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Introduction to
Blockchain and
Recordkeeping
Peter Van Garderen
March 9, 2016
Recordkeeping Roundtable
Sydney, Australia
http://www.slideshare.net/peterVG999/i
ntroduction-to-blockchain-and-
recordkeeping
InterPARES project
“the authenticity of a record over time rests on the assumption that the
physical object that embodies the record has not changed in any way that
would affect the message it was intended to communicate.”
“The principle of the unbroken chain of custody stipulates that, throughout
their life cycles, records should be in the custody of known parties who can be
trusted to preserve them intact.”
“the chain of preservation will include information about the records
creator’s practices to support a presumption of authenticity, in accordance
with the benchmark requirements for authenticity, information about the
processes of bringing the records into the archives and maintaining them over
time, and information about the reproduction of records.”
The Long-term Preservation of Authentic Electronic Records: Findings of the
InterPARES Project (2001) http://interpares.org/book/
Certificate of Authenticity
Attestation by the person responsible
for preservation that one or more
records are authentic
blockchain
record authenticity
• low cost
• quick turnaround
• permissionless
• trustless
traditional
record authenticity
• high cost
• long delays
• permission granted
• trusted third-party
What is a blockchain?
a distributed public database that leverages
cryptography and peer-to-peer technology to
group data into blocks and store them in an
immutable chain of transactions
source: Goldman Sachs Investment Research
source: https://www.techinasia.com/southeast-asia-blockchain-technology-bitcoin-insights
source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public-key_cryptography
• Excellent protocol for storing
and transmitting value
• Not a generic protocol on
which other platforms and
functionality are easily built
– Light clients for Bitcoin but not
feasible for other apps on its
blockchain
– more like SMTP than TCP
• SHA-256 proof-of-work mining
algorithm
– costly electricity use and e-
waste
– ASICs and mining farms
• Scalability?
• Blockchain protocol for
building decentralized,
trustless applications (DAPPs)
• Goal: commodity hardware
friendly (proof-of-stake)
– Dagger Hashimoto mining
algorithm
– ASIC-resistant (IO bound)
– light-client verifiable
• “Turing-complete” smart
contracts
– Ethereum virtual machine:
internal state & computation
– transactions costs: “gas” paid in
Ether cryptocurrency token
“A smart-contract is an event-driven program, with state, which runs on a
replicated, shared ledger and which can take custody over assets on that ledger.”
Smart Contract
source: Richard Gendal Brown
blockchain
record authenticity
• low cost
• quick turnaround
• permissionless
• trustless
traditional
record authenticity
• high cost
• long delays
• permission granted
• trusted third-party
• Proof of existence
• Proof of presence
• Proof of process
• Proof of audit
Permissionless, trustless
certification of authenticity
blocknotary.com
blockchain world real world
time
blockchain
events
real-world
events
geo-space
cyberspace
?
?
“oracle”
data feeds
authorized
parties
including:
• chained blocks of data
• executable smart contracts
• mining and wallet clients
• blockchain explorers
• internet backbone
• off-blockchain data storage
including:
• 3D locations and objects
• people
source: Peter Van Garderen (2016) CC-BY

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Introduction to Blockchain and Recordkeeping

  • 1. Introduction to Blockchain and Recordkeeping Peter Van Garderen March 9, 2016 Recordkeeping Roundtable Sydney, Australia http://www.slideshare.net/peterVG999/i ntroduction-to-blockchain-and- recordkeeping
  • 2. InterPARES project “the authenticity of a record over time rests on the assumption that the physical object that embodies the record has not changed in any way that would affect the message it was intended to communicate.” “The principle of the unbroken chain of custody stipulates that, throughout their life cycles, records should be in the custody of known parties who can be trusted to preserve them intact.” “the chain of preservation will include information about the records creator’s practices to support a presumption of authenticity, in accordance with the benchmark requirements for authenticity, information about the processes of bringing the records into the archives and maintaining them over time, and information about the reproduction of records.” The Long-term Preservation of Authentic Electronic Records: Findings of the InterPARES Project (2001) http://interpares.org/book/
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5. Certificate of Authenticity Attestation by the person responsible for preservation that one or more records are authentic
  • 6.
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  • 10. blockchain record authenticity • low cost • quick turnaround • permissionless • trustless traditional record authenticity • high cost • long delays • permission granted • trusted third-party
  • 11. What is a blockchain? a distributed public database that leverages cryptography and peer-to-peer technology to group data into blocks and store them in an immutable chain of transactions
  • 12. source: Goldman Sachs Investment Research
  • 15.
  • 16.
  • 17. • Excellent protocol for storing and transmitting value • Not a generic protocol on which other platforms and functionality are easily built – Light clients for Bitcoin but not feasible for other apps on its blockchain – more like SMTP than TCP • SHA-256 proof-of-work mining algorithm – costly electricity use and e- waste – ASICs and mining farms • Scalability? • Blockchain protocol for building decentralized, trustless applications (DAPPs) • Goal: commodity hardware friendly (proof-of-stake) – Dagger Hashimoto mining algorithm – ASIC-resistant (IO bound) – light-client verifiable • “Turing-complete” smart contracts – Ethereum virtual machine: internal state & computation – transactions costs: “gas” paid in Ether cryptocurrency token
  • 18. “A smart-contract is an event-driven program, with state, which runs on a replicated, shared ledger and which can take custody over assets on that ledger.” Smart Contract source: Richard Gendal Brown
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 21.
  • 22.
  • 23.
  • 24.
  • 25. blockchain record authenticity • low cost • quick turnaround • permissionless • trustless traditional record authenticity • high cost • long delays • permission granted • trusted third-party
  • 26. • Proof of existence • Proof of presence • Proof of process • Proof of audit Permissionless, trustless certification of authenticity
  • 27.
  • 29.
  • 30.
  • 31. blockchain world real world time blockchain events real-world events geo-space cyberspace ? ? “oracle” data feeds authorized parties including: • chained blocks of data • executable smart contracts • mining and wallet clients • blockchain explorers • internet backbone • off-blockchain data storage including: • 3D locations and objects • people source: Peter Van Garderen (2016) CC-BY

Editor's Notes

  1. An unpredictable (typically large and random) number is used to begin generation of an acceptable pair of keys suitable for use by an asymmetric key algorithm. In an asymmetric key encryption scheme, anyone can encrypt messages using the public key, but only the holder of the paired private key can decrypt. Security depends on the secrecy of the private key.
  2. http://www.economist.com/news/briefing/21677228-technology-behind-bitcoin-lets-people-who-do-not-know-or-trust-each-other-build-dependable
  3. On traditional server architectures, every application has to set up its own servers that run their own code in isolated silos, making sharing of data hard. If a single app is compromised or goes offline, many users and other apps are affected. On a Blockchain, anyone can set up a node that replicates the necessary data for all nodes to reach an agreement, and be compensated by users and app developers. This allows user data to be remain private and apps distributed, like the Internet was supposed to work.
  4. Source: Richard Gendal Brown. http://gendal.me/2015/02/10/a-simple-model-for-smart-contracts/