Peter Pichler Tajikistan Donor Principle presentation jan10


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  • Taxes are paid by rural beneficiaries, depth repay
  • Use this as an illustration of the cause - effect relationship and of course its relevance to the TREE analogy.
  • Peter Pichler Tajikistan Donor Principle presentation jan10

    1. 1. Prepared by: Peter Pichler, CPM Tajikistan Oxfam GB Director Barbara Stockington Visiting a cotton field in Khatlon Tajikistan
    2. 2. Livelihood protection and promotion in agriculture: ‘Complementing Cotton’ <ul><li>Peter Pichler </li></ul><ul><li>OXFAM GB </li></ul><ul><li>Tajikistan Country Programme </li></ul><ul><li> Dushanbe </li></ul>Prepared by: Peter Pichler, CPM Tajikistan
    3. 3. Impacts of agricultural growth on poverty – in theory Prepared by: Peter Pichler, CPM Tajikistan <ul><li>Through: </li></ul><ul><li>profitability gains for farmers </li></ul><ul><li>labour market gains for labourers </li></ul><ul><li>product prices for consumers </li></ul><ul><li>“ knock-on” effects on demand (inputs, processing, marketing), leading to “second round” investments </li></ul><ul><li>increase in tax yields and formal transfers </li></ul><ul><li>Increased informal transfers to those chronically unable to engage in the productive economy </li></ul>
    4. 4. Impacts - evidence <ul><li>Large body of evidence on impacts of agricultural productivity growth: </li></ul><ul><li>Irz et al, 2003: “each 1% growth in agricultural productivity generates a decrease of between 0.6% and 1.2% in those living on less than $1/day” </li></ul><ul><li>Hazell and Haddad, 2001: including discussion of pro-poor agricultural research prioritisation </li></ul><ul><li>Dorosh and Haggblade, 2003: “investments in agriculture generate the highest impacts on the poor” </li></ul>Prepared by: Peter Pichler, CPM Tajikistan
    5. 5. Prepared by: Peter Pichler, CPM Tajikistan <ul><li>The Activity(ies) that Households Engage in to Earn/Make a Living. </li></ul><ul><li>Livelihoods can consist of a range of on- and off-farm activities or procurement strategies that together provide food and/or cash. </li></ul>What is a Livelihood System?
    6. 6. Prepared by: Peter Pichler, CPM Tajikistan <ul><li>The assets & other resources that households possess </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>The human and social capital that households possess or can call on in times of need. </li></ul>Social Networks & Safety Nets What is a Livelihood System?
    7. 7. Prepared by: Peter Pichler, CPM Tajikistan <ul><li>Livelihood systems of the poor are often quite diverse </li></ul><ul><li>Households often use their capabilities, skills, and know-how to diversify income sources and off-set risks </li></ul>What is a Livelihood System?
    8. 8. Prepared by: Peter Pichler, CPM Tajikistan The Process of Change Transition <ul><li>How will we respond? </li></ul><ul><li>Why are we feeling this way? </li></ul><ul><li>Who will be staying/leaving? </li></ul><ul><li>How will we function </li></ul><ul><li>differently? </li></ul><ul><li>What should we start doing </li></ul><ul><li>now? </li></ul>Transition Future State <ul><li>What is the new </li></ul><ul><li>vision? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is leading the </li></ul><ul><li>change? </li></ul><ul><li>What changes will </li></ul><ul><li>occur? </li></ul><ul><li>Who will be affected? </li></ul><ul><li>When will changes </li></ul><ul><li>take affect? </li></ul>Present State <ul><li>Who are we? </li></ul><ul><li>What resources do </li></ul><ul><li>we have? </li></ul><ul><li>What process have </li></ul><ul><li>we been using? </li></ul><ul><li>Why have we been </li></ul><ul><li>doing it this way? </li></ul>
    9. 9. Transmission mechanisms through growth and markets - questions and issues Prepared by: Peter Pichler, CPM Tajikistan <ul><li>How well do markets work? For whom? “market failure is the norm, not the exception, in many parts of the World” (Omamo, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>conventional features of market failure – transaction costs raised through lack of transport and communications infrastructure, weak contract enforcement, moral hazard, inadequate insurance markets, high risks which cannot be insured against, externalities, increasing economies of scale, highly imperfect competition….. </li></ul><ul><li>overall: overhasty liberalisation – neoliberal “facilitating and regulating” not enough </li></ul><ul><li>not enough attention given to segmentation and interlocking </li></ul>
