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Mobile computers and processors. Power management features


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Mobile computers and processors. Power management features

  1. 1. C OMPUTER ARCHITE C T U R E (for Erasmus students) Asso c. Prof. Stasys Maciulevičius C omputer Dept. [email_address] sta sys. ma ciulevicius
  2. 2. Beginning <ul><li>The first portable computer was manufactured in 1979 by GM Research, a small company in Santa Monica, California </li></ul><ul><li>The machine which was designed and patented by James Murez, was called the Micro Star and later changed the name to The Small One </li></ul>
  3. 3. Beginning <ul><li>The first mass-produced portable computer was the Osborne </li></ul><ul><li>Released in 1981, it has Zilog Z80 CPU running at 4.0 MHz </li></ul><ul><li>Osborne 1 has 5” screen, modem port, dual 5-1/4 inch floppies </li></ul><ul><li>It has weight of 24.5 pounds and cost $1795 </li></ul><ul><li>It even has an optional battery pack, so it doesn't have to plugged into the 110 V outlet for power </li></ul>
  4. 4. Osborne 1
  5. 5. Mobile processor <ul><li>A mobile processor is a CPU designed to save power </li></ul><ul><li>A CPU chip designed for portable computers, it is typically housed in a smaller chip package, but more importantly, in order to run cooler, it uses lower voltages than its desktop counterpart and has more &quot;sleep mode&quot; capability </li></ul><ul><li>The clock frequency may be stepped down under low processor loads. This stepping down conserves power and prolongs battery life </li></ul>
  6. 6. First mobile processors <ul><li>The Intel's i486SL was the power-saving variant of the i486DX microprocessor, designed for use in mobile computers </li></ul><ul><li>The i486SL contained all features of the i486DX. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, the System Management Mode (SMM) (the same mode introduced with i386SL) makes it possible to shut down the processor without losing data. To achieve this, the processor state is saved in an area of static RAM </li></ul>
  7. 7. First mobile processors <ul><li>1995 the Intel processor suitable for mobile computers had a frequency of 75 MHz (1996 increased to 150 MHz) </li></ul><ul><li>This processor had construction designed to facilitate heat dissipation </li></ul><ul><li>Processor used Voltage Reduction Technology, where his core was powered using 2.9 V voltage, while external components - 3.3 V battery, to prolong batteries life </li></ul>
  8. 8. First mobile processors <ul><li>In 1997 Intel presented the first mobile Pentium processor with MMX (150 and 160 MHz, in 1998 -266 MHz) </li></ul><ul><li>Processor used for voltage reduction technology, wich enabled to reduce energy consumption up to 17 W </li></ul><ul><li>1999 Intel presented Mobile Celeron (266 and 300 MHz, later - 466 MHz) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Pentium with MMX module
  10. 10. Ultra-mobil e devices <ul><li>Three types of devices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MID products ( hand-held ) , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>net bo o k s and nettops, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ultra-mobile computers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>According to ABI Research, from 10 million units in 2008, shipments of ultra-mobile devices are expected to exceed 200 million in 2013, with a forecast revenue of nearly US$27 billion </li></ul>
  11. 11. Ultra-mobile computers <ul><li>Fujitsu presented ultra-mobile computer LifeBook U1010 </li></ul><ul><li>It is based on Intel Ultra Mobile Platform 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Chipset Intel 945GU Express and processor Intel A110 (800 MHz) are core of LifeBook U1010 </li></ul><ul><li>Computer has 1 GB RAM, 40 GB disk (1,8”) </li></ul><ul><li>Diagonal screen size - 5.6 inch, resolution - 1024 x 600 </li></ul><ul><li>Dimensions - 171 x 133 x 27 mm, weigth – appr. 600 g </li></ul>
