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  1. 1. interactivity and architecture spring 2003 4.208 Special Problems in Design and Computation student lira nikolovska professor terry knight
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS A ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 History and Theory A.1. ARCHITECTURE AND DESIGN A.1.1. Interaction and User Interface Design A.1.2. Architecture A.2. TECHNOLOGY A.2.1. Ubiquitous Computing A.2.2. Technology, Culture and Society A.3. COGNITION A.3.1. Human Memory and Learning A.3.2. Sense and Perception 2 Enabling Technologies 2.1. Building Technology 2.2. Smart Materials (e-paper, fabrics) 2.3. Sensing Devices 2.4. Nano Technology 2.5. Networks, wireless 2.6. Displays, flexible displays, projection displays B APPLICATIONS, EXAMPLES FROM ARCHITECTURE, ART AND OTHER DISCIPLINES B.1. Urban Landscapes B.2. Architecture B.3. Furniture and Product Design B.4. Art Installations, Museums B.5. Theatre, Music, Concert performances B.6. Fiction: Books and Films C TERMINOLOGY 2
  3. 3. D RESEARCH QUESTIONS E OVERVIEW OF THE PAPER? (PRE_MAY) A ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 HISTORY AND THEORY A.1. ARCHITECTURE AND DESIGN A.1.1. Interaction and User Interface Design 1 Dune, Tony and Raby, Fiona. Hertzian Tales. The book explores invisible “space” produced by electromagnetic waves of various frequencies (created by computer equipment, networks, etc). The authors present range of projects that brings these spaces (and waves) to visibility. 2 Laurel, Brenda (Editor). The Art of Human-Computer Interface Design. Addison- Wesley Publishing Company, 1990. Collection of writings in HCI by Apple Computers staff. Dated. 3 Manovich, Lev. The Language of New Media. MIT Press, 2001. Discussion of new media; the exploration is placed within the histories of visual and media cultures of the last few centuries (photography, film). Manovich uses concepts form film theory, art history, literary theory and computer science and develops new theoretical concepts (cultural interface, spatial montage, etc.). Chapter 1 “What is New Media” discusses “myths”, as he puts it, of what and what is not new media. In the “The Myth of Interactivity” (page 55-61) the authors states that he finds the word “interactive” too broad to be truly useful and that in the context of computer- based media, the concept of interactivity is a tautology because modern HCI (human-computer interaction) is by definition interactive and allows the user to control and manipulate information displayed on the screen. Instead, he proposes use of other concepts such as menu-based interactivity, scalability, simulation, image-interface, as well as closed or open interactivity. I found this chapter as annoying as talking to computer scientist that claims that the word “architect” belongs to the CS community. Both examples (Manovich on interactivity and this one on architecture) point to the fact that some terms are too broad to be useful outside of a specific context. Much more interesting is Manovich’s discussion on page 57. He says: ”When we use the concept of “interactive media” exclusively in relation to computer-based media, 3
  4. 4. there is a danger that we will interpret “interaction” literally, equating it with physical interaction between a user and a media object (pressing a button, choosing a link, moving the body), at the expense of psychological interaction. The psychological processes of filling-in, hypothesis formation, recall, and identification, which are required for us to comprehend any text or image at all, are mistakenly identified with an objectively existing structure of interactive links.” I don’t see interpretation of interaction as a danger but as way to understand that the nature of interaction in computer-based media is one that encompasses both the physical and the psychological domain. A.1.2. Architecture 1 Brayer, Marie-Ange and Simonot, Beatrice (Editors). Archilab's Futurehouse: Radical Experiments in Living Space. Collection of articles and projects on the nature of living in the future. Technology-augmented space examples are presented. Majority of the projects have not been developed. 2 Couture, Lise Anne and Rashid, Hani. Asymptote: Flux. ??? 3 Diller, Elizabeth and Scofidio, Ricardo. Blur: The Making of Nothing. 2003. 4 Hahn, Roger. The Meaning of Mechanistic Age. Chapter 8 in ??? book. Autonomus technology reference. 5 Hankins, Thomas and Silverman, Robert. Instruments and The Imagination. Princeton University Press, 1995. Autonomus technology reference. Discusses the role of instruments that were used to visualize / map / reproduce various types of content (for example, temperature, sound, etc.) Great discussion on the creation of the first sound-recording devices; the investigations range from attempts to recreate the human vocal cords and speech by mimicking human’s organs, to development of entirely different (mechanical) techniques and tactics for capturing and reproducing sounds. This reference is useful because it points to different methodologies in development of new technologies – a literal one hat maps experiences from the existing world, and one that is open to finding new types of representation. 6 Jormakka, Kari. Flying Dutchman: Motion in Architecture. Birkhäuser, 2002. Even Vitruvius has described mobile war machines, clocks, 4
