STAGE 1: BULLYING & BRUTALITY PHASE PUBLIC SCHOOLS
    Pre-Industrial   Post-Industrial 1700  1800 1900 2000 Popular recreation C18th C19th C20th         State Elementary Ed...
BARBARIAN PHASE <ul><li>Schools were un-ruly places </li></ul><ul><li>Constant battles between staff and pupils (boys) for...
View of Harrow 1802. An early 19 th  C picture of Harrow School, showing a cricket game in progress. Note simplicity.
BARBARIAN PHASE <ul><li>Animal sports  = also popular </li></ul><ul><li>Hunting, Poaching, Baiting and Fighting </li></ul>...
BARBARIAN PHASE <ul><li>Sport had strong associations with inns and hotels. </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking was a vice boys too...
BARBARIAN PHASE <ul><li>CRICKET: </li></ul><ul><li>Accepted by the school authorities. </li></ul><ul><li>Game was codified...
BARBARIAN PHASE <ul><li>Schools were harsh environments. </li></ul><ul><li>Violence – staff beat the pupils </li></ul><ul>...
The Long Chamber, Eton – 1840.  50 boys between 9-19 would be locked up at night and left without supervision till morning...
TRADITIONAL GENTRY SCHOOLS EXPANDED AT THE END OF THE C18TH….resulting in: <ul><li>A considerable increase in income </li>...
Why did games develop unique qualities? <ul><li>Games brought from all over the country (no uniformity) </li></ul><ul><li>...
THE HEADMATERS ROLE <ul><li>(4 Initial Reactions) </li></ul><ul><li>1. They were strongly against the boys free time activ...
KEY POINTS – Stage 1 <ul><li>Sports & games played at this stage were  RECREATIVE  not  EDUCATIVE. </li></ul><ul><li>It wa...
CHANGES <ul><li>Popular Recreation   Stage 1 of Public Schools </li></ul><ul><li>Occasional    Regular </li></ul><ul><li>T...
Results of Changes: <ul><li>Technical make up of games changed because: </li></ul><ul><li>They were organised on a regular...
Cricket at Charterhouse – 1805 Still only 2 stumps and with cloisters in the background. Cricket was the most respectable ...
The Fishing/Poaching expedition Fishing was different to swimming, especially if pursued  out of bounds. Tom Brown was cau...
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  1. 1. STAGE 1: BULLYING & BRUTALITY PHASE PUBLIC SCHOOLS
  2. 2.     Pre-Industrial Post-Industrial 1700 1800 1900 2000 Popular recreation C18th C19th C20th         State Elementary Education Rational Recreation       Public School Athleticism Four Aspects of Sports History Popular Recreation
  3. 3. BARBARIAN PHASE <ul><li>Schools were un-ruly places </li></ul><ul><li>Constant battles between staff and pupils (boys) for control. </li></ul><ul><li>Activities that were played were games and recreational activities the boys had seen / taken part in at home. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mob Football </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stick and Ball Games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These activities were mainly spontaneous and very violent. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. View of Harrow 1802. An early 19 th C picture of Harrow School, showing a cricket game in progress. Note simplicity.
