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  1. 1. Dr.T.I.Manoj Associate Professor, KAU & Project Director (TPFP)
  2. 2. <ul><li>An active lifestyle during childhood directly benefits the health in both adulthood and old age. </li></ul><ul><li>But due to the modern way of living and technological developments (e.g. cars, elevators, computers, television etc), both children and adults have become less physically active. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Recent research revealed that Indians are more vulnerable genetically get to heart attacks than any other ethnic group in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>However, genes alone do not explain the sudden spurt in heart disease among the youth. The answer, in a word, is lifestyle . </li></ul>
  4. 4. WHO report says by 2010, 60% of cardiac patients will be Indians “ Coronary artery diseases has attained an epidemic proportion in India, especially Kerala over past one decade. The age group of 35 to 45 years account for a majority of diagnosed cases of cardiac ailments in India. This drop in age of heart disease among Indians is mainly due to faulty food intake, physical inactivity and stress, besides the early onset of diabetes”- Dr.K.K.Haridas, President, Cardiological Society of India
  5. 5. Dr. Haridas says CAD has now became most predictable, preventable: “ Minimise stress level, simplify your lifestyle, cut down your calories, exercise regularly and go back to your conventional eating habits. All these can prevent CAD affliction to great extent. Remember, sitting for long too is a risk factor for diabetes”
  6. 6. &quot;Improper food habits, lack of physical activity and this coupled with high level of stress and increase in smoking and alcohol consumption are all classic risk factors which can put one high on the risk zone of coronary heart diseases. Sadly all these have become a part of the Indian youth’s lifestyle .”
  7. 7. According to Dr K Srinath Reddy from the AIMS : “ A national programme on the prevention of heart diseases with adequate policy support is essential to stem the menace, otherwise, our economic productivity is likely to go down,”
  8. 8. India predicts diabetes explosion <ul><li>Experts say that the world's largest diabetes epidemic is threatening India, which is ill equipped to cope. Health data shows that, the amount of type II, or adult-onset diabetes in Indian cities is high, and rising. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Evidence suggests that in more affluent parts of the country, the rural prevalence is higher than in less affluent rural areas, indicating that increasing economic growth will raise diabetes prevalence in India even more than these possibly conservative estimates have indicated.” </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>In its annual report, the IDF said India currently has the highest number of 50.8 million people suffering from diabetes, followed by China with 43.2 million and the US with 26.8 million. </li></ul><ul><li>The report projected 58.7 million diabetes cases in India by 2010 - almost 7 percent of its adult population. </li></ul><ul><li>By 2030, over 8.4 percent of the Indian adult population will suffer from diabetes, thanks to the increasing life expectancy and urbanization, </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>It shows the declining level of exercise has the potential to increase the burden of chronic diseases in our population, directly as an independent risk factor and indirectly through increased obesity. </li></ul><ul><li>Lifestyle choices have never been more important in determining the outcome of a national problem . </li></ul>
  11. 11. Kerala State Profile <ul><li>In the recent past there has been a drastic shift in the mortality and morbidity statistics of Kerala. </li></ul><ul><li>Presently, all infectious diseases account for only 5% of the deaths whereas 25% of the deaths are due to coronary heart disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus heart disease has become the most important preventable cause of death in Kerala. </li></ul><ul><li>Lifestyle illnesses have only three common risk factors. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.Physical Inactivity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.Unhealthy diet </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3.Tobacco and alcohol use. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Kerala State Profile <ul><li>The most recent figures for CVD in rural Kerala suggest that in people aged 20 yrs or older, </li></ul><ul><li>20% had type 2 diabetes, </li></ul><ul><li>42% had hypertension, </li></ul><ul><li>70% had hypercholestrolemia,and </li></ul><ul><li>40% were overweight [body mass index more than 25] </li></ul><ul><li>Kerala ranks second only to Punjab in obesity. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Kerala State Profile <ul><li>In our rural community : 41% of people have sedentary habits. </li></ul><ul><li>The situation in urban Kerala is bound to be much worse. </li></ul><ul><li>Research has shown that : 42% of the male population uses tobacco in some form, </li></ul><ul><li>40% of the population have a diet low in fruits and vegetables. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus physical inactivity is associated with greater prevalence of hypertension, central obesity, stroke, heart disease, diabetes, hypercholestrolemia etc. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  14. 14. Kerala State Profile <ul><li>BENEFITS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY- EXERCISE AS MEDICINE </li></ul><ul><li>  Reduces the risk of heart disease by 40% </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces the risk of stroke by 27% </li></ul><ul><li>Lowers the incidence of diabetes by 50% </li></ul><ul><li>Lowers the incidence of hypertension by 50% </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces the risk of recurrent breast cancer by 50% </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces risk of colon cancer by 60% </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces risk of alzheimers disease by 1/3. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces risk of osteoporosis by 1/3. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces prevents and manages depression </li></ul>
  15. 15. What is TPFP ? <ul><li>TPFP is the state fitness test battery for school children and youth. </li></ul><ul><li>The assessment was developed by the Kerala State Sports Council in response to the needs in physical education programs for a comprehensive assessment protocol. </li></ul><ul><li>The assessment includes a health-related physical fitness tests designed to assess cardiovascular fitness, Strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Norms -referenced standards associated with good health have been established for children and youth for each of the health-related fitness components. </li></ul><ul><li>The software programme produces an individualized report card that summarizes the child’s performance on each component of health-related fitness and provides suggestions for how to promote and maintain good fitness. </li></ul><ul><li>The sophisticated database structure within the program produces compiled class, school and panchayath wise reports and allows for long term tracking of the student’s fitness over time. </li></ul>What is TPFP ?
