi - Carnegie Mellon University
    19. 19. Android My beloved…. Repliee Q2
    20. 27. Hawk Digital System
    21. 33. Robot Project: Prototype Robot Exhibition 2005
    22. 34. Network robotics, RT middleware (9 projects) <ul><li>Robot with advanced auditory capabilities for human interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Companion robot that follows individuals by multimodal interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Multitask robot system that utilizes intelligent information infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperrobot that serves people by integrating single-task domestic robots </li></ul><ul><li>Errand robot </li></ul><ul><li>Seven-degree-of-freedom double-arm unit and double-arm mobile robot </li></ul><ul><li>Superdistribution and combination robot system utilizing wireless links </li></ul><ul><li>Content-oriented robot that uses robot content </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental robot </li></ul>
    23. 35. Experiential robots (7 projects) <ul><li>Robot that decorates ceramic tableware and drinkware </li></ul><ul><li>Portrait-drawing robot </li></ul><ul><li>Partner robot with artificial tongue </li></ul><ul><li>Future science encyclopedia and multifingered haptic interface robot </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual telexistence robot that utilizes retroreflective projection </li></ul><ul><li>Robot for encountering the microscopic world </li></ul><ul><li>Cyberassist meister robot </li></ul>
    24. 36. Outdoor skilled-work robots (7 projects) <ul><li>Boarding robot for roaming natural landscapes </li></ul><ul><li>Ubiquitous robot </li></ul><ul><li>Caddy robot </li></ul><ul><li>Search and contaminant recovery robot for response to nuclear, biological, and chemical terrorism </li></ul><ul><li>Manually controlled heavy-duty robot to assist rescue operations </li></ul><ul><li>Robot that searches through rubble </li></ul>
    25. 37. Special-environment robots (9 projects) <ul><li>Robot that evaluates duct interiors by impact-elastic waves </li></ul><ul><li>Pacemaker robot for marathons </li></ul><ul><li>Golden Shachihoko robot </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomous snow-plowing robot to support life in snowy regions </li></ul><ul><li>Super-high-speed batting robot that can hit fastballs of up to 160 kph </li></ul><ul><li>Amphibious snake-type robot </li></ul><ul><li>Acrobatic airship robot </li></ul><ul><li>Data gathering double-kite-type robot, humanoid robot for a comfortable lifestyle </li></ul><ul><li>High-performance flying robot </li></ul>
    26. 38. Medical and welfare robots (10 projects) <ul><li>Emergency rescue robot </li></ul><ul><li>Superdetail human body robot for medical skills training </li></ul><ul><li>Three-dimensional visual perception and display apparatus for office, home, and medical robots, and microhand for medical and surgical use </li></ul><ul><li>Remote microsurgery robot </li></ul><ul><li>Six-degrees-of-freedom robot for rehabilitation of upper limbs including wrists </li></ul><ul><li>Handicap-assistive barrier-free robot interface system with high learning ability </li></ul><ul><li>Semiautonomous robot system for self-care by disabled people </li></ul><ul><li>Wearable robot for musclular support: Muscle suit for upper limbs </li></ul><ul><li>Power augmentation robot </li></ul><ul><li>Robot suit to assist human movement </li></ul>
    27. 39. Partner robots (8 projects) <ul><li>Canine robot as a mobile platform that exhibits high physical capabilities outdoors in urgent situations </li></ul><ul><li>Android that interacts with people and nature </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative framework for heterogeneous robots </li></ul><ul><li>Physical communication robot to cheer up children </li></ul><ul><li>Robot for scenario research that is capable of authoring </li></ul><ul><li>Next-generation communication robot </li></ul><ul><li>Communicating heterogeneous robots </li></ul><ul><li>Dance partner robot </li></ul>
    28. 40. Performance robots (6 projects) <ul><li>Six-legged walking robot that uses reinforcement learning (autonomous development of motion control) </li></ul><ul><li>Self-configurable modular robot </li></ul><ul><li>Artistic robot </li></ul><ul><li>Limb mechanism robot </li></ul><ul><li>Three-leg wheeled type robot </li></ul><ul><li>Crawling and jumping soft robot </li></ul>
    29. 41. Humanoid robots (7 projects) <ul><li>Humanoid probe robot </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction middleware for humanoid robots </li></ul><ul><li>Software that generates impact motions for the HRP-2 robot </li></ul><ul><li>Animatronic humanoid robot </li></ul><ul><li>Musculoskeletal humanoid robot with a large-degree-of-freedom flexible spine </li></ul><ul><li>Humanoid robot for research on dynamic motion </li></ul><ul><li>Bipedal humanoid robot as a simulator of human motion </li></ul>
    30. 42. References: <ul><li>http://www.robotics.utexas.edu/rrg/learn_more/history/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.msnbc.com/modules/robot_history/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.thelightningguy.com/tesla.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://capek.misto.cz/obrazky/divadlo/theater.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.mlc-engineering.com/rb5x01.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.honda.co.jp/robot/movie/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.cooltoolawards.com/hardware/Humanoid.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.tomshardware.com/site/videos/index.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ed.ams.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp/development/Humanoid/ReplieeQ2/ReplieeQ2_eng.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.motionanalysis.com/applications/movement/sports/hawksystem.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.expo2005.or.jp/en/robot/robot_project_02.html </li></ul><ul><li>Paper : Generating Natural Motion in an Android by Mapping Human Motion </li></ul>

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