KMD Class, Oct 29, 2012

434 views

Published on

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
434
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • IntroductionBackground and problemMy main conjecture (“hunch”)Gloss of my researchInclusive design methodsRelationship between design and science,Inclusive design and science, andArtOur ecosystem on Richmond St. and at OCADU
  • IAMD: A combined art and design program[Note the history of art-design education and singularities of the digital age]Both art and design are in a state of transitionIncreased academization[Parallel to the transformation in engineering in years past]How do art and design research methods relate to research methods from science, engineering, and the social sciences?Questions of craft vs. science
  • Art and design remain in a tense relationship with academia[Note the history of the MFA]Art and design have long used the tools, products, and processes of science and engineering as a material and process for art making (e.g., see Subtle Technologies, ISEA, or ArsElectronica)An emerging area of interest is using science to understand art and design (this is my research)[Note how this will be useful for the academization of art-design]
  • In art and designmost of the training, theory, and research focuses on the techniquesLess focus on understanding how and why graphic representations cause effective reactions It is within this gap that my project resides, and I’ll describe how I narrow the project in a moment.
  • For now, think of it as the bottom up sensation from an environment. This is EMULATIONI conceive of pictorial information as visual information, that makes use of less-learned perceptual capabilities to mentally emulate a current change in order to react to a current change.---What we refer to as emulation can loosely be described as the aspect of perception-recognition that is most closely coupled with the proximal stimuli and sensations that impinge upon an organism. With respect to vision, emu- lation would include the near isomorphic response of retinal receptors to the aspects of the optic array [9]
  • For now, think of it as the bottom up sensation from an environment. This is EMULATIONI conceive of pictorial information as visual information, that makes use of less-learned perceptual capabilities to mentally emulate a current change in order to react to a current change.---What we refer to as emulation can loosely be described as the aspect of perception-recognition that is most closely coupled with the proximal stimuli and sensations that impinge upon an organism. With respect to vision, emu- lation would include the near isomorphic response of retinal receptors to the aspects of the optic array [9]
  • I conceive of symbolized information as visual information, that makes use of more-learned recognition capabilities, to mentally simulate (“predict”) a possible change.---What we refer to as simulation is alluded to by various terms in the cognitive science literature, such as“filling in” [18] and “prediction” [3]. This is the aspect of perception that allows us to see distal things as three-dimensional objects, even when only some subset of two-dimensional surfaces are reflecting light to our eyes. In order to achieve this, our visual systems must be able to simulate things and events in the world, in some spatio-temporal sense. This has been shown to rely on experience/memory and learning [12]. Because of this, the range of possibilities for a simulation that is a response or reaction to an external change or variation is greater than for the emulated aspects. Unlike emulation, because structural correspondence (between the proximal stimuli/change and the reaction) is not a defining characteristic of simulation, it is not easy or even possible to directly map back from the reaction to the structure of the stimuli. Emerging from all of this, the key characteristic of simulation is (subjective) extrapolation from the proximal structure of stimuli to the recognition of the distal structure of the world.
  • To foreshadow the sort of approach I am going to take, I am going to tell you a quick little story about a really successful type of graphic representation. This is the bar and pie chart, invented by William Playfair in the late 1700s or early 1800s.Dr. Ian Spence over in the psychology department has studied this kind of representation from a perceptual cognitive perspective, and found it to be extremely effective because it conveyed the authors intent and did not introduce distractions from that intent.
  • How did Playfair do this? Well, according to Spence, who looked at the history of the bar and pie chart invention, Playfair copied successful techniques from the field of cartography and map making. Cartography and map making:Techniques evolved for a long period of time and had undergone a lot of (economic-like) natural selection.because these are representations that people literally needed to survive. If you did not have a good map, and you were going out to sea during that time period, the effectiveness of the map would really impact your ability to survive and come home. So this is the sort of situation where there is a tremendous amount of selection pressure toward an optimized or effective representation type.
  • Now other people have looked at this “artifact evolution,” where artifacts undergo forces of natural selection, and have demonstrated that these environments lead to “optimized” or “effective” artifacts relative to a purpose, and within a particular context. I won’t go into this right now, but you can intuitively understand this idea by considering the way that a biologist approaches the study of organisms in an environment.  