  17. 17. TPFP 2010 – An overview <ul><li>A total of 23,34,739 students enrolled in classes five to ten, were administered the Health Related Physical Fitness Test (HRPFT) in 2009, from 6010 schools representing approximately 91 percent of Kerala State schools. </li></ul><ul><li>Only 14 percent of state school population from classes’ five to ten found within the minimum recommended standard on all the health related physical fitness test items (Boys- 16.58% and Girls-11.46%). </li></ul><ul><li>Among the total, 3.93 percent (92,413) obtained more than 75 points in all fitness test items and qualified for 2nd phase testing intended for talent identification (Boys-5.67% and Girls-2.19%). </li></ul>
  18. 18. TPFP 2010 – An overview The data reveals that 61.88% of girls students failed meet the recommended standard in abdominal strength (10= 64.88%, 11=69.21%, 12=66.83%, 13=61.00%, 14=54.69%, 15=55.43%, 16=59.58%, +17=62.29%).
  19. 19. TPFP 2010 – An overview <ul><li>The data also shows that, the performance on physical fitness variables of girls’ students is far below in comparison with Asian counter part Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>The poor abdominal strength will lead to poor posture and pot belly and it became the root cause for the lower back pain in later life. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Girl’s students 43.57 percent are failed to meet the recommended standard in flexibility and failed students’ percentage increasing by their age. </li></ul><ul><li>(10=39.9%, 11=45.48%, 13=39.42%, 14=45.84%, 15=44.07%, 16=44.77%, +17=45.49%). </li></ul>TPFP 2010 – An overview
  21. 21. TPFP 2010 – An overview <ul><li>The low performance in one mile run Indicate low level cardio-respiratory capacity, 52.27% of the girls students are not met the recommended standard, failed students percentage also found increasing by their age (10=41.64%, 11=41.05%, 12=42.38%, 13=53.84%, 14=59.75%, 15=60.54%). </li></ul><ul><li>The prime reason for this phenomena is the lack or decreasing level of physical activity when they reaching to the higher classes. </li></ul>
  22. 22. TPFP 2010 – An overview
  23. 23. TPFP 2010 – An overview
  24. 24. Fitness Defined <ul><li>Total fitness is striving for the capacity to achieve the optimal quality of life . </li></ul><ul><li>The fit person has high levels of cardiorespiratory function and mental alertness; meaningful social relationships; desirable levels of fat; strength, and flexibility and a healthy low back. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Fitness Defined <ul><li>The ability to perform moderate to vigorous levels of physical activity without undue fatigue and the capability of maintaining such ability throughout life (American College of Sports Medicine, 1998). </li></ul><ul><li>Total fitness is realized by exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet, and developing the ability to cope with stress without substance abuse. </li></ul>
  26. 26. DEFINITION OF WELLNESS : <ul><li>That condition of the human organism which consists of its health and disease status and risk potential. There are varying degrees of wellness, ranging from death to optimal well-being. </li></ul><ul><li>Genuine health or wellness is not just the absence of disease or infirmity, it is a state of positive well-being. It induces the physical, mental, spiritual, and socio-emotional dimensions of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Total well-being translates into the practice of positive lifestyle behaviors and good health habits.   </li></ul>
  27. 27. The concept of the wellness lifestyle can be visualized in terms of a wellness pyramid :    
  28. 28. Wellness Pyramid <ul><li>Self-responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Stress management </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking cessation </li></ul><ul><li>Weight control </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise   </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Regular exercise and proper nutrition make up the foundation on which the Wellness Pyramid is built. </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate attention and proper application to these two areas will set the standard for positive improvements in the areas.   </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Self-responsibility is the cap which holds down all the other areas in the pyramid. </li></ul><ul><li>Rather than being an area of mastery itself, it lends support to the successful application of the other wellness areas.   </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>How we act, react, function, and perform during our everyday life has the greatest impact on fitness/wellness. </li></ul><ul><li>It is these behaviors that directly influence our fitness level and where we are on the wellness continuum (death to optimal well-being).   </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Decreases the risk of obesity and chronic diseases, including osteoporosis </li></ul><ul><li>Better control of body weight, blood pressure, blood glucose, and cholesterol </li></ul><ul><li>Improved mood and feelings of well-being </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances independent living among older adults </li></ul><ul><li>Improves quality of life for people of all ages </li></ul>Physical Activity and Fitness Benefits
  33. 33. Health Benefits of Physical Activity: Strong Evidence <ul><li>Lower risk of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coronary heart disease, stroke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High blood pressure, adverse lipid profile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type 2 diabetes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cancers: Colon and Breast </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prevention of weight gain </li></ul><ul><li>Weight loss (with reduction of caloric intake) </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention of falls </li></ul><ul><li>Depression, cognitive function (older adults) </li></ul>
  34. 34. Benefits of Fitness <ul><li>At the primary and intermediate levels, you can explain exercise benefits in these ways: Physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>makes the heart pump more strongly; </li></ul><ul><li>helps lower blood pressure and resting heart rates; </li></ul><ul><li>reduces the risks of heart disease; </li></ul><ul><li>strengthens the bones and muscles; </li></ul><ul><li>gives you more energy to do school work, daily chores, and play; </li></ul><ul><li>helps maintain a healthy body weight; and </li></ul><ul><li>reduces stress. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Physical Fitness Skills
  36. 36. Components of Health Related Physical Fitness If you don't do what's best for your body, you're the one who comes up on the short end - Julius Erving
  37. 38. Principles of Fitness Improvement Improving performance is not just about training more – participants need to follow a carefully planned training programme. There are a number of principles that performers and coaches must follow if they are to fulfil their potential. This programme must be systematic and take into account the demands of the activity and the needs, preferences and abilities of the performer.
  38. 39. Individual needs All training programmes must consider the individual needs of the performer. <ul><li>What is their initial level of fitness? </li></ul><ul><li>How old are they? </li></ul><ul><li>Are they male or female? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do they want to train? </li></ul><ul><li>What is their aim or motivation? </li></ul>Before designing a training programme, you need to ask the following questions about the individual: The answers will help you to tailor the training programme to the individual needs and abilities of the performer.