    10. 10. Impeded transmission via markets: segmentation <ul><li>“ any form of non-economic discrimination” – does not include discrimination by skills, productivity, actuarial risk (in finance and insurance markets), but does include: </li></ul><ul><li>Gender discrimination – paying less to women than can be justified on productivity grounds; intra-household constraints on women’s choice </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination on basis of religion or ethnicity </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination on basis of social status </li></ul>Prepared by: Peter Pichler, CPM Tajikistan
    11. 11. Improving transmission by reducing entrepreneurial risk: “trampolines” Prepared by: Peter Pichler, CPM Tajikistan Risks are shocks and stresses either external or internal to the HH; vulnerability is the HH’s capacity to withstand or cope with these A Social Risk Management Framework as a means of reducing risk and vulnerability, covers covariate and idiosyncratic risk; covers prevention, mitigation and coping. Covers different policy levels, stressing that even the highest level policies (fiscal, investment….), and sector-based policies (e.g. agriculture) can combine growth and protection
    12. 12. Prepared by: Peter Pichler, CPM Tajikistan The PROBLEM TREE: ‘ The issue of cotton and overcoming poverty’ CAUSES EFFECTS MAIN PROBLEM low income emigration Malnutrition Food security low access to education difficult social situation of “widows” poor health poverty plots too small water losses in irrigation low quality of seeds Dekhan farm depth status no adequate technical skills
    13. 13. Challenges of diversifying the rural economy, felt threats and evolving opportunities: <ul><li>Threat 1: Cotton is not providing a sufficient income for farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities : crop rotation / crop sharing / crop diversification opening new opportunities for farmers increasing the individual household food security including enhanced nutritional support; marketable agriculture surplus crops like vegetables creating income opportunities </li></ul>Prepared by: Peter Pichler, CPM Tajikistan
    14. 14. Challenges of diversifying the rural economy, felt threats and evolving opportunities: <ul><li>Threat 2 : Cotton farmers lacking technical equipment and agric inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities : reconverting to appropriate technologies, adopting alternative farming techniques, new conceptions and cultivation approaches </li></ul>Prepared by: Peter Pichler, CPM Tajikistan
    15. 15. Challenges of diversifying the rural economy, felt threats and evolving opportunities: <ul><li>Threat 3 : Cotton is vulnerable to climate change; high water use and increased (at least 15 new agriculture insects since independence!) invasion of (ex.: noctuid) pests will threaten future crops </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities : through introduction of new farming techniques like conservation agriculture reduced need of agriculture water, crop rotation reduces vulnerability to pest occurrence </li></ul>Prepared by: Peter Pichler, CPM Tajikistan
    16. 16. Challenges of diversifying the rural economy, felt threats and evolving opportunities: <ul><li>Threat 4 : ‘Cotton land’ absorbing the debt burden </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic production and farmer organization as a means to reverse debt cycle of farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>joined lobby work for addressing the farm debt relief question, acquittal of Dekhan’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>through increased diversified production on existing land marketable surplus production achieving increased stable income </li></ul></ul>Prepared by: Peter Pichler, CPM Tajikistan
    17. 17. Challenges of diversifying the rural economy, felt threats and evolving opportunities: <ul><li>Threat 5 : New Dekhan farmers are insecure about their legal situation and rights </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promoting changes in production to increase food security whilst aspiring to address women and children cotton workers labour situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>legal resource center establishment and management ‘Land Rights Information Centers’ or ‘Land Ombudsmen’ similar or as a part / addition of the SITAF Agriculture Advisory and Information Centers </li></ul></ul>Prepared by: Peter Pichler, CPM Tajikistan
