Mastery Learning and Grading:  Grading so that Everyone Can Learn   Ryan Gantner Eileen Lynd-Balta 14 November 2008
History and Literature <ul><li>Bloom (1966) introduced “Learning for Mastery” (LFM) </li></ul><ul><li>Keller (1966) introd...
History and Literature <ul><li>Lee Shulman: </li></ul><ul><li>“… the greatest barrier to student learning is the insane wa...
History and Literature <ul><li>“ I'm not suggesting we revive the somewhat dormant methods of mastery learning.” </li></ul...
Adapting to a college setting <ul><li>Reality: time is fixed! </li></ul><ul><li>Time is scarce </li></ul>
Benefits of Mastery Learning <ul><li>Explicit set of expectations for student learning </li></ul><ul><li>Link between perf...
Drawbacks of Mastery Learning <ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>“ Checklist” attitude allows students to seek path of least r...
Examples <ul><li>Ryan: Math 120 (Calculus 1) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7 topics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Topic mastery is mi...
Examples <ul><li>Eileen: Human Anatomy (BIOL 105) </li></ul><ul><li>“ My grades accurately reflect my performance in this ...
Syllabus <ul><li>Assessment Profile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6 exams  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>90 pts content + 10 pts ...
Engagement <ul><li>If you participate in class discussions,  AND  collaborate with your peers,  AND  contribute positively...
Engagement <ul><li>However, any of the following will result in a loss of  up to 10 points on each of the first six exams:...
Mandatory Meetings <ul><li>Anyone scoring below 60/90 pts  </li></ul><ul><li>At meeting, review:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ex...
Cumulative Final Exams <ul><ul><li>Essential knowledge  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>student’s help decide content </li>...
Grading so that Everyone Can Learn <ul><li>Clear expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Formative assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Own...
Activity: how can you use this? <ul><li>Maximize Benefits (clear expectations, minimal “one-shot” grading, motivation) </l...
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Mastery Learning and Grading

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Grading so the Everyone Can Learn

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Mastery Learning and Grading

  1. 1. Mastery Learning and Grading: Grading so that Everyone Can Learn Ryan Gantner Eileen Lynd-Balta 14 November 2008
  2. 2. History and Literature <ul><li>Bloom (1966) introduced “Learning for Mastery” (LFM) </li></ul><ul><li>Keller (1966) introduced “Personalized System of Instruction” (PSI) </li></ul>
  3. 3. History and Literature <ul><li>Lee Shulman: </li></ul><ul><li>“… the greatest barrier to student learning is the insane way in which we use time.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Our fundamental error…is that we treat time as a constant and permit achievement to vary.” </li></ul>
  4. 4. History and Literature <ul><li>“ I'm not suggesting we revive the somewhat dormant methods of mastery learning.” </li></ul><ul><li>Abundance of literature in 1970s and 1980s </li></ul>
  5. 5. Adapting to a college setting <ul><li>Reality: time is fixed! </li></ul><ul><li>Time is scarce </li></ul>
  6. 6. Benefits of Mastery Learning <ul><li>Explicit set of expectations for student learning </li></ul><ul><li>Link between performance and grading is very clear </li></ul><ul><li>Students cannot ignore unwanted material </li></ul><ul><li>Students are not penalized for learning at a slower pace </li></ul>
  7. 7. Drawbacks of Mastery Learning <ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>“ Checklist” attitude allows students to seek path of least resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Learn-then-forget </li></ul><ul><li>Too much work for instructor </li></ul><ul><li>Logistics </li></ul>
  8. 8. Examples <ul><li>Ryan: Math 120 (Calculus 1) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7 topics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Topic mastery is minimum required to pass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extra “bonus” activities allow student to better his/her grade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contrast with previous semesters </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Examples <ul><li>Eileen: Human Anatomy (BIOL 105) </li></ul><ul><li>“ My grades accurately reflect my performance in this class.” </li></ul><ul><li>Engagement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Your active participation in the course is an important key to your success.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How should it be factored into grade? </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Syllabus <ul><li>Assessment Profile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6 exams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>90 pts content + 10 pts engagement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning objectives provided in advance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lowest exam dropped </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cumulative lab exam (100 pts) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cumulative course exam (150 pts) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Engagement <ul><li>If you participate in class discussions, AND collaborate with your peers, AND contribute positively to the class/lab, AND complete assignments, AND have an organized binder, AND have no unexcused absences, then you can earn up to 10 points on each of the first six exams. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Engagement <ul><li>However, any of the following will result in a loss of up to 10 points on each of the first six exams: unexcused absence(s), OR missing/poor quality assignment(s), OR unorganized/incomplete binder, OR tardiness, OR an unwillingness to work collaboratively with your peers, OR being disruptive in class/lab, OR using cell phone during class/lab. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Mandatory Meetings <ul><li>Anyone scoring below 60/90 pts </li></ul><ul><li>At meeting, review: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>exam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>current level of participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>discuss strategies to improve </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No meeting, no participation points </li></ul><ul><li>Informative discussion </li></ul>
  14. 14. Cumulative Final Exams <ul><ul><li>Essential knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>student’s help decide content </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>If combined average on cumulative lab exam and cumulative final course exam is <60%, then that student will earn no higher than a D+ for the final course grade. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Grading so that Everyone Can Learn <ul><li>Clear expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Formative assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Ally </li></ul>
  16. 16. Activity: how can you use this? <ul><li>Maximize Benefits (clear expectations, minimal “one-shot” grading, motivation) </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize drawbacks (checklist attitude, instructor time, learn-then-forget) </li></ul>

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