  5. 5. BARBARIAN PHASE <ul><li>Animal sports = also popular </li></ul><ul><li>Hunting, Poaching, Baiting and Fighting </li></ul><ul><li>Many schools owned their own packs of hunting dogs. </li></ul><ul><li>Gambling / Wagering rife. </li></ul><ul><li>Prize fighting & Horse Racing already well established. </li></ul>
  6. 6. BARBARIAN PHASE <ul><li>Sport had strong associations with inns and hotels. </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking was a vice boys took part in if allowed. </li></ul><ul><li>Many schools tried to limit the boys access to these pursuits….causing further conflict! </li></ul>
  7. 7. BARBARIAN PHASE <ul><li>CRICKET: </li></ul><ul><li>Accepted by the school authorities. </li></ul><ul><li>Game was codified at the beginning of 1800’s </li></ul><ul><li>It was non-violent & suitable for gentry. </li></ul>1st recorded school match Westminster V's Eton 1796
  8. 8. BARBARIAN PHASE <ul><li>Schools were harsh environments. </li></ul><ul><li>Violence – staff beat the pupils </li></ul><ul><li>Staff not interested in boys when not in lessons so they ran riot during breaks, lunches and after school. </li></ul><ul><li>Spartan school environment – not much equipment etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Fagging – Older pupils used to beat up younger pupils. (e.g. Sixth Form – Yr 7) </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Long Chamber, Eton – 1840. 50 boys between 9-19 would be locked up at night and left without supervision till morning. Room decayed, icy winter winds would come through broken windows.
  10. 10. TRADITIONAL GENTRY SCHOOLS EXPANDED AT THE END OF THE C18TH….resulting in: <ul><li>A considerable increase in income </li></ul><ul><li>Improved facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Improved staffing </li></ul><ul><li>Boarding gave the boys a great deal of time together outside the classroom… IN THIS FREE TIME THEY…. </li></ul><ul><li>Played the games they had learnt at home </li></ul><ul><li>Organised themselves into activities such as cricket, mob football, illegal poaching, organised hare and hounds, casual boating & rackets. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Why did games develop unique qualities? <ul><li>Games brought from all over the country (no uniformity) </li></ul><ul><li>Nature of playing area decided the form of play. </li></ul><ul><li>FOOTBALL TYPE GAMES </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Rugby School grass area, allowed/ encouraged physical play such as tackling and hacking. </li></ul><ul><li>Harrow / Charterhouse cloisters (with flagstones & flint walls), so ball was kicked & tacklers tended to stay on their feet. </li></ul>
  12. 12. THE HEADMATERS ROLE <ul><li>(4 Initial Reactions) </li></ul><ul><li>1. They were strongly against the boys free time activities. </li></ul><ul><li>2. There were those who turned a blind eye to it. </li></ul><ul><li>3. There were those who acknowledged that with boys getting bored with all the spare time they had on there hands as boarders, they were as well being occupied in a public place to use up excess energies. </li></ul><ul><li>4. There were headmasters who valued sports – particularly archery. </li></ul>
  13. 13. KEY POINTS – Stage 1 <ul><li>Sports & games played at this stage were RECREATIVE not EDUCATIVE. </li></ul><ul><li>It was not in the hands of the teachers & certainly not promoted by them. </li></ul><ul><li>It was not compulsory but a part of ‘play-time’. </li></ul><ul><li>Many of the games & activities were both vigorous and dangerous. </li></ul><ul><li>Activities were run by the boys for the boys. </li></ul><ul><li>But if they broke any rules of the school (I.e. out of bounds), they risked a thrashing from the headmaster. </li></ul>
  14. 14. CHANGES <ul><li>Popular Recreation Stage 1 of Public Schools </li></ul><ul><li>Occasional Regular </li></ul><ul><li>Time (free time available) </li></ul><ul><li>Young Boys </li></ul><ul><li>Gentry Boys </li></ul><ul><li>Numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Space </li></ul>
  15. 15. Results of Changes: <ul><li>Technical make up of games changed because: </li></ul><ul><li>They were organised on a regular basis </li></ul><ul><li>Rules & fixed groups were established </li></ul><ul><li>Social control & leadership of boys to run the activities </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to a wide range of activities – particular to the school and its surroundings. </li></ul><ul><li>Development of the athletic culture in the school, formed by and retained by the boys. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Cricket at Charterhouse – 1805 Still only 2 stumps and with cloisters in the background. Cricket was the most respectable game.
  17. 17. The Fishing/Poaching expedition Fishing was different to swimming, especially if pursued out of bounds. Tom Brown was caught by the new under Keeper. This time he was flogged.

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