  •  If the organism is surviving, the biologist typically assumes that the structure of that organism is “effective” relative to that environment, and the biologist can then focusing on trying to understand why and how those biological structures enable the organism to survive in that environment.
  • What this does for uschoose an environment that seems to have these selection pressures and that would cause this kind of evolution towards effectiveness or optimization, we can then look at the properties of the representation relative to the functional purposes that seem to be served by that representation, and also, the characteristics of the people using those representations. By looking at how the properties of those representations correspond to actions, we can gain an idea regarding their affordances.
  • So for example, I’ve done several pilot studies, and I am going to talk about one pilot study that I did that is a close approximation of what I would like to do for my fieldwork next, which is focused on the representations used in software design. This would involve looking at the representations used when designing interactive software, because, as I will show later, I have come up with a framework of representation types, and it seems that almost all of the representations that I am interested in looking at are within this environment, and the perceptual-cognitive properties of these representations seem to correspond to different phases of design.
  • Beetle metaphore
  • In the following, I will assume a roughly homeostatic conception of organism: i.e., I will view organisms as living (“surviving”) in an (external) environment, and maintaining the conditions of their own viability in the face of changes in that environment. In particular, I will talk of organisms responding to changes in their environment by taking actions that, on the one hand, change them (and possibly change the surrounding environment as well), but do so in ways that maintain their viability and their survival.—Note: by “environment” I mean, not everything else in the world, but that part of the world that is in the neighbourhood of the organism, and that causally impinges on the organism in ways that effect it (Figure 1).
  • Building on the homeostatic conception outlined above, here, I discuss a perception- for-action oriented conception of perception as a capability that evolved in order to maintain homeostasis for organisms and their ancestors: i.e., I will view per- ception as a step in a process that evolved such that an organism reacts to changes in order maintain its viability in a changing environment (Figure 2).
  • Building on the homeostatic conception outlined above, here, I discuss a perception- for-action oriented conception of perception as a capability that evolved in order to maintain homeostasis for organisms and their ancestors: i.e., I will view per- ception as a step in a process that evolved such that an organism reacts to changes in order maintain its viability in a changing environment (Figure 2).
  • Building on the homeostatic conception outlined above, here, I discuss a perception- for-action oriented conception of perception as a capability that evolved in order to maintain homeostasis for organisms and their ancestors: i.e., I will view per- ception as a step in a process that evolved such that an organism reacts to changes in order maintain its viability in a changing environment (Figure 2).
  • …I used the term "pre-science" to indicate an aspect [of design] that I thought would some day be amenable to the scientific method but where today's scientific understanding was not sufficient to make that possible (Norman, 2012).Relate to phases of theory developmentDescribe the relation between quantitative and qualitative inquiry
  • Dyslexia in education exampleStudio modelEthnographic approachesInsert the study of james
  • KMD Class, Oct 29, 2012

    1. 1. Research methods, inclusive design,Introduction Background design, science, engineering, and fine art Problem “Hunch” MyPeter Coppin Research Methods Assistant Prof., Fac. of Design, OCAD University Design Science PhD Candidate, Faculty of Information, University Inclusion of Toronto Art Discussion (Inclusive) The Fine Arts Design Qualitative Research Quantitative Research
    2. 2. Today’s discussion:Introduction Background Problem “Hunch” How does art, design, and inclusive design operate My Research in an ecosystem with science, engineering, Methods Design humanities and the social sciences? Science Inclusion Art Discussion (Inclusive) The Fine Arts Design Qualitative Research Quantitative Research
    3. 3. Introduction Background Outline Problem “Hunch” My Research Methods Design Science Inclusion Art Discussion
    4. 4. Introduction Background Background: KMD Problem “Hunch” My Research Methods Design • A design program in a university Science context. Intersecting traditions from : Inclusion Art • The fine arts, Discussion • the applied arts and design, • computer science • ergonomics, • Education, and • information studies.
