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  1. 1. Sports Psychology Group Dynamics of Performance
  2. 2. Leaning Objectives. . . •Groups and teams – Their impact upon performance and the pursuit of balanced, active and healthy lifestyle. •Leadership and the role of leader in physical activity •Social facilitation and inhibition – The effects of an audience and other participants on performance.
  3. 3. GROUP DYNAMICS The social processes operating within the group between individual members GROUP COHESION The tendency of a group or team to stick together and remain united in the pursuit of its goals or objectives. INTERACTION An action or reaction between two factors or people
  4. 4. From your own experience in sport – What makes a ‘GOOD TEAM?’ Research the following ‘successful’ team and identify what factors make them a successful team. Jenny – Manchester United Football Club Becca – New Zealand Rugby Team Emma – New Zealand Netball Team
  5. 5. All successful teams tend to work together to achieve a goal. Therefore, the coach must understand the social processes operating within a group. This interaction between team members is called GROUP DYNAMICS
  6. 6. According to McGrath (1984)Interaction within the group is a defining factor. In order for interaction to take place, mutual awareness must exist between group members. McGrath states that ‘groups are those social aggregates that involve mutual awareness and potential interaction’
  7. 7. Properties of groups Structured patterns of communication Group Unity Shared Purpose A Commo n Goal Collectiv e Identity Carron & Davies also highlighted the existence of mutual interdependence and they also suggested that the following criteria must also apply before sports teams, exercise clubs and classes of PE students can be considered ‘teams’ or ‘groups’.
  8. 8. Steiner presented a model to explain the relationship between an interactive group and it’s performance in sport. Actual Productivity Potential Productivity Losses due to Faulty Processes
  9. 9. Actual Productivity is the result of group achievement – eg. the actual score of the game Potential Productivity is the group’s best possible performance given the resources & task demands. Eg. A tall basketball team should beat a smaller set of players. Faulty Processes Faulty processes are things that go pear shaped! It relates to the factors that can go wrong in team performance, which will impede or even prevent group cohesion and detract from the collective potential of the team
  10. 10. The group’s performance usually falls short of its potential because it is hard to get a perfect performance. The key to success is to minimise these faulty processes, which include coordination losses & motivational problems. There are 2 faulty processes that bring about losses in potential productivity. 1 - Co-ordination Losses (The Ringlemann Effect) 2 - Motivation Losses (Social Loafing)
  11. 11. Coordination losses (The Ringlemann Effect) Coordination losses involve bad timing or poor strategies. The synchronisation of teamwork breaks down Activities that require interaction are more prone to coordination problems. More likely to occur as team numbers increase i.e. a basketball team is more likely to operate together successfully than a rugby union team Excessive competition in sport can reduce the enjoyment & lead to a lack of coordination. Ringlemann studied rope pulling & found that a group of 8 did not pull their rope 8 times as hard as 1 person. There is less effort exerted when working with others.
  12. 12. Motivational Losses (Social loafing) •Social loafing is the tendency of individual’s to drop their effort & hide within the group. •It is an individual motivation loss due to lack of performance identification.
  13. 13. Social loafing is caused by: •A belief that you effort won’t change the result •A perception that others are not trying, so why should you? •A belief that others will cover for your lack of effort •Individual effort not being recognised •Lack of reinforcement from others •Low confidence •Perceived low ability – Links to avoidance behaviour •Low arousal/motivation •Poor leadership •Negative attitudes NOTE. . . You need to be aware that social loafing is dysfunctional behaviour because it prevents effective teamwork. Notice the link between causes of social loafing, low self-confidence, negative attribution and avoidance behaviour.
