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  1. 1. THE SKELETAL SYSTEM: JOINTS MSS10 Anatomy & Physiology
  2. 2. Overview:  Defining Joints  Structural and Functional Classifications  The Importance of Synovial Joints  Synovial Joint Structure  Movement Classification
  3. 3. What is a Joint?  Where 2 or more bones meet an articulation or joint exists. Movement doesn’t always occur at these sites however.  Joints are typically classified according to the degree of movement permitted.
  4. 4. Structural Classification of Joints Based on 2 criteria: 1. The presents or absence of a synovial cavity 2. The type of connective tissue that binds the bones Structurally, joints are classified as either:  Fibrous (Synarthrosis) - Immovable  Cartilaginous (Amphiarthrosis) – Slightly movable  Synovial (Diarthrosis) – Freely movable An example of each?
  5. 5. Fibrous Joints  Lack a synovial cavity, bones held closely together by connective tissue  There is little or no movement  The most common type is suture - thin layer of dense fibrous connective tissue unites bones of the skull  Another type is teeth in sockets of alveolar processes
  6. 6. Cartilaginous Joints  Lack a synovial cavity; allows very little movement  Bones tightly connected by fibrocartilage  The best examples are intervertebral discs and pubic symphysis
  7. 7. Synovial Joints  Synovial cavity separates articulating bones Bones covered by articular (hyaline) cartilage - reduce friction - works as a shock absorber Articular capsule surrounds joint - fibrous bundles (ligaments) mechanically hold bones close and provide stability Synovial membrane: inner layer of articular capsule - secretes viscous synovial fluid - brings nutrients to articular cartilage
  8. 8. Types of Synovial Joint  HINGE  PIVOT  BALL AND SOCKET  SADDLE  CONDYLOID  GLIDING  These are complex joints which enable a wide range of movement-
  9. 9. Synovial Joint: Movement Types  Specific terminology is used to designate the movement of the human body – • Flexion/extension/hyperextension (lateral flexion) • Abduction/adduction • Circumduction • Rotation (lateral & medial of arms & legs) • Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion • Supination/pronation
  10. 10. Quiz!  What is a joint?  What are the 3 types of structural classification?  What do fibrous and cartilaginous joints lack?  Ligaments are a component of the ______ capsule.  Name the 6 types of synovial joint?  In kayaking, what movement types would you see when paddling?
  11. 11. Further reading:  Calais-Germain, B. (1993) Anatomy of Movement, Eastland Press,. ISBN 0-939616-17-3  Drake, R. Vogl, W. Mitchell, A. (2004) Gray’s Anatomy for Students, Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 0-443- 06612-4  Martini, F. Timmons, M. McKinnley, M. (2000) Human Anatomy, 3rd Edition, Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0-13- 010011-0  Marieb, E. (2000) Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 6th Edition. Addison Wesley Longman. ISBN 0-8053-4940-5  Muscolino, E. (2005) The Muscular System Manual: The Skeletal Muscles of the Human Body, 2nd Edition, C.V. Mosby. ISBN 0-323-02523-4