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  1. 1. Aggression in Sport
  2. 2. Aims and objectives; Describe the nature of aggression and assertion Define channeled aggression Explain the causes of aggressive behaviour Evaluate critically theories of aggression (instinct theories; frustration-aggression hypothesis; aggressive-cue hypothesis (Berkowitz); social theories); Describe methods of eliminating aggressive tendencies of performers.
  3. 3. Definitions. . . ‘Any behaviour that is intended to harm another individual by physical or verbal means’ (Bull, 1990) ‘Is any form of behaviour directed toward the goal of harming or injuring another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment’ (Baron) The term aggression is used to describe forceful behaviour in sport . .
  4. 4. Definitions cont… These imply that aggression is socially unacceptable and so does not have a place in sport. While this is true, questions must be asked about the crash tackle in rugby or the toshi throw in judo. Both these skills have the capacity to injure, but they are recognised as being a legitimate part of the sport.
  5. 5. The term aggression needs to be clearly defined. . . To understand the term it is necessary to divide aggression into 2 categories Hostile Aggression Assertive Behaviour (referred to as Channelled Aggression)
  6. 6. Hostile (or reactive) aggression: Outside the rules of the game Prime motive is to harm and inflict injury Involves anger and often an aggressive player will disrupt the team’s performance and spoil cohesion of the group Needs to be eliminated from sport e.g Throwing a punch at an opponent in football
  7. 7. Assertive Channelled Aggression: Within the rules and spirit of the game Prime motive is to execute the skill Anger is not evident e.g. The attacking rugby player running hard at the defence; primary intention is to break through the tackle, secondary intention is to inflict a painful experience so the defender is reluctant to tackle next time
  8. 8. KEY TERMS HOSTILE AGGRESSION Aggression is referred to as hostile aggression if it is defined as deliberate intention to harm or injure another person e.g. Deliberate high tackle in rugby. CHANNELLED AGGRESSION Channelled aggression is often referred to as assertion and involves robust play which is directed towards completing the skill successfully and is not primarily involved with inflicting injury e.g. A legitimate tackle in rugby
  9. 9. The Causes or Antecedents of aggressive behaviour
  10. 10. Antecedents A prior event which can lead to aggression. Note that an antecedent is a cause and not a theory of aggression
  11. 11. TASK For a short period watch a number of sporting videos and look at a number of sports that include physical contact. Identify the acts of assertion and the acts of aggression and try to allocate a cause for this behaviour. . .
  12. 12. Elimination of Aggression Methods to eliminate aggression come under 2 headings: 1.COGNITIVE techniques which involve psychological strategies 2.SOMATIC techniques which involve physiological strategies. COGNITIVE Relating to mental of psychological process SOMATIC Relating to physical processes such as increases in breathing rate, heart rate and sweating
  13. 13. Methods to Eliminate Aggressive Tendencies •A coach must negatively reinforce aggressive behaviour in training •Punish aggression i.e. with fines, benching •Substitute an aggressive player or remove him from the situation •Reinforce non-aggression, eg. Give a fair play award •Emphasis non-aggressive role models •Lower arousal levels •Stress performance rather than outcome goals •Implement stress management techniques •Change the athletes perception of the situation
  14. 14. Theories of Aggression (see handout) Instinct Theory – trait perspective The social learning theory – social learning perspective Frustration-aggression hypothesis- interactionist perspective Aggressive Cue Hypothesis (Berkowitz) – interactionist perspective
  15. 15. Task 2 - You will be given a theory to study . . . Prepare a short presentation of this theory You may use power point, flip chart or poster presentation or another form of presentation of your choice. Your presentations will take place next lesson.
  16. 16. So. . . Is Aggression learned or is it instinctive? Discuss!