    5. 5. Introduction Background Background: Design in the Problem “Hunch” applied arts tradition My Research Methods Design (e.g., OCADU) Science Inclusion Art • OCADU: An old art and design Discussion institution but a new university – Studio style learning vs. lecture style learning – E.g., Cost, relevance, practice vs. theory,
    6. 6. Proto-writingIntroduction The alphabet BackgroundLiteracy 700 BCE–400 CE Classical Medieval Letterforms and Book Formats 400–1450. Problem Renaissance Design: Standardization and Modularization in Print “Hunch” My Research 1450–1660. MethodsTypography Modern The Graphic Effects of Industrial Production 1800–1850 Design Mass Mediation 1850–1900s Science Inclusion Digital Interfaces: technology perspective 1970s-2000s Art Discussion Basic interactions -Direct manipulation of graphical objects -The mouse -Windows -Herb Simon: social sciences meetings applied math ----the rise of cognitive science ----critiques of cognitive science ----the field of ergonomics and cognitive ergonomics, cognitive task analysis -educational psychology, infovis, visual programming languages, visual modeling langauges
    7. 7. Introduction Gregor (2006): The Nature of Background Problem “Hunch” Theory in IS Research My Research Methods Design Science Inclusion Art Discussion
    8. 8. Introduction Background Design’s tense relationship Problem “Hunch” with academia My Research Methods Design • Art and design remain in a tense Science relationship with academia Inclusion Art • Art and design have used the tools, Discussion products, and processes of science and engineering as a material and process for art making (e.g., see Subtle Technologies, ISEA, or ArsElectronica) • An emerging area of interest is using science to understand art and design (this is my research)
    9. 9. Introduction A preliminary account (the “hunch”) Background Problem “Hunch” My Research Methods Design Science Inclusion Art (Inclusive) Can proceed Discussion The Fine Arts without a question Design Responds to a or problem problem More effective for More effective for developing an testing an explanation (that Qualitative Quantitative explanation (that responds to a Research Research responds to a question) question)
    10. 10. Introduction Background Problem Why figure this out? “Hunch” My Research Methods Design • Helps us redefine what research is Science within the university ecosystem Inclusion Art Discussion • Discussion is very preliminary. This is more of a conversation than a lecture
    11. 11. Introduction Background Problem My research: a Preface “Hunch” My Research Methods Design Science Inclusion Art Discussion
    12. 12. Introduction My research: a preface Background Problem “Hunch” My Research Methods Design Science Inclusion Art Discussion
    13. 13. Introduction My research: a preface Background Problem “Hunch” My Research Methods Design Science Inclusion Art Discussion
    14. 14. Introduction Background Applied Art-Design Problem “Hunch” My Research Methods Typically: Design Science •focused on techniques. Inclusion Art •Less focus on understanding how and Discussion why graphic representations cause effective reactions (Jenkenson, 2007; Ramadas, 2009; Gibson, 1960). Rules of thumb: Expressed need for a Some progress •Information design: Tufte, Bertin scientific approach: toward a scientific •Illustration: McCloud (1993) •Carpendale (2006) approach •Fine arts: Gombrich •Ramadas (2009) •Ware •Visual languages: Green and •Moody (2007, 2008, •Cohn Blackwell 2009) •Kennedy •Gibson •B. Tversky
    15. 15. Introduction Background Framework Problem “Hunch” My Research Methods Design Science Inclusion Art Discussion
    16. 16. Introduction Background Problem “Hunch” My Research Methods Design Science Inclusion Art Discussion
    17. 17. Introduction Background Problem Emulation vs. Simulation “Hunch” My Research Methods Design Science Simulation Inclusion Art Discussion Individual Emulation • “Bottom up” sensations: I refer to this as emulation. • “Top down” filling in: I refer to as simulation. • All perception requires both emulation and simulation. 17
    18. 18. Introduction Background Pictorial information: Problem “Hunch” My Research makes use of emulation Methods Design Science Inclusion Art Discussion Audience • (Associated with “bottom up” sensations: emulation.) • Pictorial information is “emulated” information from a graphic representation. 18
    19. 19. Introduction Symbolic Information: makes Background Problem use of simulation “Hunch” My Research Methods Design Science Inclusion Art Discussion The ball fell. Audience • (Associated with “top down” filling in or mental simulation (e.g., ability to see distant things as 3D objects). I refer to this as simulation (following Barsalou, 2009)). • Symbolic information is simulation created during emulation of a graphic representation. 19
    20. 20. Introduction Background Problem Framework “Hunch” My Research Methods Design Science Inclusion Art Discussion More perceptual More conceptual (Note individual differences) (Note groups)
    21. 21. Introduction Background Problem “Hunch” My Research Methods Design Science Inclusion Art Discussion
    22. 22. Introduction Background Problem “Hunch” My Research Methods Design Science Inclusion Art Discussion
    23. 23. Introduction Background A story of an effective graphic Problem “Hunch” representation. My Research Methods Design Science •Consider the bar and pie chart, Inclusion Art invented by William Playfair. Discussion •An “effective” graphic representation (Spence, 2006).