    18. 18. Transmission via transfers to the chronically poor, how to address? Prepared by: Peter Pichler, CPM Tajikistan <ul><li>Many examples: but what is ‘best practise’? </li></ul><ul><li>transfers / support in agriculture inputs or in cash ‘Kashina model’? </li></ul><ul><li>cash transfers have advantage of enhancing demand in local markets; food transfers may diminish it – even the chronically poor engage as consumers </li></ul><ul><li>evidence that some transfers (e.g. remittance payments from emigrant workers) are used in part for productive purposes (investment in agric; investment in grandchildren’s education….) AND release informal transfers for productive investment </li></ul>
    19. 19. Question: What are profitable crops for farmers to grow? Prepared by: Peter Pichler, CPM Tajikistan
    20. 20. Question: What are possible trade and marketing options? <ul><li>Local Market: </li></ul><ul><li>Export Market: </li></ul>Prepared by: Peter Pichler, CPM Tajikistan
    21. 21. Question: What are major import crops; can they be replaced by local production? Prepared by: Peter Pichler, CPM Tajikistan
    22. 22. Organic grown cotton ethical sourcing a realistic option - marketable? <ul><li>European and US product market developments </li></ul><ul><li>Fairtrade labelling (FLO) standards for cotton have recently been created, and many small cotton farmers throughout India, West and Central Africa have become fair trade certified producers. Through the fair trade system, these farmers receive a significantly higher price than they would for conventional cotton, as illustrated in the chart below. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Fair trade and fair trade/organic price for seed cotton lint per kg, for Mali. In CFA (1 FCFA = 545 USD on 13/6/05) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The demand for Fairtrade and organic cotton remains niche, but experiencing rapid growth. The current supply of fair trade organic cotton is small, but growing, and with the participation of a broad set of actors, fair trade organic cotton will become a new, more sustainable clothing alternative. Brands such as Marks & Spencer, Otto, Patagonia, and Timberland have already incorporated organic and/or Fairtrade cotton in their ranges . </li></ul><ul><li>Source: D. Bright, Cotton-the truth behind the image </li></ul>Prepared by: Peter Pichler, CPM Tajikistan
    23. 23. Organic grown cotton a realistic option - exchange of CA experience <ul><li>The Kyrgyzstan model </li></ul>Prepared by: Peter Pichler, CPM Tajikistan
    24. 24. EC TACIS SITAF Model Development Establishing an Agriculture Extension System in Tajikistan Prepared by: Peter Pichler, CPM Tajikistan
    25. 25. Conclusions <ul><li>Agricultural growth through diversity is important for poverty reduction, BUT “facilitating and regulating” not enough, AND…. </li></ul><ul><li>Market imperfections are pervasive and need to be addressed to enhance the poverty-reducing impacts of agriculture. High risk is paramount among these </li></ul><ul><li>New ways of managing risk and vulnerability (across domestic and entrepreneurial spheres) need to be found. </li></ul><ul><li>Efforts in this direction need to be differentiated according to type of rural household </li></ul>Prepared by: Peter Pichler, CPM Tajikistan
    26. 26. Oxfam GB in Tajikistan synthesizing on success Livelihoods development <ul><li>1600 Vulnerable Households supported with agriculture inputs and trainings </li></ul><ul><li>407 (25%) Woman headed households </li></ul><ul><li>10 CBOs established, 35% Women CBO members 6 Registered, 2 are implementing independent projects (9 warehouses and offices build) </li></ul><ul><li>6 WSHG established & implementing independently different activities </li></ul><ul><li>Income raised by 1500 TJS </li></ul><ul><li>Khazina – Created through Community Contributions : Over 16000 $ </li></ul><ul><li>185096 TJS were provided as revolving fund </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Increased food security and income opportunities for vulnerable households through land rehabilitation (253 ha), irrigation and access to money. </li></ul><ul><li>9100 fruit and none fruit saplings provided (germination rate is 80%) </li></ul><ul><li>Local partners (NGOs) capacity build up - 4 </li></ul>Prepared by: Peter Pichler, CPM Tajikistan Thresher connected to the donated tractor working in the field. Tanobchi village, Temurmalik District