  14. 14. Highlighting individual performances Monitoring individuals with feedback Using positive reinforcement when possible Promoting cohesion within the team Setting individual goals Giving specific roles Support & encouragement of each other Maintain team interest in common goals
  15. 15. Injury can disrupt team strategies and break down co-ordination Lack of incentive to produce teamwork will prevent cohesion Vague individual roles inhibit effective teamwork Low overall ability makes team play difficult to achieve Personality can influence team cohesion – people with low trait confidence find it difficult to promote group cohesion Inadequate leadership inhibits teamwork
  16. 16. What factors affect the cohesion of a group? (4marks) What does social loafing mean? (4marks) As a team coach how would you minimise the chances of social loafing occurring? (4marks) There may be co-ordination problems relating to team performance, which contribute to the faulty processes. What is the Ringlemann effect? Explain the strategies that a coach could use to minimise this effect. (6marks)
  17. 17. The term cohesiveness has long been associated with the amount of ‘togetherness’ displayed by a team both on and off the field. Team cohesion is commonly defined as a dynamic process that is reflected in the tendency of a group to remain united in the pursuit of its goals and objectives (Carron 1982).
  18. 18. There are 2 types of cohesion that must be considered. . . Task cohesion – the degree to which group members are united in achieving the common goal, such as winning the game Social cohesion – the degree to which group members like each other & get on, with mutual trust
  19. 19. Task cohesion is most important in interactive sports and activities such as hockey. . . Team members working with each other to complete a task successfully. Social cohesion is most important in co-active sports like track and field athletics or fitness groups. Social cohesion involves the formation of personal relationships within the group that provide the individual with support and friendship Within large groups or squads there is a possibility that sub- groups emerge. Sub-groups can be seen to impede the formation and development of a cohesive group!
  20. 20. The 2 types are independent. It is possible to be committed to achieving the team goals but not get on with other team members. A team with major disputes can still do well & a social team may not be successful.
  21. 21. Interactive Sports and Activities Sports or activities such as hockey, netball and rugby in which team members work together and rely on each other. Co-active Sports or Activities Sports or activities such as athletics, equestrian activities and aerobic exercise classes in which individual performance is required. Sub-groups Small groups contained within the whole group.
  22. 22. Carron (1993) identified 4 factors that directly affect team cohesion.... 1 – Situational Factors Elements of the specific situation and the environment 2 – Individual Factors Characteristics of team members 3 – Leadership Factors Style of leadership preferred by the group 4 – Team Factors Collective team goals, communication, shared success...
  23. 23. The factors affecting cohesion are: Indicate whether these factors are Situational, Individual, Leadership or Team Factors Whether the individuals in the team share a common goal Team How well the team members get on socially Situational/ The amount of past success & the likelihood of future success Team The influence of their leader Leadership The size of the group Situational The amount of communication between team members Team The type of sport (interactive sports, such as team games, need more cohesion than individual sports) Situational
  24. 24. The factors affecting cohesion Cont. . . Unequal pay or rewards for different players Situational The tactics & strategies of the coach & team Teams The reward on offer Situational Personalities of group members Individual Attitudes of group members Individual Similarity of group members in age, race or gender Situational External threats to the team Team The amount of time the group has been together to establish relationships Situational
  25. 25. You are a COACH.... How would you promote group cohesion in you team to encourage your INDIVIDUAL PERFORMERS to participate fully and become a full member of the ‘team’ ‘group’ and limit the effects of social loafing. Discussion Do you think being a member of a group can affect an individuals choice of lifestyle and encourage an individual to adopt a balanced, active and healthy lifestyle? Read and make notes on the 2 sections on page 230. . . •Factors affecting participation in a group or team and •Group and team effects on behaviour
  26. 26. Definition: ‘The behavioural process of influencing another individual or group towards achieving set goal or goals’
  27. 27. •Knowledge & Understanding of effective leadership •Characteristics of Leaders •Knowledge & Understanding of Emergent and Prescribed Leaders.
  28. 28. 1)Organisation 2)Goal directed 3)Relationship builder 4)Concern for others 5)Reliable 6)Communication base 7)Motivator Why are leaders so important?