  12. 12. Netbooks and nettops <ul><li>In recent years a new concept, describing the lowest price of small computers - netbooks and nettops – was emerged </li></ul><ul><li>So call we easy to use, affordable in terms of price computers, especially designated for access to the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Target users - the consumers and people in education sphere, starting to use computers both at home and outside </li></ul><ul><li>Using fields - communication (e-mail, instant messaging, VOIP, social networks), Internet browsing, reviewing (photos, video), listening (MP3 audio) and learning (homework, languages) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Moblin project <ul><li>Moblin , short for Mobile Linux, is a free and open source OS from Intel designed for netbook hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Moblin project define the vision and technology of netbooks and nettops based on the Intel Atom processor </li></ul><ul><li>This is a relatively wide range of technologies and components, including the kernel and the operating system </li></ul><ul><li>A few of them: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy-saving technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimization of graphic subsystem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suitable browsers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating system adapted to the Intel Atom processor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short switching time </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. N e t books <ul><li>The concept of such a computer comes from the so-called &quot;subnotebooks“; this term Intel introduced in 1999 and again in 2008, when the firm withdrew from the OLPC (“one laptop per child“) program </li></ul><ul><li>They are smaller than laptops (notebooks) and lighter - weighing about 1 kg. Screen diameter - 7&quot;-10“. They have a wireless connection, a smaller keyboard, often SSD instead of HD, but none CD (DVD) </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Microsoft calls them ultra-low cost personal computers (ULCPC) defines such criteria : </li></ul><ul><li>RAM – up to 1 GB </li></ul><ul><li>Screen up to 14.1″ (it can be touchscreen) </li></ul><ul><li>Storage - 80 GB ( now may be 160 GB) HDD o r 16 GB SSD </li></ul><ul><li>DirectX 9 GPU </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Configuration and Power Interface S4 state can be added </li></ul>N e t books
  16. 16. Some n e t books 8,9&quot; (1024x600 ) 8,9&quot; (1024x600 ) 10,2&quot; (1024x600 ) Display Flash 12 GB Flash 8 GB 80 GB Disk 990 g 1 kg 1,2 kg Weigth WiFi G WiFi G WiFi G, Bluetooth Interfaces 1 GB 512 MB 1 GB RAM Intel Celeron M353 (900 MHz ) Intel Atom (1,6 GHz) Intel Atom (1,6 GHz) CPU Asus Eee PC 900 Acer Aspire One MSI Wind U100
  17. 17. <ul><li>A nettop is a very small form factor, inexpensive, low-wattage desktop computer designed for basic tasks such as surfing the Internet, accessing web-based applications, document processing, and audio/video playback </li></ul><ul><li>There are three platforms that are primarily intended for nettops and netbooks: </li></ul><ul><li>Intel's Centrino Atom platform, </li></ul><ul><li>Nvidia's Ion platform, </li></ul><ul><li>VIA's Trinity Platform </li></ul>N e tt o p s
  18. 18. N e tt o p s
  19. 19. <ul><li>Many net-top models are X86-processor-based and as such are capable of running standard PC OSs </li></ul><ul><li>There are also operating systems designed specifically for nettops and other machines in the same performance class: </li></ul><ul><li>Moblin </li></ul><ul><li>Ubuntu Netbook Remix </li></ul><ul><li>Google's Android </li></ul>N e tt o p s
  20. 20. Who consumes power?
  21. 21. Power saving <ul><li>There are various power saving technologies for CPUs developed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SpeedStep technolog y </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced SpeedStep technolog y </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PowerNow! T echnolog y </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LongRun t echnolog y </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LongRun2 t echnolog y </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These technologies are used in mobile processors </li></ul>
  22. 22. SpeedStep technolog y <ul><li>Speed S tep technology is a feature that reduces processor's power consumption by lowering operating frequency and core voltage when a mobile computer system is operating on battery power : </li></ul><ul><li>When the computer system is connected to AC, the CPU runs in maximum performance mode - this is a standard operating mode of the CPU that runs in high er frequency </li></ul><ul><li>When the mobile PC switches to battery power the CPU is automatically switched to battery-optimized mode ; i n this mode the CPU runs at lower frequency and lower core voltage </li></ul>