    24. 24. Introduction Background How did Playfair create an effective Problem “Hunch” graphic representation type? My Research Methods Design • Playfair copied successful techniques Science from the field of cartography and map Inclusion Art making (Spence, 2006). Discussion
    25. 25. Introduction Background Problem Artifact evolution “Hunch” My Research Methods • Environments with high selection Design pressures lead to “optimized” or Science Inclusion “effective” artifacts relative to a Art purpose, and within a particular Discussion context (Simon, 1996; Kirsh, 2009). • Can be understood through a biological metaphor…
    26. 26. Introduction Background Problem Biological metaphor “Hunch” My Research • A surviving organism is assumed to be an effective Methods Design organism. Science • A biologist focuses on trying to understand why and Inclusion Art how those biological structures enable survival. Discussion [[[boiling water example]]]
    27. 27. Introduction Background Observe graphic representation Problem “Hunch” evolution in “artificial” My Research environments… Methods Design •where graphic representations perform Science functional roles, & are shaped by selection Inclusion Art pressures. Discussion •E.g., design (next)
    28. 28. Introduction Background Example: graphic Problem “Hunch” My Research representation use in Methods Design software design Science • Representations perform functional roles Inclusion Art in design, and Discussion • the perceptual-cognitive properties of these representations correspond to different phases of design.
    29. 29. Introduction Background Problem A project with two parts “Hunch” My Research Methods 1. Pilot study “idea probes” Design Science 2. Analytic framework development Inclusion Art Discussion Inductive Analysis Evaluation Exploration Application
    30. 30. Introduction Background “Research Methods” Problem “Hunch” My Research • In ‘science,’ a research method Methods Design produces an explanation Science Inclusion • Let’s think about what an Art Discussion explanation is… [[[to do citation]
    31. 31. Introduction Background “Theories” Problem “Hunch” My Research • Theories are akin to predictions Methods Design • Investigations respond to research Science Inclusion problems: Art Discussion – (We could think of a problem as a discrepancy between a situation and our understanding of the situation)
    32. 32. Introduction Background Problem Norman (2012) “Hunch” My Research “… before the yelling starts, the scientific Methods Design method is an overarching philosophy. It gets Science executed very differently in the many Inclusion Art disciplines and sub disciplines, but the Discussion overarching principles still remain. And they are very simple, having two major principles: Principle One: reproducibility. Principle Two: Replication, confirmation or disconfirmation.”
    33. 33. Introduction Gregor (2006): The Nature of Background Problem “Hunch” Theory in IS Research My Research Methods Design Science Inclusion Art Discussion [note KMD context]
    34. 34. Introduction Background Problem Example: Galileos Laws of “Hunch” My Research Motion Methods Design • Aristotle’s explanation could not Science explain what Galileo saw Inclusion Art Discussion • Initial observations: inductive, qualitative, exploratory • Initial explanations: annotated pictures, sentences • The algebraic system emerged much later
    35. 35. Introduction Background Problem Stages of theory development “Hunch” My Research Methods Design Science Inclusion Art Discussion
    36. 36. Introduction Background Problem [Homeostatic metaphor] “Hunch” My Research Methods Design Science Inclusion Art Discussion
    37. 37. Introduction Background Problem Organism and environment “Hunch” My Research Methods Design Science Inclusion Environment Art Discussion Organism
    38. 38. Introduction Background Problem Change vs. reaction “Hunch” My Research Methods Design Science Environmental Inclusion change Art Discussion Organism’s reaction to change
    39. 39. Introduction Background Problem Change vs. reaction “Hunch” My Research Methods Design Science Environmental Inclusion change Art Discussion Organism’s reaction to change
    40. 40. Introduction Background Problem Perception-reaction “Hunch” My Research Methods Design Science Environmental Inclusion change Art Discussion Organism’s capability to react to change via perception
    41. 41. Introduction Background Problem Next half of presentation: “Hunch” My Research Methods Design • Design is pre-scientific Science Inclusion – Note: It is possible to develop a Art solution without an explanation (e.g., Discussion Playfair example) …I used the term "pre-science" to indicate an aspect [of design] that I thought would some day be amenable to the scientific method but where todays scientific understanding was not sufficient to make that possible (Norman, 2012).
