+234-703-430-2486 The Limits of Reality By Peter Anyebe Viewmy profile Philosophy addresses two different aspects of the topic of reality as follows: The nature of reality itself, and The relationship between the mind, as well as language and culture; and reality. On the one hand, ontology is the study of being, and the central topic of the field is couched, variously, in terms of being, existence, "what is", and reality. The task in ontology is to describe the most general categories of reality and how they are interrelated.WordPress On the other hand, particularly in discussions of objectivity that have feet in both metaphysics and epistemology, philosophical discussions of reality often concern the ways in which reality is, or is not, in some way dependent upon; or, to useGoogle Me fashionable jargon, constructed out of, mental and cultural factors such as perceptions, beliefs, and other mental states, as well as cultural artefacts, such as religions and political movements; on up to the vague notion of a common cultural world view, or Weltanschauung. The view that there is a reality independent of any beliefs, perceptions, etc., is called realism. A correspondence theory of knowledge about what exists claims that a true knowledge of reality represents accurate correspondence of statements about and images of reality with the actual reality that the statements or images are attempting to represent. For example, the scientific method can verify that a statement is true based on the observable evidence that a thing exists. Many humans can point to the Rocky Mountains and say that this mountain range exists, and continues to exist even if no one is observing it or making statements about it.
+234-703-430-2486View my profile WordPress Google MeThe nature of being is a perennial topic in metaphysics. For, instance Parmenidestaught that reality was a single unchanging Being, whereas Heraclitus wrote that allthings flow. Existence, that something is, has been contrasted with essence, thequestion of what something is. Since existence without essence seems blank, it isassociated with nothingness by philosophers such as Hegel.The question of direct or naïve realism, as opposed to indirect or representationalrealism, arises in the philosophy of perception and of mind out of the debate overthe nature of conscious experience; the epistemological question of whether theworld we see around us is the real world itself or merely an internal perceptual copyof that world generated by neural processes in our brain. Naïve realism is known asdirect realism when developed to counter indirect or representative realism, alsoknown as epistemological dualism, the philosophical position that our consciousexperience is not of the real world itself but of an internal representation, a miniaturevirtual-reality replica of the world.In philosophy, reality is the state of things as they actually exist, rather than as theymay appear or might be imagined. In a wider definition, reality includes everythingthat is and has been, whether or not it is observable or comprehensible. A still morebroad definition includes everything that has existed, exists, or will exist. By contrastexistence is often restricted solely to that which has physical existence or has a directbasis in it, in the way that thoughts do in the brain. Reality is also contrasted withwhat is imaginary, delusional, only in the mind, dreams, what is abstract, what isfalse, or what is fictional. The truth refers to what is real, while falsity refers to whatis not. Fictions are not considered real.The term truth has no single definition about which a majority of professionalphilosophers and scholars agree, and various theories of truth continue to be debated.Metaphysical objectivism holds that truths are independent of our beliefs; except forpropositions that are actually about our beliefs or sensations, what is true or false isindependent of what we think is true or false. According to some trends in
philosophy, such as postmodernism/post-structuralism however, truth is subjective.When two or more individuals agree upon the interpretation and experience of aparticular event, a consensus about an event and its experience begins to be formed.This being common to a few individuals or a larger group then becomes the truth asseen and agreed upon by a certain set of people – the consensus reality. Thus oneparticular group may have a certain set of agreed-upon truths, while another groupmight have a different set. This allows different communities and societies to havevery different notions of reality and truth about the external world. The religionand beliefs of people or communities are one example of this level of sociallyconstructed reality. Truth cannot simply be considered truth if one speaks andanother hears because individual bias and fallibility challenge the idea that certaintyor objectivity are easily grasped. For anti-realists, the inaccessibility of any final,objective truth means that there is no truth beyond the socially accepted consensus.Although this means there are many truths, and not a single truth.For realists, the world is a set of definite facts, which exist independently of humanperceptions "The world is all that is the case": Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus,and these facts are the final arbiter of truth. Michael Dummett expresses this interms of the principle of bivalence: Lady Macbeth had three children or she did not;a tree falls or it does not. A statement will be true if it corresponds to these facts –even if the correspondence cannot be established. Thus the dispute between therealist and anti-realist conception of truth hinges on reactions to the epistemicaccessibility, knowability, or graspability of facts.A fact or factual entity is a phenomenon that is perceived as an elemental principle.It is rarely one that could be subject to personal interpretation. Instead, it is mostoften an observed phenomenon of the natural world. The proposition that "viewedfrom most places on Earth, the Sun rises in the east" is a fact. It is a fact for peoplebelonging to any group or nationality, regardless of which language they speak orwhich part of the hemisphere they come from. The Galilean proposition in supportof the Copernican theory, that the sun is the centre of the solar system, is one that
states the fact of the natural world. However, during his lifetime Galileo wasridiculed for that factual proposition, because far too few people had a consensusabout it in order to accept it as a truth, moreover the Ptolemaic model was just asaccurate a predictor. Fewer propositions are factual in content in the world, ascompared to the many truths shared by various communities, which are also fewerthan the innumerable individual world views. Much of scientific exploration,experimentation, interpretation and analysis are done on this level.This view of reality is expressed in Philip K. Dicks statement that Reality is thatwhich, when you stop believing in it, doesnt go away. The early 19th centuryGerman philosopher, Georg W.F. Hegel is best known for his system of inquiry intothe nature of reality. This system is called the dialectic. Hegels philosophy ofhistory embraces the concept that a conflict of opposites is a struggle between actualand potential worlds. A thesis can be seen as a single idea. The idea contains a formof incompleteness that gives rise to the antithesis, a conflicting idea. A third point ofview, a synthesis, arises from this conflict. It overcomes the conflict by reconcilingthe truths contained in the thesis and antithesis at a higher level. The synthesis is anew thesis. It generates a new antithesis, and the process continues until truth isarrived at. The triad is usually described in the following way: The thesis is an intellectual proposition. The antithesis is simply the negation of the thesis, a reaction to the proposition. The synthesis solves the conflict between the thesis and antithesis by reconciling their common truths, and forming a new proposition.This is how Hegel has addressed the seeming paradox that we cannot evaluate ourfaculty of knowledge in terms of its ability to know the Absolute without first havinga criterion for what the Absolute is, one that is superior to our knowledge of theAbsolute. Yet, we could only have such a criterion if we already had the improvedknowledge that we seek.
