Open question to students. How would we be without joints? So what makes them necessary? No movement, is this the case for all bones? Why not? (skull needs to fuse for protection etc).
What is the/a synovial cavity? Literal epistemology – Syn/Amp/Diarthrosis. What examples can the students think of re joint types? Add tech info-
Are teeth bones? No. Why? Explain if necessary. If a fibrous joint had movement what may occur? Friction, breakdown, pain and injury. And why would this occur?
Limited movement due to the nature of the intervertebral cartilage. The spine moves as the combined flexion and torsional range is amplified due to the number of vertebrae.
Make use of skeleton to highlight all joints. Board diagram – knee in detail. Ant/post cruciate, medial and lateral meniscal pads, collateral ligament etc Vertibrocostal and sternocostal synovial joints – facilitate rib movement during breathing.
Give handouts for Synovial joints. Discovery task: What movements happen where? An example for each, from each table.
Give handouts for Movement Types. Group task: Link movement and specific joints to movement. How do they link to various sports? Use photos of surfing etc, in groups of 3/4.
PEShare.co.uk Shared Resource
MSS10 Anatomy & Physiology
Structural and Functional Classifications
The Importance of Synovial Joints
Synovial Joint Structure
What is a Joint?
Where 2 or more bones meet an articulation or
joint exists. Movement doesn’t always occur at
these sites however.
Joints are typically classified according to the
degree of movement permitted.
Structural Classification of
Based on 2 criteria:
1. The presents or absence of a synovial cavity
2. The type of connective tissue that binds the
Structurally, joints are classified as either:
Fibrous (Synarthrosis) - Immovable
Cartilaginous (Amphiarthrosis) – Slightly
Synovial (Diarthrosis) – Freely movable
An example of each?
Lack a synovial cavity, bones held closely together by
There is little or no movement
The most common type is suture - thin layer of dense
fibrous connective tissue unites bones of the skull
Another type is teeth in sockets of alveolar processes
Lack a synovial cavity; allows very little movement
Bones tightly connected by fibrocartilage
The best examples are intervertebral discs and pubic
Synovial cavity separates
Bones covered by articular (hyaline)
- reduce friction
- works as a shock absorber
Articular capsule surrounds joint
- fibrous bundles (ligaments)
mechanically hold bones close
and provide stability
Synovial membrane: inner layer of
- secretes viscous synovial fluid
- brings nutrients to articular
Types of Synovial Joint
BALL AND SOCKET
These are complex joints which enable a wide
range of movement-
Synovial Joint: Movement
Specific terminology is used to designate the
movement of the human body –
• Flexion/extension/hyperextension (lateral
• Rotation (lateral & medial of arms & legs)
• Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion
What is a joint?
What are the 3 types of structural
What do fibrous and cartilaginous joints lack?
Ligaments are a component of the ______
Name the 6 types of synovial joint?
In kayaking, what movement types would you
see when paddling?
Calais-Germain, B. (1993) Anatomy of Movement,
Eastland Press,. ISBN 0-939616-17-3
Drake, R. Vogl, W. Mitchell, A. (2004) Gray’s Anatomy
for Students, Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 0-443-
Martini, F. Timmons, M. McKinnley, M. (2000) Human
Anatomy, 3rd Edition, Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0-13-
Marieb, E. (2000) Essentials of Human Anatomy and
Physiology, 6th Edition. Addison Wesley Longman.
Muscolino, E. (2005) The Muscular System Manual:
The Skeletal Muscles of the Human Body, 2nd
Edition, C.V. Mosby. ISBN 0-323-02523-4