  39. 40. Principles of Training When planning any training, you have to apply the principles of training . The principles can be easily memorized using the mnemonic, SPORT . Specificity Progression Overload Reversibility Tedium S P O R T
  40. 41. Type (Specifcity) <ul><li>What type of exercise you select is related to the principle of specificity. </li></ul><ul><li>Specificity of training is the physiological adaptation to exercise that is specific to the system being worked or stressed during exercise. For example, the specific training exercises a child does for flexibility do not increase his or her cardiovascular endurance. </li></ul><ul><li>For maximum effectiveness, aerobic exercises must be rhythmic and continuous and involve the large-muscle groups. </li></ul>
  41. 42. Specificity You need to concentrate on strength training for your arms and legs. You must do specific types of activity to improve specific parts of the body in specific ways . Different events can require very different forms of training. For example, if you’re training for a weightlifting competition, it’s no use going swimming every day. Specificity
  42. 43. Specificity You need to train specifically to develop the right… <ul><li>muscles – if your sport requires a lot of running, work mainly on your legs. </li></ul><ul><li>type of fitness – do you need strength, speed, stamina or a combination? </li></ul><ul><li>skills – you need to practice any relevant skills like kicking, serving and passing. </li></ul>Remember that: specific individuals respond differently to the same exercise. Training may need to be adapted to suit the needs of different participants.
  43. 44. Progression <ul><li>Progression is how overload should take place. </li></ul><ul><li>An increase in the level of exercise, whether it be to run farther or to add more resistance, must be done in a particular progression. </li></ul><ul><li>This enables the body to adapt slowly to the overload; thus, it eventually makes the overload normal. </li></ul><ul><li>Students need to understand that improving their level of fitness is an ongoing process . </li></ul><ul><li>To help student’s better understand progression and see that they are improving, give them opportunities to track their progress. </li></ul><ul><li>You can effectively help them achieve this understanding through pretests and posttests. </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>Start lifting 50kg ->55kg ->60kg </li></ul><ul><li>Start jogging 15 min -> 30 min -> 40 min </li></ul>
  44. 45. Overload Fitness can only be improved by training more than you normally do. Overload Unless the body is subjected to increased demands , improvements in physical fitness will not be made. If a physical fitness programme is to be effective, it must place increased and specific demands on the body. If training levels remain the same, then the programme will only be maintaining the participants level of fitness, not improving it. Remember though – you can train too much!
  45. 46. Overload <ul><li>The principle of overload suggests that in order to see an improvement in fitness (i.e., response), the dose of physical activity must exceed that to which the individual is already accustomed. </li></ul><ul><li>The dose of physical activity is controlled by the manipulation of frequency, intensity, time, and type of exercise , otherwise known as the FITT principle. </li></ul>
  46. 48. Overload: the FITT principle There are four ways to achieve overload in an exercise programme. They can easily be remembered using the mnemonic, FITT . <ul><li>F requency – how often you train. </li></ul><ul><li>I ntensity – how hard you train. </li></ul><ul><li>T ime (or duration) – how long you train for. </li></ul><ul><li>T ype – the kind of training you do. </li></ul>
  47. 49. Frequency <ul><li>Frequency refers to the number of times a person engages in physical activity that is moderate to vigorous in nature. </li></ul><ul><li>The frequency depends on the intensity and duration of the activity session. </li></ul><ul><li>There are various standards as to how often one should exercise to improve or maintain physical fitness. </li></ul>
  48. 50. FITT: Frequency How often you should train depends on what you wish to achieve. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence suggests that to maintain health , you should do 30 minutes of moderate exercise 5 times a week . According to the U.S. Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health , physical activity that is moderate to vigorous in nature should be done most days of the week. ACSM (1978) At least 20 min continuous and vigorous aerobic activity, 3 to 5 days /week However, if you wish to become an intermediate or elite competitor in any sport, you will need to train much more frequently. Elite rowers often train twice a day ! Training is best done regularly , rather than at random intervals.
  49. 51. FITT: intensity – energy systems Aerobic respiration – means respiration ‘with oxygen’. When exercise is not too fast and at a constant, steady rate, the heart can keep the muscles fully supplied with oxygen. Anaerobic respiration – means respiration ‘without oxygen’. If the exercise is fast or intense and done in short bursts, the heart cannot supply oxygen to the muscles as fast as the cells are using it.
  50. 52. Intensity <ul><li>Intensity refers to the speed or workload used in a given exercise period. </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity depends on the fitness goals of the exerciser and the type of training method being used. </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobic intensity is the speed of the activity, and it is measured by checking one's heart rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Students should be able to identify where to take the heart rate and understand the relationship between the heart rate (pulse) they feel and the heart's beating. </li></ul><ul><li>At the intermediate levels students should be able to monitor their own heart rates. Including a higher percentage of moderate-to-vigorous activities helps you match the needs of the students. </li></ul>
  51. 53. Resting Heart Rate <ul><li>Factors that affect RHR </li></ul><ul><li>Gender – on average, women have RHR’s 5-10 beats faster than men. </li></ul><ul><li>Size – individuals with more fat have higher RHR’s due to the extra stress placed on the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature – an increase in body temperature will increase RHR (when you have a fever). </li></ul><ul><li>Posture – RHR is lower when lying down than when sitting or standing. </li></ul><ul><li>Stress – people under stress usually have higher RHR’s. </li></ul>
  52. 54. Target Heart Rate Zone <ul><li>The zone is between 65% to 85% of your maximum heart rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Pulse can be taken on two sites – carotid artery (neck) or radial artery (wrist) </li></ul><ul><li>Counting should start within 5 seconds of exercise ending and start with 0. </li></ul><ul><li>Count the number of beats in 10 seconds then multiply by 6 for beats per minute </li></ul>
  53. 55. Pulse Check Sites Carotid Artery Radial Artery
  54. 56. <ul><li>This is how your Target Heart Rate Zone is calculated: </li></ul><ul><li>Case Study : Ms Seena   Age = 35 To get your maximum heart rate you need to subtract your age &quot;35&quot; from 220. </li></ul><ul><li>220 – 35 = 185 bpm </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum heart rate = 185 bpm You then calculate Lower Limit = 65% of 185 = 120 </li></ul><ul><li>Upper Limit = 85% of 185 = 157 </li></ul><ul><li>So Ms Seena's Target Heart Rate Zone is between 120 - 157 beats per minute </li></ul>
