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  1. 1. Vehicular Wireless Communication Technology: Who Pays? Susan Dickey, Ph. D Software Functional Manager California PATH/UC Berkeley [email_address] Panel presentation WiVec, Sept 22, 2008, Calgary
  2. 2. Presentation topics <ul><li>Describe vehicular communication research history and challenges at California PATH (Partners for Advance Transit and Highways) </li></ul><ul><li>Present current VII (Vehicle Infrastructure Integration) California testbed and GEMS (Group-enabled Mobility and Safety) activities </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss challenges for funding initial DSRC/WAVE deployment and some application ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Note: Ideas are the author’s own and not necessarily those of her funding agencies. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Safety & Mobility Challenges in California <ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 Million vehicle crashes each year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>210,000 are injury-crashes, with 4,000 Fatalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About 25% of fatalities occur at intersections, another 25% are lane/roadway departures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total Cost: more than $25 Billion per year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>560,000 hours of delay on average each day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30% of this delay is caused by incidents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total Cost: more than $21 Billion per year </li></ul></ul>Caltrans Improves Mobility Across California
  4. 4. Wireless Communications: a tool to meet these challenges <ul><li>Research at California PATH has been investigating wireless communications, vehicle to vehicle and vehicle to roadside, for some time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automated Highway Systems (1997-2003) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active Safety Systems (2002-present) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperative Intersection Collision Avoidance Systems/Smart Intersections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Situational Awareness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VII California Testbed (2004-present) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connected Traveler (2008-present) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Vehicular Networking Prototypes <ul><li>Situational awareness (WiFi, 2004), blind spot/ lane assist, intersection assistant, neighboring vehicle map real-time </li></ul>R2V, V2R communications (Denso WAVE Radio Module, 2004), broadcast freeway exit info and signage, vehicle send speed and location
  6. 6. California PATH Smart Intersection (2004-present) <ul><li>Initially WiFi was used to deliver in-vehicle warnings and enable SV/POV/RSE communication for driver behavior research. </li></ul><ul><li>Kapsch-TraffiCom IEEE 1609 capable MCNU has been installed (on pole at lower right of intersection) </li></ul>
  7. 7. VII California Test Bed (2005 to Present) <ul><li>60 miles right of way </li></ul><ul><li>Denso and Kapsch RSE </li></ul><ul><li>Test bed applications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traveler information using 511 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic payment and toll collection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ramp metering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperative Intersection Collision Avoidance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curve Over-Speed warning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HA-NDGPS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicle information and diagnostics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Public agency and auto industry partners. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The “Connected Traveler” (2008): two projects to get results now <ul><li>“ Mobile Millennium” (CCIT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Builds upon the success of the “Mobile Century” Experiment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very much a “Private Sector” business model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Sector becomes just another consumer of the traffic data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Group-Enabled Mobility and Safety” (GEMS) (PATH) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A “Gateway” connects the consumer mobile device in the vehicle to roadside infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Gateway enables new transit services too </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Several transit agencies are very interested in these services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Public Sector seeks to be the catalyst in triggering Private Sector development </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Connected Traveler: Who is paying? <ul><li>Public Partners: USDOT, Caltrans,Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC), Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA),San Mateo County Transit District (Samtrans) </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Partners: California Center for Innovative Transportation (CCIT), Partners for Advanced Transit and Highways (PATH) </li></ul><ul><li>Private Partners: Nokia, NAVTEQ, Nissan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total Project Budget: $12.4 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Share: $2.9 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caltrans Share: $4.2 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nokia Share: $2.5 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NAVTEQ Share: $2.0 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UC Berkeley Share: $700 thousand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nissan Share: $30 thousand </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. GEMS: Multi-Network Wi-Fi RSE Internet Server Gateway GPS Handset Gateway in other car Ad-hoc Ad-hoc DSRC RSE Bluetooth Wi-Fi DSRC Backhaul
  11. 11. GEMS:Multi-Device Browser based <ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. GEMS Plans for the Next Year <ul><li>GEMS Services will be demonstrated at ITSA World Congress, November 16-20, 2008, New York City </li></ul><ul><li>Field Evaluation Plans Underway </li></ul><ul><li>Safety: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety Advisories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pedestrian Watch Out for Me </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobility and ePayment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bridge Tolling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated Plan: Transit Diversion  Smart Parking  BART NFC Payment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South Bay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Valley Transportation Authority (CMA with HOT Lane Plans) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stanford Area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stanford Margeurite Shuttle </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Surrounding Trip Generation Points </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Who is going to buy DSRC/WAVE? <ul><li>Many soft safety/mobility applications can be done w/o high availability/low latency (DSRC/WAVE) communication . </li></ul><ul><li>Hard safety applications cannot be done until most vehicles have it. </li></ul><ul><li>No “rational consumer” will be an early adopter, (unless it is “trendy”?) </li></ul><ul><li>Will government pay? </li></ul>U.S. consumer spending on transportation is estimated at over 860 billion annually . ($7825 per household in 2002)
  14. 14. The Trend to Ubiquitous Information <ul><li>Geo-enabled award recipients: Android Handset Developer Challenge </li></ul><ul><li>cab4me enables you to easily order a cab to your current location with a single click, worldwide. </li></ul><ul><li>BreadCrumbz shows you real pictures of your route as you navigate </li></ul><ul><li>Pocket Journey is the mobile application for delivery of, and the marketplace for, high quality, location-specific multimedia . </li></ul><ul><li>Pebblebox allows the user to publish and discover local events, theater schedules, housing, restaurants </li></ul><ul><li>Ecorio automatically tracks your mobile carbon footprint, suggests transit and carpooling alternatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Piggyback is a real-time carpooling application for mobile phones. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Using the 5.9 Ghz ITS DSRC band for transportation infrastructure applications <ul><li>A variety of special uses to bootstrap use of DSRC until there is a critical mass of equipped vehicles and RSE services. </li></ul><ul><li>DSRC for late-night traffic signal actuation (cheaper than loop detectors, a “carrot” for drivers to buy it) </li></ul><ul><li>Curve overspeed warnings and other special alerts for heavy vehicle fleets </li></ul><ul><li>Transit applications (no need for kiosks or central servers for arrival time or connection info) </li></ul><ul><li>Signal Phase and Timing broadcasts, as well as alerts and V2V communication, for public safety and emergency vehicle fleets. </li></ul><ul><li>What else? </li></ul>
  16. 16. For more information, please refer to: This slide presentation is at: Let’s talk about it! Thank you!