  5. 5. waterworks and other moving constructions. Still, architecture has been traditionally understood as an art of space, and a static one. The possibility of incorporating change and motion in architecture has fascinated architects since the beginning of Modernism. This book analyses how contemporary Dutch architects have explored the concept of movement in their buildings and projects. The book has a good overview of theories and recommendation of further readings (on Movement and Modernism, Theories of Space and Movement in Architecture, Abstract Machines, Phenomenology, as well as contemporary Dutch architecture). 7 Lefebvre, Henry. Production of Space. 1974 (republished by Blackwell, 1993). 8 Meyrowitz, Joshua. No Sense of Place: The Impact of Electronic Media on Social Behavior. Oxford University Press, 1985. 9 Mumford, Lewis. The City in History: Its Origins, Its Transformations. Harcourt Brace and World, 1961. 10 Norberg-Schulz, Christian. Genius Loci: Towards a Phenomenology in Architecture. Rizzoli, 1979. On experience of architectural spaces. This reference will be used as a basis for discussing experiences in technology-augmented architectural spaces. 11 Nouvel, Jean. Jean Nouvel 1987-1998. Madrid, Croquis Editorial, 2000. Overview of the work by Jean Nouvel. Interview with Jean Nouvel, and sections on the Lyon Opera house and Institute de Monde Arab in Paris. 12 Pevsner, Nicholaus. A History of Building Types. Princeton University Press,1976. 13 Semper, Gottfried. The Four Elements of Architecture. 1851. – LOST! 14 Semper, Gottfried. Style in the Technical and Tectonics Arts. 1860-63. 15 Sennett, Richard. The Body and the City in the Western Civilization. WW Norton and Company, 1994. 16 Treib, Mark. Space Calculated in Seconds. Princeton University Press, 1996. Complete history of the development of the Philips pavilion by Le Corbusier. The building was commissioned in 1956 and was built for the Brussels World Expo in 1958. The building was one of the first examples of hyperbolic paraboloids. Edgar Varese developed the music Poeme Electronique, 8-minutes composition. Varese’s work was predecessor of contemporary music (he was capturing and mixing ambient sound samples). The project as a whole is an interesting example because it is the first example of staged multimedia experience in a building. The visitors experienced spectacle of music, light and colors in space. Over 200 speakers were dispersed on the inner shell of the building, enabling that sounds “surround” the audience. The music score was supporting the slide projections on the walls (theme genesis). 5
  6. 6. 17 Trevi, Valerio. Advanced Technologies: Building in the Computer Age. Birkhäuser, 2001. Smart buildings are defined as buildings whose HVAC (heating, ventilation and air-conditioning) is computer-controlled. The author uses words such as “application of artificial intelligence inside buildings”, and by this he means automated, centralized building control systems for energy management, security and fire prevention. The second part of the book gives overview of smart buildings, including discussion on the façade with mechanical diaphragms of the Institute de Monde Arab in Paris. 18 Vale, Robert and Brenda. The Autonomous House: Design and Planning for Self- Sufficiency. Thames and Hudson, 1975. The authors define the autonomous house (in the first sentence of the book) as a house operating independently of any inputs except those of its immediate environment. The house is not linked to utility lines for gas, water, electricity and drainage, but instead uses the energy of the sun, wind and rain to service itself and process its own wastes. The book presents examples of solar-powered houses, from the period when the book was written. Several MIT solar houses are included (developed by Anderson in 1973). The book was seen as a reference in technology, energy and sustainability. It was interesting to read the terminology used by the authors – smart and autonomous – as it refers to this topic. 6
  7. 7. A.2. TECHNOLOGY A.2.1. Ubiquitous Computing 1 Abowd, Gregory D. and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiqutous Computing. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, Vol. 7, No. 1, March 2000, pp. 29-58. 2 Buxton, Bill. 3 House_n: Changing Places. MIT Architecture and MIT Media Lab 4 IBM's Perspective on the State of Information Technology: Autonomic Computing. 2001. 5 Lieberman, Henry and Selker, Tod. Out of Context: Computer Systems that Adapt to, and Learn from, Context. IBM Systems Journal, Vol. 39, Numbers 3&4, 2000. 6 Microsoft's Ubiqutous Computing Project: Easy Living, 2001. ? 7 Motorola’s Digital DNA. ? 8 MIT Artificial Intelligence Lab. Pervasive Human-centered Computing: Oxygen Project. 9 Philips Ambient Technology Vision. 10 Selker, Tod and Burleson, Winslow. Context-aware Design and Interaction in Computer Systems. IBM Systems Journal, Vol. 39, Numbers 3&4, 2000. 11 Ullmer, Brygg and Ishii, Hiroshi. Emerging Framework for Tangible User Interfaces. In “Human-Computer Interaction in the New Millennium”, Editor Carroll, John M. Addison-Wesley, August 2001, pp. 579-601. The authors discuss a growing space of interfaces in which physical objects play a central role as both physical representations and controls for digital information. They present an interaction model and key characteristics for “tangible user interfaces” (TUI) and explore these characteristics in a number of project examples. This discussion points toward new kinds of computationally-mediated interfaces that weave together the physical and digital worlds more seamlessly. The Introduction chapter discusses physical representations and physical controls. As the authors state: “…when viewed from the perspective of human-computer interaction (HCI), the abacus is not an input device. The abacus makes no distinction between “input” and “output.” Instead, the abacus beads, rods, and frame serve as manipulable physical representations of numerical values and operations. Simultaneously, these component artifacts also serve as physical controls for directly manipulating their underlying associations.” Tangible interfaces, in the tradition of the abacus, explore the conceptual space opened by the elimination of the distinction between representation and controls. 7