  55. 57. Calculate your Target Heart Rate Zone <ul><li>Maximum Heart Rate: </li></ul><ul><li>220 - ________ = _______ bpm </li></ul><ul><li>Your age Max. HR </li></ul><ul><li>Target Heart Rate Zone: </li></ul><ul><li>65% x ______= _____ bpm Lower Limit </li></ul><ul><li>Max. HR </li></ul><ul><li>85% x ______= _____ bpm Upper Limit </li></ul><ul><li>Max. HR </li></ul>
  56. 58. Training Zones To improve Aerobic fitness – your training zone is 60-85% of maximum heart rate. Lets see if you can your out your aerobic training zone
  57. 59. Important Information <ul><li>Your body can work either aerobically (with oxygen) or anaerobically (without oxygen) </li></ul>Different sports need different levels of aerobic and anaerobic fitness Different sports therefore train in different ways They need to know about training zones to train in the appropriate manner for their sport
  58. 60. Understanding Aerobic Intensity <ul><li>Common area of confusion, and concepts difficult to communicate to public </li></ul><ul><li>Two measures of intensity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absolute intensity = rate of energy expenditure during activity typically measured in METs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commonly measured in METs where: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 MET = energy expenditure at rest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative intensity = level of effort compared to an individual’s level of fitness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A person can use EITHER measure to determine if they are meeting the guidelines </li></ul>
  59. 61. Absolute Intensity <ul><li>Activities are classified into light-, moderate-, or vigorous-intensity based on amount of energy expended/minute (METs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate = 3.0 to 5.9 METs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vigorous = 6.0+ METs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One needs to look up the intensity of an activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brisk walk = moderate; Jog/run = vigorous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities can be either light, moderate, or vigorous based on (usually) speed of doing them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leisurely walk = light intensity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brisk walk = moderate intensity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Race-walking = vigorous intensity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  60. 62. Relative Intensity <ul><li>Effort required relative to person’s fitness level </li></ul><ul><li>Use 0-10 scale to communicate relative intensity, where: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sitting is 0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highest level of effort possible is 10 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate-intensity activity = a 5 or 6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vigorous-intensity activity = a 7 or 8. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To help communication, the PA guidelines endorsed the “talk test” and advises people to pay attention to heart rate and breathing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate-intensity = can talk without pausing, but cannot sing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vigorous-intensity = cannot say more than a few words without pausing for breath </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relative intensity of a brisk walk depends on fitness and can be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>light-intensity for elite athletes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>moderate-intensity for recreational walkers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>high intensity for inactive middle-aged adults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impossible for near-frail older adults </li></ul></ul>
  61. 63. Time (Duration) <ul><li>Duration refers to the number of minutes of physical activity. </li></ul><ul><li>In cardiovascular endurance activities, duration is the amount of time spent doing the activity. </li></ul><ul><li>For students in the primary levels you should limit the duration to shorter bouts of 6 to 8 minutes, with rest periods lasting at least 1 to 2 minutes between activity bouts. </li></ul><ul><li>For intermediate-level students you can safely prolong physical activity for 10 to 20 minutes at a time. </li></ul><ul><li>The recommended time for children to be physically active is 30 minutes most days of the week. </li></ul>
  62. 64. Reversibility Fitness will be lost if the training load is reduced (meaning overload is not achieved) or if a performer stops training, for example, if they are injured. Coaches need to ensure that long periods of inactivity are avoided when possible. Unfortunately, most of the adaptations which result from training are reversible . This simply means that unless you keep training, any fitness gains will be lost. Endurance can be lost in a third of the time it took to achieve! Strength declines more slowly, but lack of exercise will still cause muscles to wither (atrophy).
  63. 65. Tedium When planning a training programme, it is important to vary the training a bit to prevent performers becoming bored . If every training session is the same, a performer can lose enthusiasm and motivation for training. You should include a variety of different training methods or vary the type of activity. Training for endurance events can be particularly boring. Tedium is less of a problem in team sports. Why can it sometimes be difficult to avoid tedium while obeying the first principle – specificity?
  64. 67. Cardiorespiratory Fitness <ul><li>Cardiorespiratory endurance involves the ability of the heart and lungs to supply oxygen to the working muscles for an extended period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiorespiratory endurance is determined by a concept called maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), in other words, how well one consumes oxygen during moderate to vigorous physical activity. </li></ul>
  65. 68. Cardiorespiratory Fitness <ul><li>There are four techniques to help students improve their cardiovascular endurance: </li></ul><ul><li>continuous, </li></ul><ul><li>interval, </li></ul><ul><li>Fartlek, and </li></ul><ul><li>circuit-course activity. </li></ul>
  66. 69. Continuous training <ul><li>Continuous training is the simplest form of training. </li></ul><ul><li>As the name suggests, it involves training with no rest periods or recovery intervals. </li></ul><ul><li>This type of training is a good way to improve your aerobic energy system. </li></ul><ul><li>Swimming, running and cycling are common examples of continuous training activities. </li></ul><ul><li>You need to work for a minimum of 20 minutes to achieve some kind of benefit. </li></ul>
  67. 70. Continuous training The fitter you become, the longer you will be able to work for. As fitness improves, you will also be able to sustain a higher level of intensity. You should start training at about 60% of your maximum heart rate (MHR) increasing to around 75%–80% as your level of fitness improves. You need to stay within the aerobic zone during continuous training.
