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  1. 1. Acquiring Movement Skills Classification of Motor Skills
  2. 2. Learning Objectives • Classify movement skills by placing them on a variable continua
  3. 3. Skills • We all have skills that we use everyday • In PE, you must focus on motor skills that are essential in sport. • To have a balanced, active and healthy lifestyle by taking part in physical activity, we must learn and master these motor skills. • You will examine; – The classification of skills (to enable us to analyse and understand the best way to learn and teach each skill) – Different ways that skills can be learned and the best types of practice for different skills.
  4. 4. What is Skill? • With a partner, make a list of the following: – Five skills that you use daily – Five skills commonly used in many sports (generic skills) – Five skills required fro a specific sport
  5. 5. What is Skill? • The word skill can be used in two different ways... • Referring to an act or a task e.g?? • A rugby player converting a penalty • But also used as an indicator of quality e.g?? • Comparing two hockey players, one player is skilful, and the other is not.
  6. 6. Skill • Skill has been defined as: ‘ The learned ability to bring about predetermined results with maximum certainty, often with the minimum outlay of time or energy or both. (Guthrie, 1956) • a skill is something you learn, you can (eventually) do consistently and you can perform efficienctly.
  7. 7. Skill • Learned Ability – It is something you learn, you are not born with it • Pre-determined result – You have an aim that you are trying to achieve e.g. Serving into the service box • Maximum certainty – You are very likely to succeed. You can do the skill over and over successfully. • Maximum efficiency – Perform the movement smoothly, not wasting energy. •
  8. 8. Skill: An Act or Task • Denotes to an act or task, which has a specific aim or goal; A Gymnast performing a vault
  9. 9. Skill: An Act or Task Tennis Serve Netball Shot Cricket Bowl
  10. 10. Skill: An Act or Task • Players achieving a high percentage of success, would be considered a skilled player. • Skill is the movement, action or task the person is doing and so can be seen as a goal directed behaviour.
  11. 11. Skill: Indicator of Quality Performance • This is more ambiguous... • Normally the word ‘well’ is added to describe a judgment made on someone. • E.G. ‘That was a well performed hockey pass (skill), it was much better than her’s’ • What you need to know is what makes it a WELL PERFROMED SKILL.
  12. 12. CLASSICATION OF SKILLS • Analysis of movement skills enables us to understand their requirements and decide on the best ways to teach, practise and improve them. • To analyse movement skills psychologists have identified a range of characteristics. • It is difficult to be precise about classification as skills may have elements of all the characteristics or may change depending on the situation in which the skill is performed. • The use of continua allows us to show that skills have characteristics to a greater or lesser extent depending on the situation. • A continuum is an imaginary scale between two extremes and is usually represented in linear form, eg. • Freezing Cold Warm Hot Boiling
  13. 13. Classification of Motor Skill
  14. 14. Classification of Motor Skills • It is difficult to be exact when classifying skills, so; • Continua (plural or continuum) are used • You need to be able to use the continua, but also explain how you arrived at your decision. • In the exam – you should be able to apply a practical activity to each theory.
  15. 15. Classification of Motor Skills • You need to know the following classification continua: – Muscular involvement (Gross – Fine) – Environmental influence (Open – Closed) – Continuity (Discrete – Serial – Continuous) – Pacing (Externally paced – Self paced) – Difficulty (Simple – Complex) – Organisation (Low – High) –
  16. 16. Muscular Involvement • This entails the precision of the movement: • Gross Skills: • Large muscles movements • Little regard for precision... E.G.?? • Running, Swimming, Hammer throw • Fine Skills: • More intricate movements, small muscle groups • Involve accuracy and emphasise co-ordination... E.G.?? • Finger action of a spin bowler, Snooker shots Gross motor Fine motor
  17. 17. Gross – Fine Motor Skills
  18. 18. Environmental Influence • This classification involves the influence of the environment E.G.?? • Team mates, opponents, surface, weather... • Open • Affected by the environment • Normally involve decision making, adapted to suit the situation... E.G.?? • Pass in football, rugby, netball...
  19. 19. Environmental Influence • Closed • Not affected by the environment • The skill is the same in all situations • Self paced and habitual... E.G. • Swimming stroke, tennis serve, Golf tee shot... Closed Open
  20. 20. Closed Skill Characteristics Self-paced Fixed Environment Spatial Control Highly Predictable
  21. 21. Open Skill Characteristics Externally-paced Changing Environment Spatial & Temporal control
  22. 22. Closed to Open Skills
  23. 23. Continuity • How clearly defined is the beginning and end of the movement skill. • Discrete • Clear beginning and end. If it is to repeated, it must start again… E.G.?? • Catching a rounders ball, penalty in football, high serve in badminton • Serial • Number of discrete elements, put together in an order... E.G.?? • Gymnastic sequence, triple jump
  24. 24. Continuity • Continuous • Have no defined beginning or end • End of one cycle is the start of the next • Usually has to be repeated several times for it to be meaningful... E.G.?? • Running, cycling, swimming Discrete Serial Continuous
  25. 25. Discrete – Serial - Continuous
  26. 26. Pacing • Level of control has over the movement • Can relate to when the movement is started or the rate at which its performed. • Self (internally) paced • Performer determines when and how fast • Normally closed skills... E.G.?? • High jump, tennis serve
  27. 27. Pacing • Externally paced • Not determined by the performer • Environment determines pace... This can eb the opponent • Normally open skills... E.G.?? • Receiving a pass in hockey or football, receiving a tennis serve
  28. 28. Self (Internal) - External
  29. 29. Difficulty • How complex the movement is, determined by: – Perceptual load + degree of decision making – Time available – Quantity of sub-routines + their speed and timing – Speed/power needed – Use of feedback What is perceptual load? The amount of info the performer has to process. What is a sub-routine? Movements usually have a number of parts – breast stroke: body position, arm action, leg action ect…
  30. 30. Difficulty • Simple • Low levels of the aspects identified • Little info to process/few decision to make etc... • Movement skills are simple, but difficult to learn + perform E.G.?? • Swimming, Sprinting
  31. 31. Difficulty • Complex • High levels of the identified aspects • High perceptual load, so many decisions E.G.?? • Somersault, Tennis serve Simple Complex
  32. 32. Organisational • How closely linked the sub-routines are • Low organisational • Sub routines are easily separated and practised by themselves... E.G.?? • Swimming strokes, trampolining, gym sequences
  33. 33. Organisational • High organisational • Sub routines are closely linked • They cannot be easily separated and so are practiced as a whole. E.G.?? • Golf swing, Cartwheel
  34. 34. Low – High Organisational
  35. 35. Analysing Movement Skills • Why analyse movement? – Appreciate the requirements of the skill – Adopt the best approaches for; • Teaching • Practising • Improving • Placing the skill on the continua and justifying it will help decide on how it can be practiced and improved
  36. 36. Task • http://www.teachnet- Skills_Development/skills-development/games- quizzes/SKILLS%20CONTINUA%20pots.htm
  37. 37. FLASHCARDS • A revision tool
  38. 38. Task • Explain what continua are. • What is the gross/fine continuum? • What is a gross skill? • If discrete is at one end, what should be at the other end? • What is meant by an externally paced skill? • How can a skill be a closed skill in an open situation? • Why would a teacher split a skill into sub-routines? • How could knowledge of skill classification help a coach of a disable athlete.
  39. 39. Task • Select 3 skills from practical activities and put these on the six continua. • Identify the situation in which each skill is being performed and explain the reasons for the position.