  8. 8. Chapter “Interaction Model” (page 3) In artificial intelligence and other areas of computer science, the term representation relates to the programs and data structures serving as the computer’s internal representation (or model) of information. In this chapter, Ullmer and Ishii’s meaning of “representation” focuses on external representations – the external manifestations of information in ways perceivable by the human senses. The space of external representations is divided into physical representations (information physically embodied in “tangible” form) and digital representations (computationally mediated displays that are perceptually observed in the world, but not physically embodied). The chapter “Terminology” considers terminology currently in use (object, artifact, props, containers, tangibles, etc.), by Ullmer and Ishii as well as others. This is very useful reference when reflecting on terminology associated with architecture (smart, intelligent, technology-augmented, autonomous house, etc.) The chapter “Coupling Objects with Digital Information” discusses types of bindings. The chapter “Interpreting Systems of Objects” (page 9) discusses how tangible interfaces tend to combine systems of physical objects in one (or more) of three major interpretations: spatial, relational, and constructive. The final chapter “Application Domains” presents possible application domains for tangible interfaces. 12 Weiser, Mark. The Computer for the 21st Century. In Scientific American, 265 (3), pp. 94-104. Mark Weiser of Xerox PARC is the first one to coin this term. He argued that most profound technologies are those that will disappear, weave themselves into the fabric of everyday life until they can’t be separated from it. Ultimately, the thinking is that computers will literally vanish into the background. Ubiquitous, according to Weiser, is invisible. Computers that exist in light switches, thermostats, stereos and ovens already “activate” the world. Increasingly (this was written in the early 90s) they will be interconnected into a network and aware of the context. The article goes on to talk about various sizes of displays – from small Post-it Notes displays to large, board size shared displays – and this is only the first step. The technology required for ubiquitous computing is: cheap, low power computers with convenient displays, network that ties them together, and software systems that implement ubiquitous applications. It seems that ubiquitous computing refers to: 8
  9. 9. 1) ubiquity and invisibility with which technologies penetrate our lives, 2) embedded technology into “things”, but not necessarily an integral part of the spaces we inhabit. 13 Weiser, Mark and Brown, John Seely. The Coming Age of Calm Technology. Xerox PARC, 1996. Ubiquitous computing (UC)is characterized by deeply imbedding computation in the world. Ubiquitous computing requires a new approach to fitting technology to our lives, an approach the authors call "calm technology". The authors discuss the social impact of imbedded computers and argue that it may be analogous to two other technologies that have become ubiquitous. The first is writing and the second is electricity, which surges invisibly through the walls of every home, office, and car. Writing and electricity are so commonplace and un-noticeable, that we forget their huge impact on everyday life. From the article: ”Two indications of the coming UC era are found in the imbedded microprocessor and the Internet. Pretty much every middle class home in the US today has over 40 microprocessors that can be found in alarm clocks, microwave oven, TV remote controls, the stereo and VCR, kid's toys, etc. These do not yet qualify as UC for two reasons: they are mostly used one at a time, and they are still masquerading as old-style devices like toasters and clocks. But network them together and they are an enabling technology for UC. Tie them to the Internet, and now you have connected together millions of information sources with hundreds of information delivery systems in your house.” Weiser and Seely argue that UC is a fundamental trend because it is about basic human relationships. UC builds upon previous technological developments and is re-appropriating old technology into new contexts. 14 Wisneski Creig, Ishii Hiroshi, Dahley Andrew, Gorbet Matt, Brave Scott, Ullmer Brygg and Yarin Paul. Ambient Displays: Turning Architectural Space into an Interface between People and Digital Information. In Proceedings of International Workshop on Cooperative Buildings (CoBuild ’98), Darmstadt, Germany, February 1998. Springer Press, pp. 22-32. A.2.2. Technology, Culture and Society 1 Brown, John Seely. The Social Life of Information. MIT Press 2001. 2 Bush, Vannevar. As We May Think. In Atlantic Monthly, July 1945. 3 Castells, Manuel. The Rise of the Network Society. Blackwell Publishers, 1996. -- 4 de Certeau, Michel. The Practice of Everyday Life. University of California Press, 1984. 5 Gross. D. Space, Time and Modern Culture. In Telos 50 (1981): 59-78. -- 9
  10. 10. 6 Greenberger, Martin. The Computers of Tomorrow. In Atlantic Monthly, May 1964. 7 Haraway, Donna. Simbians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinventions of Nature. Routledge, 1991. 8 Kellerman, A. The Decycling of Time and the Reorganization of Urban Space. In Cultural Dynamics 4 (1991): 38-54. -- 9 McLuhan, Marshall. Understanding Media: The Extension of Man. New York, McGraw-Hill. 1964. 10 Mumford, Lewis. The Myth of the Machine: Technics and Human Development. Harcourt Brace, 1967. 11 Mumford, Lewis. Technics and Civilization. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1934. 12 Mitchell , William. City of Bits: Space, Place and the Infobahn. MIT Press, 1995. First in the trilogy, City of Bits is discussion on the new type of city, and its increasingly important systems of virtual spaces connected through the Internet. 