  68. 71. Continuous training <ul><li>Continuous training depletes your carbohydrate stores. As the body needs an energy supply to keep working, it is forced into using fat supplies. This means that continuous training is a good way to burn fat and lose weight. </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous training doesn’t just mean running. </li></ul><ul><li>Aerobics is a popular form of continuous training. It is usually performed to music and requires the performer to coordinate whole body movements. </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>The main drawback of continuous training is that it does not improve speed or agility. This means it is not ideal for games players who need to be able to change pace. </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous training can also be extremely boring! </li></ul>
  69. 72. Interval training <ul><li>Interval training involves following a fixed pattern of periods of strenuous exercise alternated with periods of rest or light activity. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be used to gradually improve pace or train for sports like football and hockey where bursts of speed are required. </li></ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul><ul><li>30 seconds sprint, 30 seconds rest – repeated 10 times, 2 min rest, repeat another 10 times. </li></ul>
  70. 73. Fartlek training <ul><li>Fartlek training was developed in Sweden. </li></ul><ul><li>It usually involves running , though you could apply the same principles to other activities like cycling and swimming. </li></ul><ul><li>Fartlek is derived from the Swedish term meaning ‘speed play’ . </li></ul><ul><li>Essentially, this training involves many changes of speed. Intensity can also be varied, e.g., by running uphill or downhill. </li></ul><ul><li>Like interval training, fartlek training is good for performers in activities requiring changes of pace and sudden bursts. </li></ul>
  71. 74. Fartlek training – an example <ul><li>An example of a Fartlek training session: </li></ul><ul><li>10 minute jog to warm up. </li></ul><ul><li>Sprint hard for 30 seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>Jog for 2 minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Run (about 75% of max) for 50 seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>Jog for 2 minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat 6 times, reducing the periods of jogging by 10 seconds each time. </li></ul><ul><li>10 minute warm down jog. </li></ul>
  72. 75. Circuit training <ul><li>Circuit training is a good way to organize training. </li></ul><ul><li>In a circuit, you undertake a sequence of exercises. Each exercise is performed at a station (or workstation ) . </li></ul><ul><li>There are usually between 8 and 15 of these stations in a circuit. Performers spend a set amount of time at each station in turn, e.g., 1 or 2 minutes at each. </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatively, you can do a set number of repetitions or exercises for each activity. </li></ul>
  73. 77. Muscular Strength Use medium weights, and move them quickly . Exercise with a heavy weight and low reps or by pushing/ pulling against a static object . Use a heavy to medium weight and do a lot of repetitions . Static strength – the strength to hold a position or support weight. Explosive strength – the force that can be exerted in one quick movement. Dynamic strength – the strength to move weight.
  74. 78. New info – muscle contractions <ul><li>There are two major terms for types of contractions:  isotonic and isometric .  </li></ul><ul><li>The isotonic contractions are ones when your muscles actually shorten .  </li></ul><ul><li>The isometric contractions are ones when your muscles don't shorten </li></ul>
  75. 79. Isotonic VS Isometric GCSE PE Training Methods
  76. 80. IsoMETRIC <ul><li>The muscle stays the same length so nothing moves . </li></ul>E.G. tug of war / rugby scrum
  77. 81. IsoTONIC <ul><li>The muscle changes its length so something moves </li></ul>E.G Rowing
  78. 82. Isokinetic <ul><li>Similar to the Isotonic contraction, the Isokinetic contraction causes the muscle to shorten as it gains tension. The difference is Isokinetic requires a constant speed over the entire range of motion, therefore this type of contraction require special equipment to exercise properly. </li></ul>An example is an arm stroke when swimming, the even resistance from the water offers a constant speed at maximal contractions.
  79. 83. Muscular Endurance <ul><li>Muscular endurance is the ability to contract a muscle or group of muscles repeatedly without incurring fatigue. </li></ul><ul><li>In the primary levels (youngsters 7 years and younger) children should be introduced to basic exercises with little or no weight at all. </li></ul><ul><li>Aim to develop the concept of a training session at this age. </li></ul><ul><li>Teach the exercise techniques and progress from body-weight calisthenics to partner exercises and on to lightly-resisted exercise. Keep the volume low. </li></ul><ul><li>In the intermediate levels (among youngsters of 8 to 10 years of age) gradually increase the number of exercises. </li></ul>
  80. 84. Flexibility <ul><li>Flexibility is the ability of a joint to move freely in every direction or, more specifically, through a full and normal range of motion. </li></ul><ul><li>Several factors can limit joint mobility, including genetic inheritance, the joint's structure, the amount of fatty tissue around the joint, and the body's temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>The two most common types of stretching for primary and intermediate level children are static and ballistic stretching </li></ul>
  81. 85. Flexibility Training Program A planned, deliberate, and regular program of exercises that can permanently and progressively increase the usable range of motion of a joint or set of joints over time.
  82. 86. Flexibility Training Techniques <ul><li>Ballistic Stretching </li></ul><ul><li>Static Stretching </li></ul><ul><li>Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation </li></ul><ul><li>Slow Movement </li></ul>
  83. 87. Flexibility Training Techniques <ul><li>Ballistic stretching : a form of stretching characterized by an action-reaction bouncing motion, in which the joints involved are placed into extreme range of motion limits by fast, active contractions of agonistic muscle groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Results in immediate strong reflex contraction of muscles stretched. </li></ul>
  84. 88. Flexibility Training Techniques <ul><li>Static stretching : a form of stretching in which the muscle to be stretched is slowly put into a position of controlled maximal or near-maximal stretch by contraction of the opposing muscle group and held for 30 to 60 seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>A strong reflex contraction does not occur. </li></ul>
  85. 89. Flexibility Training Techniques <ul><li>Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation : a stretching technique in which the muscle to be stretched is first contracted maximally. The muscle is then relaxed and is either actively stretched by contraction of the opposing muscle or is passively stretched. </li></ul><ul><li>Tension in muscle activates Golgi tendon organs cause relaxation in stretched muscle </li></ul>
  86. 90. The athlete and partner assume the position for the stretch, and then the partner extends the body limb until the muscle is stretched and tension is felt. The athlete then contracts the stretched muscle for 5 - 6 seconds and the partner must inhibit all movement. (The force of the contraction should be relevant to the condition of the muscle. For example, if the muscle has been injured, do not apply a maximum contraction ). The muscle group is relaxed, then immediately and cautiously pushed past its normal range of movement for about 20 to 30 seconds. Allow 30 seconds recovery before repeating the procedure 2 - 4 times.