  29. 29. Highly developed perceptual and decision making skills Vision Ambition Motivation CharismaExperience Understanding of others Empathy with the team Communication skills
  30. 30. Quality Authoritarian Democratic Laissez-faire Decision maker Orientation (social/task) Speed of decision Can performer be left alone Sport type for success
  31. 31. Leader centred Task orientated Personal authority of leader stressed More effective in sports with greater number of performers Effective for instant decisions Essential in potentially dangerous situations Performer centred Co-operative approach allows performer input into decision making Leader set in context of whole group effort More successful in individual sports Good when instant decisions are not needed
  32. 32. Makes no decisions, the group will make its own decisions. This style can happen as a consequence of poor leadership. Group determines the work to be done and the pace of it Acts as a consultant
  33. 33. Quality Authoritarian Democratic Laissez-faire Decision maker Makes all the decisions Shares decision making Allows group to make its own decisions Orientation (social/task) Task Focuses on group performance and achieving goals Social Interested in developing meaningful, inter- personal relationships within the team neither Speed of decision Effective instant decisions Not instant Very slow Can performer be left alone No Yes Yes Sport type for success •Large groups of people •Interactive games •Outdoor pursuits – dangerous situations •Individual sports •Co-active game when time constraints are not as exacting and personal support may be required •Small team games
  34. 34. What style of leadership would be most effective in the following situations and why? Personal Trainer Gymnastics Coach Aerobics Instructor Outdoor Ed Instructor Rugby Coach PE Teacher
  35. 35. The correct style of leadership to adopt depends on the ‘favourableness’ of the situation A highly favourable situation •Leader’s position is strong •Task is simple with clear structure •Warm group and leader relations A highly unfavourable situation •Leader’s position is weak •Task is complex with vague structure •Hostile group and leader relations
  36. 36. •Autocratic task-orientated leaders are more effective in BOTH the most favourable and least favourable situations •Democratic social-orientated leaders are more effective in moderately favourable situations Exam Tip You need to understand that situation favourableness is a major factor in determining leadership style. You need to also be aware of other factors that influence the leader’s approach. . .
  37. 37. Autocratic leadership is preferable: Democratic leadership is preferable: When groups are hostile and discipline is needed When groups are friendly and relationships are warm If groups are large If groups are small For team players who prefer an instructional approach In activities that require interpersonal communication In the early or cognitive stage of learning When the autonomous stage of learning has been achieved and the performer s expert In dangerous situations In situations where there is no threat or danger When there are time constraints When there are no constraints on time. If the leaders personality is inclined to be authoritarian If the leaders personality is inclined to be democratic When the leader is male. . Men prefer an autocratic approach When the leader is female. . Women prefer a democratic approach
  38. 38. How does a person become a LEADER? Prescribed Leader Appointed from outside the group (external appointment), by managerial agents, appointed because skills are valued Emergent Leader Comes from within a group, either informal or formal nomination from within the group, arise as their skills are valued
  39. 39. Identify an example of an emergent and prescribed leader from a sporting context. Give 3 advantages and 3 disadvantages of the emergent and the prescribed leader’s position when charge of the group is first taken.
  40. 40. Emergent Leaders (captain of a team) Advantages •All ready familiar with the team members •Understand the team dynamics •Trusted/valued member therefore will be respected and listen to Disadvantages •Maybe too ‘familiar’ with team – not taken seriously •Hard to make big decisions when team mates are friends
  41. 41. Prescribed Leaders (manager of a team) Advantages •Brings new ideas/fresh blood to the team •Can make decisions without using other/prior knowledge •Has a bit of distance from players/aloofness Disadvantages •Doesn’t understand dynamics of team •Makes decisions based on knowledge not on what might be best for that team
  42. 42. By Next Lesson. . Read and make notes on Critical Evaluation of leadership theories on page 234.
  43. 43. A Critical Evaluation of Leadership Theories
  44. 44. TRAIT APPROACH • Trait theorists believe leaders are born with the capacity to take charge • Leadership traits are considered to be stable personality dispositions. Traits such as intelligence, assertiveness, self-confidence. If this was true, a leader should be able to take control of any situation; but in practice. . . This is highly unlikely. Trait theory in general is not a good predictor of behaviour. It is unlikely that specific dominant traits alone can facilitate successful leadership. A significant trait theory is the ‘great man theory of leadership’ Which suggests that the necessary qualities of leadership are inherited by sons (NOT daughters) whose fathers have been successful. Not a popular theory Like early trait personality research, trait research relating to leadership has been inconclusive!