It is to resolve this paradox that Hegel adopts a method whereby the knowing that ischaracteristic of a particular stage of consciousness is evaluated using the criterionpresupposed by consciousness itself. At each stage, consciousness knows something,and at the same time distinguishes the object of that knowledge as different fromwhat it knows. Hegel and his readers will simply "look on" while consciousnesscompares its actual knowledge of the object—what the object is "for consciousness"-- with its criterion for what the object must be "in itself". One would expect that,when consciousness finds that its knowledge does not agree with its object,consciousness would adjust its knowledge to conform to its object. However, in acharacteristic reversal, Hegel explains that under his method, the opposite occurs.As just noted, consciousness criterion for what the object should be is not suppliedexternally, rather it is supplied by consciousness itself. Therefore, like itsknowledge, the "object" that consciousness distinguishes from its knowledge isreally just the object "for consciousness", it is the object as envisioned by that stageof consciousness. Thus, in attempting to resolve the discord between knowledge andobject, consciousness inevitably alters the object as well. In fact, the new "object"for consciousness is developed from consciousness inadequate knowledge of theprevious "object." In this case, what consciousness really does is to modify its"object" to conform to its knowledge. Then the cycle begins anew as consciousnessattempts to examine what it knows about this new "object".The reason for this reversal is that, for Hegel, the separation between consciousnessand its object is no more real than consciousness inadequate knowledge of thatobject. The knowledge is inadequate only because of that separation. At the end ofthe process, when the object has been fully "spiritualized" by successive cycles ofconsciousness experience, consciousness will fully know the object and at the sametime fully recognize that the object is none other than itself.
At each stage of development, Hegel adds; we, which is a reference to Hegel and hisreaders, see this development of the new object out of the knowledge of the previousone, but the consciousness that we are observing does not. As far as it is concerned,it experiences the dissolution of its knowledge in a mass of contradictions, and theemergence of a new object for knowledge, without understanding how that newobject has been born.A criterion for the Absolute has been presented as the natural order, N-O. Then itwould be possible to evaluate the human faculty of knowledge, or the personalorder, P-O in terms of its ability to know the Absolute, as the approximation of theN-O by the P-O. The N-O is derived as a function of the following principles: Relativity, Normality. and DualityThus, Relativity defines the problem by presenting knowledge as the identification,definition, and resolution of the contradictions that characterise nature. Normalitysuggests the appropriate approach to the resolution. And Duality provides the outlinefor it. In this case, nature is identified as a reduction agent, much like the aperture ofa camera. Then the contradictions are defined by the extreme points of phenomena,such as the positive infinity, +∞ and negative infinity, -∞ on the number line. Everyother point that lies between these extremes would be automatically less than thebest point, defined by the +∞; but greater than the least point, or -∞. Moreover, itwould be impossible for the phenomenon to exist outside this limit.This introduces the concept of optimisation, which involves the improvement on aphenomenon, to upgrade it from the minimum to the maximum possible state ofbeing. Then the optimum state is defined by the minimax, which in principle wouldbe equal to the maximin or factor that must be nurtured to effect the improvement.Recall the duality series in operations research as follows:
Fact Maxima Optimisation Minimax Saddle Point, Col Maximin MinimaBetween the minimax and the maximin is the col, or saddle point. This pointspecifies the principle for effecting the optimisation. Notice that this series traces thenormal curve. Recall also that by the perception model of mind, PMM a mind thatis performing optimally would reduce phenomena into the five, 5 essentialcomponents. And the typical standard procedure series, SPS comprises six, 6 items.These are the five, 5 essentials that cumulate into the item that is described, which isthen the sixth, 6th. These items, selected correctly, would be inclusive of every thingthat can be known about the phenomenon. No phenomenon can exist outside itsminimum permissible limit, or beyond its best possible form or perfection.Goodness or the optimum nature may however shift, according to the quality of theoptimisation procedure. This too maximises when the procedure matures.By this concept, the typical standard procedure comprises six, 6 items. Theseinclude the object or purpose that is to be achieved, which is the sixth, 6th item; andthe five, 5 items that describe it. The fifth, 5th item identifies the principle thatdetermines the process by which the purpose is to be achieved. The forth, 4th itemoperationalises the principle to indicate the level of process maturation. Then thefirst three, 3 items define the tripod on which the operation rests. They define thelimits of the operation. Serially: 1. Perfection Standard Procedure 2. Goodness 6. Purpose 3. Permissivity 5. Process 4. Maturation The Reality Series