  87. 91. Flexibility Training Techniques <ul><li>The theoretical basis of PNF is that voluntary action of the agonist muscle will provide neural activation resulting in reciprocal inhibition of the antagonist muscle, thus allowing greater range of motion. </li></ul>
  88. 92. Flexibility Training Techniques <ul><li>Slow movement : a stretching activity in which a muscle or muscles are slowly moved, such as neck rotations, arm rotations, or trunk rotations. </li></ul>
  89. 93. Principle of Flexibility Training <ul><li>Specificity: flexibility is joint-specific and task- or sport-specific. Analyze the task or sport to determine the joints involved and the plane of action involved. </li></ul><ul><li>Overload: place the muscle and connective tissue at or near the normal limits of extensibility and hold the position to achieve elongation. </li></ul>
  90. 94. Flexibility in Sport and Fitness Extreme ROM Greater than Normal ROM Normal ROM Figure skating Jumping Jogging/running Gymnastics Swimming Archery Diving Wrestling Curling Hurdles Sprinting Basketball Pitching Racquet sports Bicycling Dancing (ballet, modern) Most team sports Resistance training
  91. 95. Principle of Flexibility Training <ul><li>Adaptation and Progression: short-term improvements in flexibility have been shown to occur after as little as one week of daily sessions. Progression will naturally follow whatever adaptation does occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance: once the appropriate level of flexibility has been attained, it can be maintained by just one day per week at the same level of intensity. </li></ul>
  92. 96. Guidelines for Flexibility Training <ul><li>Mode: Static or PNF </li></ul><ul><li>Number of Exercises: 10 to 12 </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency: 3 to 7 days/week </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity: No stretch beyond painfree ROM </li></ul><ul><li>Time: 10 to 30 seconds </li></ul><ul><li>Repetitions: 3 to 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Duration: 15 to 30 minutes/session </li></ul>
  93. 97. Body Composition <ul><li>Body composition refers to the quality or makeup of total body mass. </li></ul><ul><li>Total body mass is composed of lean body mass and fat mass. </li></ul><ul><li>Lean body mass includes a person's bones, muscles, organs, and water. </li></ul><ul><li>Fat mass is fat, adipose tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>The assessment of body composition determines the relative percentages of the individual's lean body mass and fat mass. </li></ul>
  94. 98. Skill-related Components of Physical Fitness <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Those which help a person perform motor tasks (tasks involving motion) such as sports, games, recreational, and everyday activities at home, school or work. </li></ul>
  95. 99. The Skill-Related Components <ul><li>Agility </li></ul><ul><li>Balance </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction Time </li></ul><ul><li>Skill-related Fitness </li></ul><ul><li>Speed </li></ul>
  96. 100. Why is Skill-Related Fitness Important? <ul><li>Good levels of skill-related fitness components can help your performance in a variety of sports and other activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Participating in physical activities makes it easier to perform 30-60 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning a skill you enjoy enables you to maintain an active lifestyle. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing the level of your skill-related fitness can help you select a sport or lifetime activity best suited to your skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Sports participation helps students achieve social wellness. </li></ul>
  97. 101. Understanding the Skill-related Components of Physical Fitness <ul><li>AGILITY= The ability to start, stop, and move the body quickly and in different directions. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Soccer, Racquetball, Basketball, and Tennis require changing directions while maintaining body control. </li></ul>
  98. 102. Understanding the Skill-related Components of Physical Fitness <ul><li>BALANCE= A kind of coordination which allows you to maintain control of your body while stationary or moving. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Skiing, gymnastics, skating, dance, and surfing require a high level of balance. </li></ul>
  99. 103. Understanding the Skill-related Components of Physical Fitness <ul><li>COORDINATION= The ability to do a task integrating movements of the body and different parts of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Golf, tennis, basketball, volleyball, and racquetball require coordination. </li></ul>
  100. 104. Understanding the Skill-related Components of Physical Fitness <ul><li>POWER= The ability to combine strength and speed in movement. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: High levels of power are needed to do well in volleyball, football, high jumping, throwing an object (shot put, softball, discus) and vertical jumping. </li></ul>
  101. 105. Understanding the Skill-related Components of Physical Fitness <ul><li>REACTION TIME= The time required to start a movement after being alerted to the need to move. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Quick reactions are very important in activities like track, swimming, baseball, and karate. </li></ul>
  102. 106. Understanding the Skill-related Components of Physical Fitness <ul><li>SPEED= The ability to move your total body quickly from one point to another. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: High speed is required for activities like running the bases in baseball or softball, sprinting in track, or running for a touchdown. </li></ul>
  103. 107. *Tips For At Risk Students* <ul><li>Teachers must make it clear to students who are unable to perform typical physical education classes, that the purpose of the course is not to emphasize the development of skills, but the development of the health-related fitness components which may contribute to improved skill performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Even though they may not pass skill-related tests, they may have scored in the Healthy Fitness Zone for the health-related components. </li></ul>
  104. 108. Remember… <ul><li>You can achieve a high level of physical fitness without being highly successful in skill-related fitness . </li></ul>
  105. 109. Factors Determining Your Skill-related Fitness <ul><li>Heredity- </li></ul><ul><li>-Speed and reaction time are particularly limited by heredity. </li></ul><ul><li>-In spite of limited natural ability, many people have enough determination and desire to achieve high skill levels. </li></ul>
  106. 110. Factors Determining Your Skill-related Fitness <ul><li>Practice- Learning a skill takes time and effort to improve and/or to reach their full skill potential in a particular activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Practice leads to greater success! </li></ul>
  107. 111. Specific Training <ul><li>It is important to identify the specific skill-related components which will contribute to successful performance of the sport and then train to improve these components. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: To improve agility, reaction time, and speed to play tennis, practice footwork drills without hitting a ball. </li></ul>