13 Mitchell , William. E-topia. MIT Press, 1999. Second in the trilogy, Mitchell argues that “…we must extend the definitions of architecture and urban design to encompass both virtual and physical places, software as well as hardware, and interconnections by means of telecommunications links as well as physical adjacencies and transportation systems.” (page 8) In Prologue / Doing your Bit Discussion on need for necessary digital telecommunications infrastructure, innovative smart places from electronic hardware and traditional architectural elements, and development software that activates those places and makes them useful. He also reflects that architectural, neighborhood, urban and regional spatial configurations will need to be sustainable to make cultural, social and economic sense in an electronically connected world. Chapter 4 Computers for Living In / Smart Cities for the 21st Century Brief discussion on major developments of cities (sanitation, electricity and connectivity) and consequent transformations of the way of life. Digital networks is the next step, and 21st century cities are “… systems of interlinked, interacting, silicon- and software- saturated smart, attentive, and responsive paces. [These are encountered] at the scale of clothing, rooms, buildings, campuses and neighborhoods, metropolitan regions, and global infrastructures.” (page 68) Chapter 5 Homes and Neighborhoods / sections Reconfigured Homes and The Sociology of Wired Dwellings - modern nomads, disappearance of certain building types - sense of belonging (what will be the place called “home”) - telecommuting - change in the composition of the workforce; the home will play 10
  11. 11. stronger role as will encompass work and primary social relationships (which are generally to remain face to face and domestically based) 14 Mitchell, William. ME++. MIT Press (upcoming Fall 2003) 15 Stafford and Terpak. Devices of Wonder: From the World in a Box to Images on a Screen. Getty Research Institute, 2002. 16 Winner, Langdon. Autonomous Technology: Technics-out-of-Control as a Theme in Political Thought. MIT Press, 1977. Autonomous technology reference. A.3. COGNITION A.3.1. Human Memory and Learning 1 Baddeley, Alan. Human Memory: Theory and Practice. Allyn and Bacon, 1998. 2 Fara, Patricia and Patterson, Karalyn (editors). Memory. Cambridge University Press, 1998. 3 Gabrieli, J. D. E. Cognitive Neuroscience of Human Memory. In Annual Review of Psychology,1988. Number 49, pages 87-115. 4 Martin, Alex and Chao, Linda L. Semantic Memory and the Brain: Structure and Processes. Report (date to check) 5 Metcalfe, Janet. Metacognitive Processes. In Memory, Chapter 11 by …? (editor). Academic Press, 1996. 6 Rosch, Eleanor. Classification of real-world objects: Origins and representation of cognition. Chapter 13 in (Conceptual Thinking ???) book by Johnson-Laird. 7 Yates, Frances. The Art of Memory. University of Chicago Press, 1996. A.3.2. Sense and Perception 1 Sekuler, Robert and Blake, Randolph. Perception. McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, 1990. 11
  12. 12. 2 ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES 2.1. Building Technology John Fernandez and John Oschendorf 2.2. Smart Materials (e-paper, fabrics) Post, E.R, Orth, M., Russo P. R. and Gershenfield, N. E-broidery, Design and Fabrication of Textile-based Computing. IBM Systems Journal, Vol. 39, Numbers 3&4, 2000. 2.3. Sensing Devices Wren C., Azarbayeani A., Darrell T., Pentland A., Pfinder: Real-time tracking of the human body. IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 19(7):780-785, July 1997. Paradiso, J. A, Hsiao, K., Strickon, J., Lifton, J., Adler, A. Sensor Systems or Interactive Surfaces. IBM Systems Journal, Vol. 39, Numbers 3&4, 2000. Nano Technology Joe Paradiso and Scott Manalis Networks, wireless David Reed, Media Lab (viral – wired and radio networks) Displays, flexible displays, projection displays (Doug Stenton) 12
  13. 13. B APPLICATIONS / EXAMPLES FROM ARCHITECTURE, ART AND OTHER DESIGN DISCIPLINES B.1. Urban Landscapes 1 O'Sullivan, Damian and Doufa, Tania. Thames Water Meter. 1995. 2 Eindhoven red line / Lighting Square at the Witte Dame 3 BlinkenLights, Berlin B.2. Architecture 1 Diller + Scofidio. Blur. Chapter in the upcoming Philips Design book. 2 NOX Architects: Sweetwater pavilions at Neeltje Jans, Netherlands and house project OfftheRoad_5speed 3 Jeffrey Shaw: Architext, Mixed-media installation, City Theatre Zoetermeer, Netherlands, 1992 4 Marc Goulthorpe, dECOi architects 5 ASU Herberger Center house 6 GeorgiaTech 7 Werner Sobek: Sensor House 8 Huang & Waldwogel, Convergeo Architects: Swiss House project 9 Huang & Waldvogel, Convergeo Architects: Center for Hellenic Studies B.3. Furniture / Product Design 1 Tony Dune and Fiona Raby. Design Noir 2 Andy Dahley Wobble Lamp and Ambient Fixtures (Spline project) 3 Droog Design 4 Philips Design Wearables projects 5 IDEO project examples 6 Royal College of Arts Examples B.4. Art Installations, Museums and Theatres 1 Uli Winters Collection of art projects (reference given by Simon Scheissl of the ML) 13
  14. 14. 2 Daniel Rozin Director of Research and Adjunct Professor of Interactive at ITP at NYU. 3 Stelarc An Australian-based performance artist whose work explores and extends the concept of the body and its relationship with technology through human-machine interfaces incorporating medical imaging, prosthetics, robotics, VR systems and the Internet. The interest is in alternate, intimate and involuntary experiences. 4 Tunnel Factory An electronic display in a real tunnel located in Leidschenveen (Netherlands), pulsing with words supplied by people from the Internet. 5 Sparacino, F. Davenport, G. Pentland, A. Media in performance: Interactive spaces for dance, theater, circus, and museum exhibits. IBM Systems Journal, Vol. 39, Nos. 3&4, 2000. 6 Sparacino, F., Larson, K., MacNeil, R., Davenport, G., Pentland A. Technologies and methods for interactive exhibit design: from wireless object and body tracking to wearable computers. International Conference on Hypertext and Interactive Museums, ICHIM 99, Washington, DC, Sept. 22-26, 1999. 7 F. Sparacino. The Museum Wearable: real-time sensor-driven understanding of visitors' interests for personalized visually- augmented museum experiences. Proceedings of Museums and the Web (MW2002), April 17-20, Boston, 2002 B.5. Music, Concert Performances 1 Anderson, Laurie. Hyper Instruments, Puppet Motel, Moby Dick 2 Dun, Tan. Concert for Chello, Video and Orchestra 3 Machover, Tod. Hyper Instruments, Brain Opera, Toy Symphony B.6. Fiction: Books and Movies 1 Gibson, William. Neruomancer. 1984. 2 Gibson, William. Virtual Light. 1984. 3 Clarke, Arthur. The City and the Stars. 1956. 4 Lem, Stanislaw. Solaris. 5 Stephensoon, Neil. Snow Crash. Bantam, 1992. 6 Stephensoon, Neil. Diamond Age. 7 Dick, Philip K. Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? 14