    27. 27. Prepared by: Peter Pichler, CPM Tajikistan <ul><li>Increased crop diversity and productivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1000 Ton potatoes – 1200 participants – to fulfill own consumption and for sale as well </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2310 kg of different vegetables produced by each participant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>370 TJS on average was earned by each participant from sale of different vegetables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>29 Ton wheat was produced for families consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increased farmers interest on rain fed cropping (grain, melon, vegetables) </li></ul><ul><li>48000 TJS an income for Khazina fund from agriculture activities </li></ul><ul><li>Set of agriculture machinery support </li></ul><ul><li>11 km of drainage canals were cleaned (253ha land) </li></ul><ul><li>Phenotypic evaluation and multiplication of vegetables </li></ul>Oxfam GB in Tajikistan Salient Achievements: Agriculture development High quality bread cooked in solar cooker
    28. 28. Prepared by: Peter Pichler, CPM Tajikistan <ul><ul><li>Cotton : Research / round tables with major stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land: 2 information advocacy centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action against Poverty : White band day, signature campaign, round table with local NGOs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Livelihood Workshop at regional level Jan 06 </li></ul></ul>Oxfam GB in Tajikistan Salient Achievements : Policy and advocacy
    29. 29. Prepared by: Peter Pichler, CPM Tajikistan <ul><li>Sustainable access to land and ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton and food production </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional capacities : Government & NGOs </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of accountability: local NGOs, CBOs </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of access to resources : Financial, technical </li></ul><ul><li>Advocacy and policies : NGOs </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure : health, rural education, water </li></ul><ul><li>Market: policies and practices </li></ul><ul><li>Women empowerment and Gender </li></ul>Oxfam GB in Tajikistan Some of our major challenges Celebration of 8 March in Chorbogh village
    30. 30. What we would ask this Forum to assist us: <ul><li>Continuous and stable financial support to ensure implementation of our projects </li></ul><ul><li>Back-up in achieving our set goals </li></ul><ul><li>Providing a platform for positive dialog between all stakeholders </li></ul>Prepared by: Peter Pichler, CPM Tajikistan
    31. 31. What support we are seeking from Government: <ul><li>Establishment of focal points both on central Government and local Oblast / Hukumat level for NGO involved in Livelihoods activities and ‘cotton lands’ </li></ul><ul><li>Round table for all above actors to assist in implementation of ‘best practice’ models </li></ul><ul><li>As a first step open up suitable access for Livelihood projects in each ‘cotton producing area / district’ </li></ul>Prepared by: Peter Pichler, CPM Tajikistan
    32. 32. <ul><li>References: </li></ul><ul><li>D. Bright (2006) Cotton: The truth behind the image, Oxford: Oxfam GB </li></ul><ul><li>I. Borkenhagen (May06 draft vers. 5) Cotton Work in OGB, Oxford: Oxfam GB </li></ul><ul><li>Duncan, A et al (2003) Drivers of Change: reflections on experience to date. Paper for DFID workshop, Oxford, June 23 2003. DFID: Drivers of Change Team </li></ul><ul><li>Farrington, J (2004) Social protection and livelihood promotion in agriculture: towards operational guidelines. Paper for OECD Povnet. DFID NR and Agriculture Team, London </li></ul><ul><li>Hazell, P and Haddad, L (2001) Agricultural research and poverty reduction. 2020 Brief #70. Washington DC: IFPRI. </li></ul><ul><li>Irz, X, Lin Lin, Thirtle, C and S Wiggins (2001) Agricultural productivity growth and poverty alleviation. Development Policy Review 19(4) 449-466. </li></ul><ul><li>P. Pichler, F. Quatratov, B. Rahmatjonov et al. Oxfam Tajikistan Report (2005-2007), Augmenting Livelihoods in Khatlon, Tajikistan, Oxfam TJK Livelihood team </li></ul><ul><li>Ken Street Dr. (2005/6) Ancient Seeds of Survival, Partners in Research for Development Journal , Plant Genetic Resources </li></ul><ul><li>H. Ungethuem et al.(2006) Establishing an Agriculture Extension System in Tajikistan, Model Development and Vision, EC TACIS-SITAF Final Project Report, Dushanbe, Project implemented by Scanagri/DLG/HTSPE/MNT with support of the European Commission </li></ul>Prepared by: Peter Pichler, CPM Tajikistan