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  1. 1. Learning Objectives Define and identify the characteristics of gross motor abilities and psychomotor abilities.
  2. 2. Ability VS Skill Is ability the same as skill? No: Each skill usually needs to have several supporting, underlying or underpinning abilities to learn a skill effectively.
  3. 3. Ability • We inherit abilities from our parents • Some psychologist’s think we cannot modify them, others think we can modify them with experience. • All agree, that abilities determine: 1) learning and 2) performing skills, E.G. • Lots of slow twitch fibres = could become a good endurance athlete, not a great sprinter. • If you are born with a low level of flexibility = not going to be a world class gymnast. • To some degree, the abilities we have determine what activities we do. • Innate, underlying and enduring traits
  4. 4. Ability - Definitions • Schmidt: • ‘an inherited, relatively enduring trait that underlies or supports various kinds of motor and cognitive activities or skills. Abilities are thought of as being largely genetically determined.’ • Bull: • ‘Abilities are usually thought of as stable and enduring traits that underpin skills and contribute to the speed with which individuals learn psychomotor skills and to the quality of their performance.’
  5. 5. Three parts to ability According to the definitions, ability is: Inherited/Genetic Enduring/Stable Supports or underlies psychomotor and motor skills
  6. 6. Types of Ability Fleishman (a psychologist) suggested: Two types of ability; Gross motor ability Psychomotor ability Gross motor abilities, also known as physical proficiency abilities, usually involve movement and are related to physical fitness. There are nine of them:
  7. 7. Gross Motor Abilities. Static Strength. Max force exerted against an object. Dynamic Strength. Muscular endurance. E.g. Pull up. Stamina Explosive strength. E.g. Shot put Trunk strength. E.g. Sit ups Extent Flexibility. The ability to stretch the back and trunk muscles. Gross Body coordination. E.g. Juggling. Gross Body Equilibrium. E.g. Balancing without visual clues. Dynamic flexibility. E.g. Dynamic stretching.
  8. 8. Gross Motor Abilities Dynamic strength (moving) – exerting muscular force repeatedly E.G.?  Press Ups Static strength (still) – max strength exerted against an external object E.G.?  Lifting max weight Explosive strength (quick) – energy used effectively for a short burst E.G.?  Vertical Jump
  9. 9. Gross Motor Abilities Stamina (go for a long time) – capacity to sustain max effort involving the CV system E.G.?  A marathon Extent Flexibility – Flexing or stretching the back and trunk muscles E.G.?  High Jump Dynamic Flexibility – Making several rapid flexing movements E.G.?  Triple Jump Gross Body Co-ordination -Organisation actions of several parts of the body, whilst moving
  10. 10. Gross Motor Abilities  Gross Body Equilibrium – Maintain balance, using the internal senses E.G.?  Balancing on one leg Trunk Strength – Strength of abdominal muscles  Lifting an object, also needed for most movements in sport There are also some other gross motor abilities, that Fleishman didn’t identify: Static Balance, Dynamic Balance, Eye-Hand-Co-oridnation and Eye-Foot-Co-ordination.
  11. 11. Task For each gross motor ability, think of a skill or activity that it supports. (Think of a different one to the E.G.s)
  12. 12. Gross Motor Abilities Ability Sporting example Dynamic strength Static strength Explosive strength Stamina Extent Flexibility Dynamic Flexibility Gross Body Co-ordination Gross Body Equilibrium Trunk Strength
  13. 13. Psychomotor Abilities Psychomotor abilities, what are they? Processing of information, making decisions and putting them into action (usually movements) [TO DO WITH YOUR BRAIN] Fleishman identified 11 psychomotor abilities, you need to know 8 of these: Multi-limb co-ordination – Able to organise the movement of several limbs  Throwing a tennis ball and catching with the other hand Response orientation – Choosing quickly how an action should be done  Deciding on what shot to play when someone bowls to you in cricket
  14. 14. Reaction Time – Responding quickly to a stimulus  Sprint start Speed of movement – Making gross rapid movements  Sprint action for legs Finger dexterity – Working with tiny objects with your fingers  Spin bowling in cricket Manual dexterity – making accurate arm/hand movements involving an object, at speed  Whilst sprinting, catching a pass
  15. 15. Psychomotor Abilities Rate Control – Change the speed and direction of responses quickly  Throwing a ball at a moving target Aiming – Aiming accurately at a small object  Throwing a cricket ball at the wickets
  16. 16. Task For each psychomotor ability, think of a skill or activity that it supports. (Think of a different one to the E.G.s if you can)
  17. 17. Psychomotor Abilities Ability Sporting example Multi Limb coordination. Response Orientation Reaction time Speed of movement Finger Dexterity Manual Dexterity Rate control Aiming
  18. 18. Task Define gross motor ability. Define psychomotor ability. Give a practical example of a psychomotor ability Give an example of a gross motor ability
  19. 19. Abilities Psychologists have devised tests to measure some abilities (We will have a go at some of them) A skill will rely on several abilities to support, underlie or underpin it. Does a performer that has these abilities automatically guarantee success? No – Learn to apply and co-ordinate the abilities through practice.
  20. 20. Abilities Are there ‘natural’ athletes, or ‘games’ players? (good at everything?) This suggests that there is one ability that supports all the activities. Present research does not support this... It suggests that specific skills require particular abilities. So the correct combination of abilities will allow a good chance of success. You may well be able to transfer similar abilities to do other skills. (badminton – tennis)
  21. 21. Developing Abilities Some psychologists think you can develop ability. So how can you do this? During early childhood: exposure to many different experiences and given opportunities to practice them. Also, receiving expert teaching/coaching and have good facilities and equipment to use Support from families and friends as role models tend to enhance their abilities.
  22. 22. Task Flashcards
  23. 23. FLASHCARDS A revision tool
  24. 24. Task Identify the abilities that underpin the activities you have chosen or may choose to be assessed in. For each one, explain how they underpin your activity. In your own words write a paragraph about why current research doesn’t support the idea that there are people that possess a ‘sporting ability’ and are expert at several sports.
  25. 25. Practical Tests of you own ability: Static Balance Multi-limb co-oridnation Aiming Explosive strength