  15. 15. 8 Deckard, Rick (director). Blade Runner. 1982. 9 Gilliam, Terry (director). Brazil. 1985. 10 Besson, Luc (director). Fifth Element. 1996. 11 Frakes, Jonathan (director). Star Trek First Contact. 1996. 12 Wachowski, Andy and Larry (directors). The Matrix. 1999. 13 Anderton, John (director). Minority Report. 2002. 14 Wachowski, Andy and Larry (directors). The Matrix Reloaded. 2003. 15
  16. 16. C TERMINOLOGY UBIQUTOUS COMPUTING Mark Weiser of Xerox PARC is the first one to coin this term. He argued that most profound technologies are those that will disappear, weave themselves into the fabric of everyday life until they can’t be separated from it. Ultimately, computers will literally vanish into the background. Ubiquitous, according to Weiser, is invisible. The technology required for ubiquitous computing is: cheap, low power computers with convenient displays, network that ties them together, and software systems that implement ubiquitous applications. It seems that ubiquitous computing refers to: 1) ubiquity and invisibility with which technologies penetrate our lives, 2) embedded technology into “things”. No references are being made of and how ubiquitous computing can be an integral part of the spaces we inhabit. AMBIENT INTELLIGENCE, ABIENT CULTURE Philips’ vision of ubiquitous computing. AUTONOMOUS TECHNOLOGY IBM’s vision of ubiquitous computing. TANGIBLE USER INTERFACES, TANGIBLES Bill Buxton, Hiroshi Ishii, Brygg Ullmer Interfaces where physical objects play a central role as both physical representations and controls or digital information. Tangible interfaces eliminate the distinction between input devices (controls) and output devices (representations) as known in graphical user interfaces (GUI). The coupling between physical objects and digital information is the focus of this framework. AMBIENT DISPLAYS Craig Wisneski, Hiroshi Ishii, Andrew Dahley, etc. 16
  17. 17. Dictionary definitions: AMBIENT surrounding, encircling, encompassing DISPLAY opening or unfolding; exhibition; manifestation. The group of authors are from the Tangible Media group at the Media Lab. The vision is that architectural space will be a new form of interface with which people will interact with online digital content. Ambient displays present information within the space through subtle changes of light, sound and movement; the assumption is that these changes can be processed in the background of awareness while we are engaged in other activities. (This last sentence is connected to the idea of calm computing by Mark Weiser and John S. Brown.) SMART HOUSE Term frequently used when sensing technology or energy management system is present in a building. For example, Werner Sobek’s Sensor House is considered smart, as it has energy management system and all the functions in the house are sensor controlled (lighting, water supply, doors opening, environmental conditions). ARCHITECTURE AS INTERFACE Jeffrey Huang and Muriel Waldvogel’s see the architectural space as an interface to online digital content. The envisioned interaction in their examples (Swiss House and the Center for Hellenic Studies) involves large- scale back-lit projection displays (projection on special glass or fabric) for real-time communication among people located on remote locations. People “see” and are able to “talk” to one another simply by being “present” elsewhere via life-size projection. INTERACTIVE ARCHITECTURE Flavia Sparacino’s definition of interactive architecture consist of the following parts: - multi-modal interaction (gesture, speech and additional sensing technology) with which one can interact with digital content in a large scale, physical environment - projections onto walls and other surfaces - augmenting vision (museum wearable example) where “virtual” space is projected in front of the user’s eye and the physical space is in a way layered with additional content. 17
  18. 18. COMPUTER INTEGRATED BUILDING Valerio Travi, President of the Italian National Association in Building Construction Computer integrated building means centralized control systems in buildings -- from energy management, environmental control to security. The process of integrating these various “smart” systems doesn’t consist only of linking cables. The aim is to enable and increase interaction between various devices and apparatuses (from PC to automated heating system). Travi further continues that introduction of complex system engineering in building construction has led to appearance of new terms and abbreviations such as: - Building Automation indicates that an automated system is in charge of all technical installations. The term is further divided into building automation and home automation; the main difference is one of scale. The first one concerns large structures that accommodate big number of users and are generally for business and corporate-sector activities. The second one concerns the home, accommodating highly diverse needs of small number of people. - Home System refers to security functions; domestic appliances and other house installations are all managed by various automated systems - Shared Tennant Services is a US term indicating that a