  108. 112. Lifetime Implications for Health and Well-Being <ul><li>Most experts feel that children and youths need daily physical activity to keep fit and healthy. </li></ul><ul><li>Children have difficulty in exercising at one pace for 20 minutes or longer. </li></ul><ul><li>Most researchers have reported that the cardiorespiratory systems of children and youths respond to regular aerobic exercise in a way similar to adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Children can improve aerobic fitness after training, but that the increase is far less in youngsters than in adults </li></ul>
  109. 113. Lifetime Implications for Health and Well-Being <ul><li>Most studies suggest that obese children and youths are less physically active than their peers. </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity during childhood has been linked to other risk factors for disease, such as high blood pressure and cholesterol. </li></ul><ul><li>Studies show that heart disease, cancer, and other chronic diseases are linked to the lifestyles of people and that these behaviors are learned in childhood and adolescence. </li></ul>
  110. 114. Lifetime Implications for Health and Well-Being <ul><li>Physically inactive children and youths who exercise regularly have lower resting blood pressures and more favorable blood-lipid profiles. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, body fat decreases when exercise programs are initiated among children. </li></ul>
  111. 115. Lifetime Implications for Health and Well-Being <ul><li>One of the most valuable health benefits in youth is that when vigorous activity occurs early in life, a higher bone-mineral density is achieved. </li></ul><ul><li>Most bone buildup occurs during adolescence, so vigorous activity in the earlier years reduces the risk of osteoporosis later in life. Weight-bearing exercises are better for building stronger bones in children than are weight-supported exercises. </li></ul>
  112. 116. Lifetime Implications for Health and Well-Being <ul><li>People begin to acquire and establish patterns of health-related behaviors during childhood and adolescence. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, we should encourage young people to engage in physical activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Schools and communities can improve the health of youngsters by providing instruction, programs, and services that promote enjoy­able, lifelong physical activity </li></ul>
  113. 117. Goal Setting <ul><li>The guidelines set by the American College of Sports Medicine recommend a fitness class to be at least 20 minutes in length and to meet at least three times a week. </li></ul><ul><li>It takes good educational programs, caring instructors, time, facilities, and a desire to improve for students to feel motivated to engage in lifetime healthful behaviors. </li></ul>
  114. 118. Foundations for Goal Setting <ul><li>A year­long program will not necessarily result in achieving twice as much fitness as can a semester-long program, but fitness planning should be incorporated into the entire program. </li></ul><ul><li>If you carefully followed all FITT variables, measurable fitness changes might be noted after only nine weeks of class; however, one entire semester (about 16 weeks) is a more realistic timeframe for inducing measurable fitness changes, provided the frequency and intensity have been adequate. </li></ul><ul><li>A six-or nine-week retest is useful as a check on whether the initial goals were realistic. </li></ul>
  115. 119. Foundations for Goal Setting <ul><li>Goal setting is a mechanism that helps students understand their limits and feel satisfied with their accomplishments. </li></ul><ul><li>The types of behaviors (goals) students require for improving health fitness can be determined from a pretest. </li></ul><ul><li>Without goal setting, fitness scores are just data to submit to an administrator or to parents. </li></ul><ul><li>By incorporating goal setting into the curriculum, fitness scores become much more meaningful. </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing goals is a good way to encourage changes in behavior leading to improved health and fitness. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal setting must be done carefully to successfully enhance motivation. </li></ul>
  116. 120. Foundations for Goal Setting <ul><li>TPFP program reflect both gender and age differences. The teacher should be sure to use the proper charts when setting goals for each child. </li></ul><ul><li>The goals for each student should reflect the individual's level of fitness and fitness habits: greater magnitude of goal for less-fit students and lesser magnitude of goal for fitter students. </li></ul><ul><li>A fit student will have to work hard to make small gains that bring him or her close to personal potential. </li></ul><ul><li>A less-fit student, expending the same effort, might show dramatic fitness gains but still remain far below his or her potential. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus not on comparisons but on personal improvement and progress toward personal goals. </li></ul>
  117. 121. Foundations for Goal Setting <ul><li>And with habits, remember that exercise is not the only factor contributing to fitness. </li></ul><ul><li>Regularly consuming a proper diet, maintaining good sleep patterns, and controlling stress are also important. </li></ul><ul><li>Discovering a student's habits in all these areas will improve your helping the child to individualize and set realistic goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal setting can be intimidating and time consuming if you are a teacher who has a large class. </li></ul><ul><li>Having successful strategies beforehand for teaching students goal setting will help you undertake the task. </li></ul>
  118. 122. Basic Strategies for Successful Goal Setting With Students <ul><li>First, encourage students to set goals based on their current fitness status rather than on a comparison of their personal status with others'. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation is related to competence or perceptions of success in a particular area, so basing success on current physical fitness levels allows each student the potential to improve and thus experience success at goal setting. </li></ul><ul><li>This positive experience will influence the student's motivation and behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Following several goal-setting guidelines will help motivate students maximally and positively influence their behavior and attitude toward physical activity. </li></ul>
  119. 123. Involve Students in the Goal-Setting Process <ul><li>Involving students enhances their commitment to achieving their goals and encourages self-responsibility for personal fitness. </li></ul><ul><li>Scores should be their own, not norm-based. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the age, maturity level, and knowledge level of each student, which should influence the amount of input you use. </li></ul><ul><li>And, of course, an individual's interests and needs should be part of establishing the child's fitness goals. </li></ul>
  120. 124. Start Small and Progress <ul><li>Start with a small class. </li></ul><ul><li>Begin the goal-setting process with one grade level and continue to set goals with this class as its members progress through the school system. </li></ul><ul><li>In a few short years, they will be experienced in setting goals in all areas of fitness </li></ul>
