Types of Motor Control Acquiring Movement Skills
Learning Objectives <ul><li>Describe open loop and closed loop control </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the role of open loop and...
Open and Closed Loop Control <ul><li>We have looked at open loop already: </li></ul><ul><li>What are the key points? </li>...
Closed loop control (level two) <ul><li>Closed loop involves feedback  </li></ul><ul><li>Level two operates through a shor...
Closed loop (level two) <ul><li>The feedback loop is short </li></ul><ul><li>Internal feedback is gained through kinaesthe...
Closed Loop Control (level three) <ul><li>The feedback loop is longer because information performance is relayed to the br...
Closed Loop Control (level three) The plan EMP stored  in the LTM The action of the  working muscles Memory Trace Perceptu...
Learning Skills <ul><li>Open loop and closed loop theory explains how we control psycho-motor skills.  BUT </li></ul><ul><...
Applying it! <ul><li>Using a gymnast performing a hand stand as an example:  Explain how open and closed loop control is u...
Hockey Skills
Diving Skills
Cricket Skills
Football Skills
Drawbacks to the theory <ul><li>If a separate  memory trace is required for each skill/movement, it would not be possible ...
Feedback <ul><li>This is info received during or after a skill has been performed.  There are several types: </li></ul><ul...
Feedback <ul><li>See you sheet </li></ul><ul><li>You must be able to describe each of these accurately and relate them to ...
Why is feedback important? <ul><li>Improves confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Increases motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Drive redu...
Revision <ul><li>Flash Cards </li></ul>
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  1. 1. Types of Motor Control Acquiring Movement Skills
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Describe open loop and closed loop control </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the role of open loop and closed loop control in performing motor skills </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate critically different types of feedback </li></ul>
  3. 3. Open and Closed Loop Control <ul><li>We have looked at open loop already: </li></ul><ul><li>What are the key points? </li></ul><ul><li>But you need to know about closed loop control too: </li></ul>
  4. 4. Closed loop control (level two) <ul><li>Closed loop involves feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Level two operates through a short feedback loop which passes through the muscle spindles </li></ul><ul><li>This is termed the ‘perceptual trace’ </li></ul>The plan EMP stored in the LTM The action of the working muscles Memory Trace Feedback via Muscles (Level Two)
  5. 5. Closed loop (level two) <ul><li>The feedback loop is short </li></ul><ul><li>Internal feedback is gained through kinaesthesis and proprioception during the performance of the skill </li></ul><ul><li>This allows fast, sub-conscious corrections to be made </li></ul><ul><li>Adjustments are then stored in the long term memory for future reference </li></ul><ul><li>E.G. A skier will constantly adjust position to retain balance </li></ul><ul><li>See Pg 174 for definitions </li></ul>
  6. 6. Closed Loop Control (level three) <ul><li>The feedback loop is longer because information performance is relayed to the brain (not just from the muscles) </li></ul><ul><li>The brain controls and modifies movement by passing corrective messages back to the muscles </li></ul><ul><li>The loop involves conscious thought and attention to external feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Often used at the associative stage of learning- reliance on external feedback is needed because the learner has not yet acquired the correct feel of the skill </li></ul><ul><li>Performance is jerky and ill-timed </li></ul><ul><li>The perceptual trace compares performance as it is taking place with the plan released by the memory trace </li></ul><ul><li>If the performance matches the plan the skill is reinforced and allowed to continue </li></ul><ul><li>If the performance does not match the plan the skill is adjusted and this change is stored as a new motor programme </li></ul><ul><li>E.G. Changing direction to avoid an opponent when dribbling in hockey – requires conscious thought </li></ul>
  7. 7. Closed Loop Control (level three) The plan EMP stored in the LTM The action of the working muscles Memory Trace Perceptual Trace (conscious feedback via the brain
  8. 8. Learning Skills <ul><li>Open loop and closed loop theory explains how we control psycho-motor skills. BUT </li></ul><ul><li>It also explains how we learn skills; </li></ul><ul><li>Learning takes place because the perceptual trace is developed and becomes stronger as you practice </li></ul><ul><li>When we talk about types of feedback we’ll go deeper </li></ul>
  9. 9. Applying it! <ul><li>Using a gymnast performing a hand stand as an example: Explain how open and closed loop control is used </li></ul><ul><li>See Pg 175 </li></ul><ul><li>Watch the videos and explain how open and closed loop control is used </li></ul>
  10. 10. Hockey Skills
  11. 11. Diving Skills
  12. 12. Cricket Skills
  13. 13. Football Skills
  14. 14. Drawbacks to the theory <ul><li>If a separate memory trace is required for each skill/movement, it would not be possible to store </li></ul><ul><li>If you could store all of them, it would take too long to recall them when required. </li></ul><ul><li>In sport people can act spontaneously and adapt movements in an open situation, this is called a ‘novel response’ If the motor program doesn’t exist, how is ‘Novel Response’ explained? </li></ul><ul><li>Schema Theory helps to explain some of these… we will look at this later. </li></ul><ul><li>We need to first know about feedback </li></ul>
  15. 15. Feedback <ul><li>This is info received during or after a skill has been performed. There are several types: </li></ul><ul><li>Positive </li></ul><ul><li>Negative </li></ul><ul><li>Extrinsic </li></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic </li></ul><ul><li>Terminal </li></ul><ul><li>Concurrent </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of performance </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of results </li></ul>
  16. 16. Feedback <ul><li>See you sheet </li></ul><ul><li>You must be able to describe each of these accurately and relate them to practical situations </li></ul><ul><li>You must also be able to say which feedback is used at various phases of learning </li></ul>
  17. 17. Why is feedback important? <ul><li>Improves confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Increases motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Drive reduction can be reduced (loss of motivation) (see later) </li></ul><ul><li>Essential for learning (corrects errors) </li></ul><ul><li>Good actions reinforced (S-R bonds are reinforced) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Revision <ul><li>Flash Cards </li></ul>

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