building is equipped with devices that enable the user to access various telecommunication and management services. - Domotique (French term, not explained) He makes an additional (rather generalized) remark that although in general these terms are ambiguous, they reflect the each country’s cultural and behavioral standards. For example, in the US “… where people’s behavior tends to be pragmatic, i.e. based on immediate experience and direct experiment, terms such as shared tenant services and technology enhanced real estate are used for the most part to indicate building with advanced management and control systems.” In Japan the terms in use are computer automated building and multi-tenant communication building. A building is considered as intelligent as its connection networks are extensive and enable maximum communication. In Europe, advanced building automation is interesting from the view point of user comfort. Building is smart if it is a pleasant place for living and working. (page 9) Building systems (page 13): - system management (energy, transport, security, safety) - information area (office automation, admin services, electronic data processing (networks)) - communication area (audio phonic, visual) 18
  19. 19. AUTONOMOUS To be autonomous, says Winner, “… is to be self-governing, independent, not ruled by external law or force. When talking about autonomous agents, Wooldridge says that agents can act without the interventions of the humans, and they can control their behavior and their own internal state. He stresses that we don’t consider thermostats and email daemons to be autonomous or intelligent agents. For him, “intelligent agent is one that is capable of flexible autonomous action in order to meet its design objectives”, where flexible means that they are reactive (able to perceive the environment and respond to stimuli), pro-active (able to exhibit goal-directed behavior and take initiatives) and have social ability (are capable of interacting with other agents or humans). AUTONOMOUS HOUSE Vale, Robert and Brenda, define the autonomous house as a house operating independently of any inputs except those of its immediate environment. The house is not linked to utility lines for gas, water, electricity and drainage, but instead uses the energy of the sun, wind and rain to service itself and process its own wastes. INTERACTION DESIGN Design discipline within Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). The argument is that it is not the same as user interface design (which focuses on the visual appearance), as it spotlight on the processes / activities of humans with technology enabled products and systems. The interface and interaction weave one into another, however the designers’ skills are not necessarily the same (analogy architect / engineer). Types of activity:  passive without responding or initiating action in return Buildings or environments can be passive. Concepts such as passive solar heating, cooling and day-lighting are well-known to architects. Buildings designed for passive solar and day-lighting incorporate design features such as large south-facing windows and building materials that absorb and slowly release the sun's heat. Design principles are building orientation, shading and optimal window-to-wall ratio. They are number of examples in vernacular architecture that point to passive activity of buildings (responsiveness to environmental stimuli). 19
  20. 20. Example - passive solar heating  active functioning or capable of functioning; involving or requiring physical effort and energy, producing an intended action or effect Examples - traffic light (predetermined, pre-programmed activity) - thermostat  reactive tending to be responsive or to react to stimulus Examples - Thames Water meter, Damian O'Sullivan (1995) - Sensor House, Sobek  interactive a term describing an activity where input and output are interleaved, like a conversation, allowing the user's input to depend on earlier output, acting or capable of acting on each other. Interactivity implies message. What is the nature of the message? Examples - ? 20
  21. 21. D RESEARCH QUESTIONS Background Questions 1 Define interactivity broadly. What does interactivity mean in the context of architecture? How did others define interactivity? How did they produce interactivity (list examples of other people’s work)? Give examples of interactivity in architecture (past, contemporary, science fiction) and other art and design disciplines (art, performance arts, product design, etc). How it has been manifested in their work? What are the differences and similarities in the approaches? 2 Technology and interactivity – how does technology facilitate interactivity (past and present); Do we need technology to accomplish interactivity? 3 Interactivity in architecture and its relationship to technology, culture and society. What is the relevant social context? 4 What potentials have not been realized? Why and why not? Is there technology that is not available? Is everything been done? If that’s the case, why am I doing this? Opportunities and challenges, present and future. 5 Who is the potential user? Is it a single or multiple (community) users? What is the context of use? What is the scale of the interaction? 6 My definition of interactivity in architecture. Where do we go from here? Possible contributions and new directions. 7 Analysis and concept design for given design problem Background Answers 1 interactivity: taxonomy 2 discussion: architecture as interface 3 architecture and interactivity: historical references, contemporary projects 4 reference to relevant projects and vision documents in the MIT School of Architecture department / MIT / outside world 21