    42. 42. Introduction Background Problem [Say a few words about “Hunch” My Research design research] Methods Design Science Inclusion Art Discussion
    43. 43. Introduction Background Quantitative Research (in Education) Problem “Hunch” Notions of: My Research • “statistical significance” and a threshold of “statistical Methods power” Design Science • “the confidence [that] one has in a given result Inclusion depends on the signal-to-noise ratio and the sample Art size” Discussion • “ensuring homogeneity in your sample” • “classifying subjects by dependent variables” • “ignoring the outliers” • “generalizing to a population” Adapted from slides originally created by JuttaTreviranus
    44. 44. Introduction Background Problem But.... “Hunch” My Research • the “subjects” we are interested in Methods are currently the “noise” in research Design Science sets (from a statistical data perspective) Inclusion • we are researching the “outliers” Art • our Discussion“subjects” are the opposite of homogeneous - we are designing for diversity • in most cases we are dealing with a population of one which has no “statistical power” - these populations of 1 will soon collectively reach the size of the population of China Adapted from slides originally created by JuttaTreviranus
    45. 45. Introduction Background Subjects of Quantitative Problem “Hunch” Research (in Education) My Research • the population is by definition heterogenous, despite Methods this they have been lumped together or divided into Design medical categories Science Inclusion • “any classification scheme, and especially a formal Art one, will inevitably ‘do violence’ to its subject ... any Discussion act of classification fails to do justice to at least some dimensions of that which is classified, [which can] have serious ethical, economic, political and other consequences”Brian Cantwell Smith • special education, qualification, classification, stigmatization... Adapted from slides originally created by JuttaTreviranus
    46. 46. Introduction Background Alternative to Quantitative Problem “Hunch” Approaches My Research Methods Design The main virtue of ethnography is its ability to make Science visible the ‘real world’ sociality of a setting. As a Inclusion mode of social research it is concerned to Art Discussion produce detailed descriptions of the ‘workaday’ activities of social actors within specific contexts [20,18]. It is a naturalistic method relying upon material drawn from the first-hand experience of a fieldworker in some setting (Hughs et al., 2009, p. 430). Adapted from slides originally created by JuttaTreviranus
    47. 47. Introduction Background Goals of Inclusive Research Problem “Hunch” Design My Research Methods 1. more inclusive of full diversity of learners Design Science 2. more relevant to educational demands of this age Inclusion with respect to the need for diverse learners and the Art skills and knowledge of value in a “knowledge Discussion economy” 3. more timely and continuously renewable for complex, changing context and age - immediately implementable 4. contextualized or embedded in learner’s context 5. sustainable - cost, impact, resources 6. applicable to each learner, not abstract or generic Adapted from slides originally created by JuttaTreviranus
    48. 48. Introduction Background Blending teaching and research Problem “Hunch” as an inclusive design method My Research Methods Design Science Inclusion Art Discussion
    49. 49. Introduction Background Blending teaching and research Problem “Hunch” as an inclusive design method My Research Methods Design The main virtue of ethnography is its ability to make Science visible the ‘real world’ sociality of a setting. As a Inclusion mode of social research it is concerned to Art Discussion produce detailed descriptions of the ‘workaday’ activities of social actors within specific contexts [20,18]. It is a naturalistic method relying upon material drawn from the first-hand experience of a fieldworker in some setting (Hughs et al., 2009, p. 430). Adapted from slides originally created by JuttaTreviranus
    50. 50. Introduction Background Problem Contact: “Hunch” My Research Methods Design • Peter Coppin Science Inclusion • pcoppin@faculty.ocadu.ca Art Discussion • 647 838 8545 • www.petercoppin.org

    ×