  23. 23. SpeedStep technolog y <ul><li>Switching to maximum performance mode occurs automatically when the computer is plugged into AC outlet . It takes 1/2000 s </li></ul><ul><li>It was found that at the maximum frequency (650 MHz) Pentium III mobile processor (powered by 1.6 V) consume s 14.4 watts, and by the reduction in frequency to 500 MHz and voltage to 1.35 V, - only 7.9 W </li></ul>
  24. 24. SpeedStep technolog y <ul><li>The power consumed by a CPU with a capacitance C , running at frequency f and voltage V is approximately </li></ul><ul><ul><li>P = CV 2 f </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For a given processor, C is a fixed value. However, V and f can vary considerably. For example, for a 1.6 GHz Pentium M, the clock frequency can be stepped in 200 MHz increments over the range from 0.6 to 1.6 GHz. At the same time, the voltage requirement decreases from 1.484 V to 0.956 V </li></ul>
  25. 25. SpeedStep technolog y <ul><li>To apply SpeedStep technolog y , you must have : </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile Pentium processor with Intel SpeedStep™ technology </li></ul><ul><li>Chipset, BIOS, power regulator and operat in g system , supporting SpeedStep™ technology </li></ul><ul><li>Intel SpeedStep™ technology driver </li></ul>
  26. 26. Enhanced SpeedStep technolog y <ul><li>Enhanced SpeedStep technolog y (EIST) is used with the first and second generation of Pentium M processors (Banias and Dothan cores, used in Centrino platforms) </li></ul><ul><li>With this technology, the CPU varies its frequency (and voltage) between about 40% and 100% of its base frequency in increments of 100 MHz (for Banias core) or 133 MHz (for Dothan core ) </li></ul>
  27. 27. AMD PowerNow! t echnolog y <ul><li>The technology is a concept similar to Intel's SpeedStep techn ology </li></ul><ul><li>PowerNow! technology is based on the fact that different programs require different performance from the processor. For example, word processing to be less efficient than the editing of images, or some other multimedia programs </li></ul><ul><li>The CPU's clock speed and VCore are automatically decreased when the computer is under low load or idle, to save battery power, reduce heat and noise </li></ul>
  28. 28. PowerNow!
  29. 29. LongRun t echnolog y <ul><li>LongRun is power management technologie introduced by Transmeta with the Crusoe processor </li></ul><ul><li>LongRun was based primarily on aggressively reducing the clock frequency and voltage supplied to the processor, in order to reduce active power consumption </li></ul><ul><li>LongRun2 was introduced with the Efficeon processor . It built further by incorporating process technology meant to reduce variations in the manufacturing process and thereby improve yields </li></ul>
  30. 30. LongRun t echnolog y
  31. 31. Bat t er y rundown time saving *3.703704 200 54 Max 1.802469 292 162 Min       NEC Versa Ultralite (Transmeta LongRun) 1.777778 160 90 Max 1.851852 200 108 Min       IBM T21 (Intel SpeedStep) 2.112676 150 71 Max 2.050633 162 79 Min       Compaq Presario 1215 (AMD PowerNow!) Improvement PM Enabled ( minutes) PM Disabl . (minutes)
  32. 32. Mode and performance Compaq Evo N1015v
  33. 33. Task and battery rundown time Compaq Evo N1015v
  34. 34. Intel mobil e platforms <ul><li>Intel gave resonant names (Centrino (2003), Sonoma, Napa, ...) to its mobile computing platforms, based on three coordinated components : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>processor s, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chipset , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wireless adapter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This had a significant impact on the attractiveness of Intel mobile comput ers i n market competition </li></ul>
  35. 35. Intel platform s 1066 MHz 8 0 0 M H z 533 M H z 400/533 MHz FSB D D R 2 - 8 0 0, DD R 3 - 8 00 D D R 2 - 8 0 0 DDR2-667 DDR2-533 RAM ??? (DirectX 10) GMA X3100 (DirectX 9.0) GMA 950 (DirectX 9.0) GMA 900 (DirectX 8) Graphics card P C I E x p r e s s P C I E x p r e s s P C I E x p r e s s PCI Express Video bus 8 0 2 . 1 1 a / b / g/ n 8 0 2 . 1 1 a / b / g/ n 8 0 2 . 1 1 a / b / g/n 802.11 a/b/g Wi-Fi 4 5 n m 6 5 n m 65 nm 90 nm Techn.process 8 M B 4 M B 2 MB 1 MB L2 maximum Penryn Core 2 Duo P e n t i u m M Pentium M Processors 2008 1 ke t v . 2007 2 ketv. 2006 1 ke t v . 2005.01 Presented Montevina Santa Rosa Napa Sonoma