  45. 45. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY • Social learning theorists propose that ALL behaviour is LEARNED. • Learning coming about through contact with environmental forces. Example Someone who is aspiring to be a Captain, sees a situation handled well by an experienced leader. This method will be remembered and copied if a similar situation arises in future. This process of imitating the successful behaviour of role models is called Vicarious reinforcement. Leadership skills therefore acquired by imitation and developed through experience. The weakness of the social learning theory – Does not take in to account the trait perspective at all. Can learning alone facilitate effective leadership????
  46. 46. INTERACTIONIST THEORY • Leadership skills emerge because of a combination of inherited abilities AND learned skills. Leadership skills are likely to emerge and be acquired when a situation triggers the traits that are of importance to leadership. Gill (200) Indicates that in the context of sport and physical activity, interactionist theories give a more realistic explanation of behaviour.
  47. 47. Questions . . . 1. Give a definition of the term ‘Leadership’ 2. List the qualities of a good leader. 3. What are the 3 different types of leadership? 4. What are the two orientations of leaders? 5. What is an emergent and what is a prescribed leader? 6. List 4 characteristics of a democratic leader 7. What are the two opposing theories concerning leadership qualities? Extended question. . . 8. "Trait theory suggests that leaders are born with their Leadership characteristics. To what extent do you think 'social learning' plays apart?“
  48. 48. Multidimensional model of sports leadership Chellanduria (1978) identified 3 influences that interact to produce effective leadership. These initial factors are termed ANTECEDENTS, which are preceding circumstances
  49. 49. Chelladurai’s multidimensional theory of leadership Required Behaviour Actual Behaviour Preferred Behaviour GROUP PERFORMANCE GROUP SATISFACTION Situational Characteristics Leader Characteristics Member Characteristics
  50. 50. 3 Antecedents (influences) which determine the leaders behaviour are; •Situational characteristics •Leader Characteristics •Group member characteristics TASK Make a table with the heading and three titles. What do you think the characteristics mean?
  51. 51. SITUATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS •Environmental conditions – interactive or co-active sports •The numbers in the team •Time constraints of the play or overall match •Considerations about the strength of the opposition
  52. 52. LEADER CHARACTERISTICS •Skill of the leader •Personality of the leader •Experience of the leader •Inclination towards social or task orientated style
  53. 53. GROUP MEMBER CHARACTERISTICS •Age •Gender •Motivation •Competence •Experience
  54. 54. 3 types of leader behaviour which would be guided by the antecedents (Influences); •REQUIRED BEHAVIOUR - This involves what ought to be done by the leader in certain situations •ACTUAL BEHAVIOUR – Is what the leader chooses to do as the best course of action in the given situation. Greatly influenced by the competence of the leader •PREFERRED BEHAVIOUR – Concerns what the group or athlete wants the leader to do. Usually determined by the member characteristics
  55. 55. Chelladurai’s multidimensional theory of leadership WHY IS IT SO IMPORTANT? •The more the elements match the more effective the leadership is likely to be •If leadership qualities are what the group like or expect, then they are more likely to follow •If leadership styles match the situation then leadership is effective
  56. 56. The important element of the theory is that if all 3 of the leaders behaviours are CONGRUENT (go well together) (for example antecedents, types and consequences coincide exactly), then member satisfaction and high group performance will result.
  57. 57. Make two copied of the multidimensional model of sports leadership and consider the following examples: 1. The captain of a senior international team 2. The coach introducing youngsters to gymnastics For each example, fill in the boxes relating to the characteristics affecting leader behaviour and the type of leader behaviour. Discuss how both leaders would attain high performance while ensuring group member satisfaction TASK / HOMEWORK
  58. 58. Required Behaviour Actual Behaviour Preferred Behaviour GROUP PERFORMANCE GROUP SATISFACTION Situational Characteristics Leader Characteristics Member Characteristics