Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

PEShare.co.uk Shared Resource

470 views

Published on

Published in: Business, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

PEShare.co.uk Shared Resource

  1. 1. THE SKELETAL SYSTEM: JOINTS MSS10 Anatomy & Physiology
  2. 2. Overview:  Defining Joints  Structural and Functional Classifications  The Importance of Synovial Joints  Synovial Joint Structure  Movement Classification
  3. 3. What is a Joint?  Where 2 or more bones meet an articulation or joint exists. Movement doesn’t always occur at these sites however.  Joints are typically classified according to the degree of movement permitted.
  4. 4. Structural Classification of Joints Based on 2 criteria: 1. The presents or absence of a synovial cavity 2. The type of connective tissue that binds the bones Structurally, joints are classified as either:  Fibrous (Synarthrosis) - Immovable  Cartilaginous (Amphiarthrosis) – Slightly movable  Synovial (Diarthrosis) – Freely movable An example of each?
  5. 5. Fibrous Joints  Lack a synovial cavity, bones held closely together by connective tissue  There is little or no movement  The most common type is suture - thin layer of dense fibrous connective tissue unites bones of the skull  Another type is teeth in sockets of alveolar processes
  6. 6. Cartilaginous Joints  Lack a synovial cavity; allows very little movement  Bones tightly connected by fibrocartilage  The best examples are intervertebral discs and pubic symphysis
  7. 7. Synovial Joints  Synovial cavity separates articulating bones Bones covered by articular (hyaline) cartilage - reduce friction - works as a shock absorber Articular capsule surrounds joint - fibrous bundles (ligaments) mechanically hold bones close and provide stability Synovial membrane: inner layer of articular capsule - secretes viscous synovial fluid - brings nutrients to articular cartilage
  8. 8. Types of Synovial Joint  HINGE  PIVOT  BALL AND SOCKET  SADDLE  CONDYLOID  GLIDING  These are complex joints which enable a wide range of movement-
  9. 9. Synovial Joint: Movement Types  Specific terminology is used to designate the movement of the human body – • Flexion/extension/hyperextension (lateral flexion) • Abduction/adduction • Circumduction • Rotation (lateral & medial of arms & legs) • Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion • Supination/pronation
  10. 10. Quiz!  What is a joint?  What are the 3 types of structural classification?  What do fibrous and cartilaginous joints lack?  Ligaments are a component of the ______ capsule.  Name the 6 types of synovial joint?  In kayaking, what movement types would you see when paddling?
  11. 11. Further reading:  Calais-Germain, B. (1993) Anatomy of Movement, Eastland Press,. ISBN 0-939616-17-3  Drake, R. Vogl, W. Mitchell, A. (2004) Gray’s Anatomy for Students, Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 0-443- 06612-4  Martini, F. Timmons, M. McKinnley, M. (2000) Human Anatomy, 3rd Edition, Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0-13- 010011-0  Marieb, E. (2000) Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, 6th Edition. Addison Wesley Longman. ISBN 0-8053-4940-5  Muscolino, E. (2005) The Muscular System Manual: The Skeletal Muscles of the Human Body, 2nd Edition, C.V. Mosby. ISBN 0-323-02523-4

×