  36. 36. Intel S a n ta Ros a <ul><li>The codename Santa Rosa refers to the fourth-generation Centrino platform, which was released i n 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>What new : </li></ul><ul><li>extended processor Intel Core 2 Duo scale - mobile 2.4 GHz Intel Core 2 Duo processors operate faster than 3.8 GHz Pentium D or equivalent AMD Athlon 64 X2 5400 + ( at 2.8 GHz) </li></ul><ul><li>the Dynamic Acceleration technology, which automatically increases the speed of one core in a single thread tasks </li></ul><ul><li>FSB frequency increased to 800 MHz ( in office programs, it is reduced to 400 MHz) </li></ul><ul><li>GMA X3100 graphics core has 8 processors </li></ul><ul><li>IEEE 802.11n-draft will provide trans fer speeds up to 270 MB/sec, the distance - up to 50 m </li></ul><ul><li>Intel Turbo Memory reduces the time it takes for a computer to power up </li></ul>
  37. 37. Intel S a n ta Ros a
  38. 38. Intel Montevino <ul><li>The codename Montevina refers to the fifth-generation Centrino platform, now formally named Centrino 2 </li></ul><ul><li>It has </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a second-generation Intel Core 2 Duo (codenamed Penryn) 45nm processor with 800-1066 MT/s FSB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intel Mobile 4 Express series chipset (codenamed Cantiga ; GL40, GS45, GM45, PM45) with Intel's GMA X4500 graphics technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intel WiMAX/WiFi Link 5350 supporting both WiMAX and up to 450Mbit/s Wi-Fi </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is branded as Centrino 2 vPro when combined with built-in security and manageability features technologies </li></ul>
  39. 39. Intel mobiles
  40. 40. AMD Kite platform <ul><li>Intel’s introduced concept of the mobile platform encouraged AMD to similar actions </li></ul><ul><li>AMD’s platform Kite was competitor for Intel Sonoma and Napa platforms </li></ul><ul><li>It was based on 90 nm Turion processor. From precursor Mobile Athlon 64 is slightly different - mainly in SSE 3 support, as well as less energy consumption (25-35 W) </li></ul>
  41. 41. AMD Kite platform
  42. 42. AMD platform s 1333 MHz 1 0 0 0 M H z 1 0 0 0 M H z 1000 MHz FSB D D R 2 - 8 0 0, DD R 3 - 8 00 D D R 2 - 8 0 0 DDR2-800 DDR-400, DDR2-667 RAM R600 (DirectX 10) R a d e o n X700 (DirectX 9.0) R a d e o n X p r e s s 2 0 0 G (DirectX 9.0) Radeon Xpress 200G (DirectX 9.0) Graphics card P C I E x p r e s s 2.0 P C I E x p r e s s x 1 6 P C I E x p r e s s x 1 6 PCI Express x16 Video bus 8 0 2 . 1 1 a / b / g/ n 8 0 2 . 1 1 a / b / g/ n 8 0 2 . 1 1 a / b / g/n 802.11 a/b/g Wi-Fi 6 5 n m 6 5 n m 65 nm 90 nm Techn.process 2 M B 2 M B 2 MB 1 MB L2 maximum Griffin T u r i o n 6 4 X 2 T u r i o n 64 X2 Turion Processors 2008 3 q. 2007 3 q. 2007 3 q. 2005.08 Presented Puma Trevally Hawk Kite
  43. 43. AMD Puma platform <ul><li>The heart of Puma is the dual-core Turion Ultra processor, codenamed Griffin </li></ul><ul><li>It's a 65nm part and includes 1MB of L2 cache per core </li></ul><ul><li>AMD claims that a freer choice of chipsets gives scope for manufacturers to offer far better wireless range </li></ul><ul><li>Puma's most innovative feature is a proprietary PCI-Express 2.0 8x connector </li></ul>
  44. 44. AMD Puma platform
  45. 45. New AMD platform s
  46. 46. AMD Congo platform <ul><li>The Congo platform consists of: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Conesus” CPU </li></ul><ul><li>2 CPU cores </li></ul><ul><li>RS780 + SB710 chipsets </li></ul><ul><li>ATI Radeon HD </li></ul><ul><li>ATI Avivo HD </li></ul><ul><li>BGA packaging for slim designs </li></ul><ul><li>802.11n and 3G support </li></ul>
  47. 47. AMD Yukon platform <ul><li>The Yukon platform consists of: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Huron” CPU </li></ul><ul><li>1 CPU core </li></ul><ul><li>RS690E + SB600 chipsets </li></ul><ul><li>ATI Radeon </li></ul><ul><li>ATI Avivo </li></ul><ul><li>BGA packaging for slim designs </li></ul><ul><li>802.11n and 3G support </li></ul>