  22. 22. E OVERVIEW OF THE PAPER (PRE-MAY) 1 Introduction Ambient intelligence and ubiquitous computing – in products!! Technological developments: Smart materials, Miniaturization, Wireless, Ad-hoc networks Interactivity in Architecture? 2 Background Statement of the problem Definition of Interactivity Types of interactivity (existing and my taxonomy) 3 Examples of “Smart Buildings” from the past Function Vernacular Japanese house plan South-Balkan house plan Baroque? Box-theatre by the Barbieri brothers? Modern Gerrit Rietveld’s Schröder house Walter Gropius’ Theatre for Mr. Piscator ArchiGram’s vision of NYC: Ron Herron's project on the movable city from 1964 Technology / energy / sustainability Vernacular Passive heating and cooling systems Materials Modern Passive heating and cooling systems Materials, technologies 22
  23. 23. 23
  24. 24. 4 Contemporary examples in Architecture (from independent study from last semester) Museums, Pavilions, Theatres 1 NOX Architects: Sweetwater pavilions at Neeltje Jans, Netherlands The ministry of water supply of The Netherlands commissioned building of saltwater (by Kas Oosterhuis) and freshwater pavilions on the artificial island 'Neeltje Jans' in the province of Zeeland. The freshwater pavilion was designed by Lars Spuybroek of NOX Architects. Users can interact with the lighting and some of the surfaces of the building. multiple individuals  individual manifestation in the built environment input visitors interact with building output altering floor and lighting interactive Reference 24
  25. 25. 2 Diller + Scofidio Blur Building The Blur Building was the US media pavilion for Swiss Expo 2002. It was located at the base of Lake Neuchatel in Yverdon- les-Bains, Switzerland. The pavilion consists of a 60 x 100 x 20 - meters metal construction that sprays tiny drops of lake water from 31400 jets. The building appears as a cloud hovering the lake. The visitors wear raincoats called "brain coats", with wearable, wireless components. The visitors’ brain coats react to each other, indicating either positive or negative affinity between visitors through color changes and sound. (this was designed by IDEO but was not implemented due to acquisition of the telephone provider). ? multiple individuals  collective manifestation in the built environment input visitors are present in the building output altering ?? interactive Reference: Blur: The Making of Nothing by Elizabeth Diller, Ricardo Scofidio 25
  26. 26. 3 Jean Nouvel, Lyon Opera House Nouvel’s Lyon Opera House is an interesting example of lighting programme for a building. The performances inside the building (performance, break, etc.) are tracked and the building “communicates” to the external world by various patterns of lighting of the dome. community  community manifestation in the built environment input information source = actual performance (pause vs. performance output variations of exterior lighting Reference: Jean Nouvel 1987-1998, Jean Nouvel (Madrid, Croquis Editorial, 2000) 26
  27. 27. 4 Jean Nouvel, Institute Du Monde Arabe, Paris The Arab Institute is one of the Grands Projets encouraged by Miterand during the 1980s. Its purpose is to foster learning about the Arab world culture with exchange of information on the arts, sciences and modern technologies. It incorporates exhibition spaces, a museum, library, a 300-seat hall and a restaurant, as well as offices and car parking. I included this building in this selection because of its south facade. The south wall of the building, described as a 60m 'Venetian blind', has an appearance that resembles Islamic decorative patterns. The individual elements are ocular devices made up of numerous metallic diaphragms set in metal frames. These diaphragms operate like a camera lens and control the sun's penetration into the interior of the building. The whole effect is like a giant Islamic pierced screen, present in the Islamic traditional architecture (note: women's spaces in the house). natural environment  technology  manifestation in the built environment input sunlight output façade lenses activation 27
  28. 28. Reference: Jean Nouvel 1987-1998, Jean Nouvel (Madrid, Croquis Editorial, 2000) 28
  29. 29. 5 Asymptote: Virtual Guggenheim Museum ??? The Guggenheim Museum has commissioned Asymptote Architects to design and implement a new Guggenheim Museum in cyberspace. The first phase of the Guggenheim Virtual Museum was launched in Spring 2001 as part of a three- year initiative to construct an entirely new museum facility. The project consist of navigable 3D spatial entities accessible on the Internet as well as real-time interactive components installed at the various Guggenheim locations. For Asymptote, this work highlights their ongoing interest in merging technological possibilities with spatial manufacture, experience, and event. 6 Marc Goulthorpe, dECOi architects Aegis Surface is dECOIi project commissioned in a competition by the Hippodrome Theatre in Birmingham, UK. It is a curtain of steel mesh mounted on computer-controlled pistons that slide back and forth in response to external stimuli (movement, light and sound). Talk to Goulthorpe 29
  30. 30. 7 Jeffrey Shaw: Architext, Mixed-media installation, City Theatre Zoetermeer, Netherlands, 1992 Large LED units are mounted in a grid on the stage tower of the theater, presenting words and sentences that take place inside the building. The theater users and the performers “contribute” to the text on this display, as fragments from performances presented in the theater are captured and displayed on the tower. community  community manifestation in the built environment input information source = content (text, sentences from the theatre performances) output theatre tower elevation LEDs reactive, interactive 30
  31. 31. “SMART” HOUSE PROJECTS 1 House_n 2 ASU / Herberger Center house? 3 GeorgiaTech 4 Werner Sobek: Sensor House Werner Sobeck's private residence in Stuttgart has no handles but touchless sensors for most functions like water faucets, doors and lights. The building is fully glass wrapped. Not enough material + the found reference material is in German (ask Axel for translation) individual  individual manifestation in the built environment input sensors output activating activities (open door, etc.) reactive / active Reference: ARCH+ , Number 157, September 2001 31