  121. 125. Focus on Improvements Relative to an Individual's Past Behavior <ul><li>Take into account the student's initial level of performance. </li></ul><ul><li>The lower the level of performance, the greater the potential for improvement. </li></ul><ul><li>The higher the level, the less improvement is possible. </li></ul><ul><li>If a student has problems with motivation, set the individual's goals at lower increments than you might for a student who is already highly motivated. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, you might need to cajole the less-motivated student more than you would others. </li></ul>
  122. 126. Set Specific and Measurable Goals <ul><li>Specific and measurable goals are more effective than vague goals (such as &quot;I'll run faster&quot;). </li></ul><ul><li>For example, if a student wants to run faster and has already completed the mile in 12:05, you can help the student set a more specific, measurable goal of running the mile in 11:50. </li></ul><ul><li>Students need some instruction, direction, and practice in identifying specific, measurable goals. </li></ul><ul><li>If the goals are not measurable, it is impossible to determine if the student has been successful at achieving them, which defeats the purpose of goal setting. </li></ul>
  123. 127. Set Challenging and Realistic Goals <ul><li>When you assist students in setting physical fitness goals, take into consideration the child's initial fitness level. </li></ul><ul><li>Also plan the time carefully between the pretest (to establish the goal) and the make their goals too difficult, and their motivation suffers when they cannot attain their goals. </li></ul><ul><li>It may be helpful to have students practice setting goals and making intermediate goals until they learn more about themselves and their physical fitness levels </li></ul>
  124. 128. Write Down Goals <ul><li>Written goals hold more meaning for students and help them focus on what they need to accomplish. </li></ul><ul><li>You will also need to spend more time with students who have special health conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>These students usually need extra guidance or incentives and/or have health concerns. </li></ul>
  125. 129. Provide Students With Strategies <ul><li>Students must understand how to change behaviors that are detrimental to improving or maintaining physical fitness. </li></ul><ul><li>You can suggest examples of strategies, such as having them ride their bicycle three times a week, do 25 sit-ups each night before bed, or stretch after the day at school by using a series of stretches that you provide. </li></ul><ul><li>In other words, provide strategies for improvement. </li></ul><ul><li>It would be better, of course, if the students eventually develop strategies on their own with your guidance. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning how to develop goals based on FITT and nutrition is a crucial part of the lifelong-fitness process. </li></ul>
  126. 130. Support and Give Feedback About Progress Toward Goals <ul><li>An important aspect of goal setting that many teachers disregard is giving positive reinforcement and encouragement. </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal encouragement (such as &quot;I see you have been running one mile every other day. Keep up the good work!), written encouragement (such as a note: &quot;Jose, I was glad to see you practicing modified pull-ups today at lunchbreak&quot;), and verbal recognition (such as &quot;Susan has set a great example for all of us by doing her flexibility exercises daily!&quot;) can assist in keeping students committed to positive fitness behaviors. </li></ul>
  127. 131. Create Goal Stations <ul><li>Setting up &quot;goal stations&quot; for students helps instill a sense of ownership as the youngsters write their goals. </li></ul><ul><li>You can group the students according to their receiving similar scores on their assessments. </li></ul><ul><li>As they enter the class, students can also work individually at these stations to improve (instant activity). </li></ul>
  128. 132. Provide Opportunities for Periodic Evaluation <ul><li>Periodic reassessment of fitness behavior helps students assess how they are progressing toward their personal goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment opportunities should occur regularly throughout the year. These reassessment opportunities can include informal testing and self-testing, both in school and at home. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the information gained through reassessment to evaluate and adjust existing goals where necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>You and the students will also have the opportunity after reassessments to change their goals and determine whether the goal was perhaps too difficult or too easy. </li></ul>
  129. 133. Guidelines for Goal Setting (Amount off Change to Consider a Reasonable Goal) Fitness component Far from criteria levels Near criteria levels Equal or better than criteria levels Aerobic endurance (1-mile run) Decrease time 1-4 min Decrease time 1-2 min Decrease time 30-60 s Flexibility Increase reach 2-8 cm Increase reach 2-5 cm Increase reach 1-3 cm Body composition Decrease skinfold sum 1-10 mm Decrease skinfold sum 1-5 mm Maintain, or possibly decrease 1-2 mm Upper-body muscular strength and endurance Increase by 4-5 reps Increase by 2-3 reps Increase by 1 rep Trunk muscular strength and endurance Increase by 5-10 reps Increase by 3-7 reps Increase by 2-5 reps
  130. 134. Specific Activities and Activity Modifications <ul><li>Aerobic Endurance </li></ul><ul><li>• Allow individuals to run or walk for time rather than distance. </li></ul><ul><li>• Use peer tutors or buddies to help set the pace for the activity. </li></ul><ul><li>• Use equipment that may help motivate individuals to continue to move. </li></ul><ul><li>• Engage in activities that encourage individuals to move for as long as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>• Modify jump-rope activities. </li></ul>
  131. 135. Specific Activities and Activity Modifications <ul><li>Upper-Body Strength and Endurance Activities </li></ul><ul><li>• Provide activities that encourage students to pull their own body weight. </li></ul><ul><li>• Allow children to lift stuffed animals or bottles filled with colorful rocks. </li></ul><ul><li>• Use a parachute and make large and small waves. </li></ul><ul><li>• Use bands or terry-cloth wrist weights to increase arm strength. </li></ul><ul><li>• Have individuals maintain a crab or push-up position for as long as possible. </li></ul>
  132. 136. Specific Activities and Activity Modifications <ul><li>Lower-Body Strength and Endurance Activities </li></ul><ul><li>• Practice a variety of abdominal activities. </li></ul><ul><li>• Using a parachute, have half the group lie back while the other half sits up. </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>• Place objects, such as beanbags, at individuals’ feet to encourage their reaching down for them. </li></ul><ul><li>• Use lightweight, colorful scarves that can be tossed in front of and to the side of the body; encourage the individual to reach for the scarf.  </li></ul>
  133. 137. Sample Goals for Aerobic Fitness <ul><li>• I will reduce my mile run by___seconds by performing aerobic activity___times per week for at least each session. </li></ul><ul><li>• I will exercise aerobically___times a week, running the one-mile distance at least___times a week, timing and logging the results. </li></ul><ul><li>• I will perform aerobic activity___times a week, recording the amount of time, type of activity, and intensity of the activity. </li></ul><ul><li>• I will walk briskly___times a week for a total of___ kms. Each week I will increase my distance___kms. </li></ul>
  134. 138. <ul><li>Thank you! </li></ul><ul><li>Questions? </li></ul><ul><li>Be Active, Healthy and Happy! </li></ul>