  32. 32. 4 NOX Architects: OfftheRoad_5speed, The Netherlands Non-standard prefab housing along highway A58, Eindhoven – for housing corporation TRUDO, 1999-2000 not enough info Talk to Jeanne and Henk to hook up with Lars Spuybroek this summer Extra references: Archilab's Futurehouse: Radical Experiments in Living Space by Marie-Ange Brayer (Editor), Beatrice Simonot (Editor) “SMART” OFFICE PROJECTS 1 Huang & Waldwogel, Convergeo Architects: Swiss House project The Swiss House for Advanced Research and Education stands for the new Boston Swiss Consulate, a building commissioned by the Swiss government. It is featuring large "wired" loft space with communication interfaces, ambient sound system, displays and sensing mechanisms embedded in the built environment. The aim is to facilitate " kind of diplomacy centered on 32
  33. 33. knowledge exchange and creation of both local and virtual communities. " 2 Huang & Waldwogel, Convergeo Architects: Center for Hellenic Studies 33
  34. 34. EXAMPLES FROM ART AND OTHER DESIGN DISCIPLINES Urban Landscapes 1 Thames Water meter, Damian O'Sullivan and Tania Doufa (1995) 18 metre high surge pipe on Holland Park roundabout was transformed to a water barometer. The level of water is activated (raised) by the tide level of the Thames river. natural environment  technology  manifestation in the built env input water level info, thames river tide output level of water in the tower active 2 Eindhoven red line / Lighting Square at the Witte Dame A red "line" of light "shoots" from the Philips Museum (the first Philips lightsbulbs factory), accros the Emmasingel street toward the Witte Dame (where the Public Library, the Design Academy and Philips Design are located). It passes through the passage / open area on the ground floor (under the library) and toward the Lighting square behind the Witte Dame. It then enters the building at the other end of the square and climbs up one of the inside walls, visible through the glass facade. The line of light is embedded into the pavement and is triggered by (reacts to) the cars that pass over Emmasingel. 34
  35. 35. The light strip, however, has some autonomous behavior and does not always react to the cars that cross over it. user activity  ambient manifestation in the built env input individual / multiple individuals (vehicles driving over the line) output turns on the light animation reactive 3 BlinkenLights , Berlin Online gallery of public interactive light installation by Chaos Computer Club turning a building at the heart of Berlin into a huge computer screen. People can play Pong using their mobile phones and create animations with downloadable tool. London version of Blinkenlights (Reference Pete Matthews: people dial-in to activate panels of elevation of an office building) multiple individuals  individual manifestation in the built environment input phone call output activating façade panels interactive Furniture / Product Design 1 Tony Dune + Fiona Raby Design Noir project, Hertzian Tales 2 Andy Dahley Wobble Lamp and Ambient Fixtures (Spline project) 35
  36. 36. Wobble Lamp are light fixtures that react to content from information source (input). Output is the motion of the base of the lamp or light intensity. Ambient Fixtures are series of ambient fixtures that react to information sources. Outputs are airflow, projection, bending of metal sculpture, etc. information source  ambient manifestation in the built env input information source (stock exchange, email, weather, personal agenda) output ambient transformation of an object reactive Interaction, User Interface Design Philips Design Wearables? IDEO Concert performances, Music 1 Tod Machover Hyper Instruments, Brain Opera, Toy Symphony 2 Tan Dun Concert for Chello, Video and Orchestra 3 Laurie Anderson Hyper Instruments, Puppet Motel, Moby Dick Art 1 Uli Winters Collection of art projects (reference given by Simon Scheissl of the ML) 36
  37. 37. 2 Daniel Rozin Director of Research and Adjunct Professor of Interactive at ITP at NYU. 3 Stelarc An Australian-based performance artist whose work explores and extends the concept of the body and its relationship with technology through human-machine interfaces incorporating medical imaging, prosthetics, robotics, VR systems and the Internet. The interest is in alternate, intimate and involuntary experiences. 4 Tunnel Factory is an electronic display in a real tunnel located in Leidschenveen (Netherlands), pulsing with words supplied by people from the Internet. 5 DISCUSSION: FIRMNESS, COMMODITY, DELIGHT Vitruvian categories - firmness and structure - commodity (functioning, utility) - delight (aesthetics, experience) 6 CONTEXT: APPLICATIONS, PROJECT EXAMPLES Home? Work? On the move? Culture? Theatre, museum Urban Landscape? PROJECT EXAMPLES MAS 966 Autonomous Art, Spring 2003, Professor Chris Csikszentmihalyi 37
  38. 38. Project 1 Glass brick wall (Screens of giant "pixels", 15 x 15 cm each) The new garage building on Landsdowne Street in Cambridge (close to the new Sidney Pacific dorm) has 3-4 floors of glass bricks that cover the staircase facing the street. The individual glass blocks are, in a way, giant pixels that create screens. The surface can be used to display (animated?) graphics and text. These individual glass bricks will be lit with bright LEDs in red, green and blue. It is possible to control the intensity of individual colors and create any RGB color. The blocks will be self-identifiable within a grid and energy self- dependent (each will have a solar cell). Project 2 Fiber-optic wall Display constructed of woven, rug-like, fiber optic wires. Each bundle of wires corresponds to a pixel of image or moving image. 38
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