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  1. 1. Anatomy and Movement Mechanics LR AS OCR 2005
  2. 2. Functions of Skeletal System <ul><li>Protect organs and soft tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Support soft tissues/Gives Shape </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate production of RBCs </li></ul><ul><li>Acts as a reservoir for minerals e.g. phosphorus and calcium </li></ul><ul><li>Provides attachment for skeletal muscles (produces a lever system for body movement) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Simple Skeletal Anatomy <ul><li>Axial Skeleton consists of…. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skull </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spinal column </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ribs and sternum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appendicular Skeleton consists of… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appendages…arms, legs and pelvic girdle </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Types of Bones <ul><li>Long bones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legs, arms, fingers and toes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consist of a DIAPHYSIS or shaft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ends of long bones are EPIPHYSES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint surfaces of bones covered with ARTICULAR CARTILAGE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outer membrane of bone is PERIOSTEUM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flat bones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cranium </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Types of Bones <ul><li>Short bones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bones of the ankles (tarsal bone) and wrist (carpals) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly spongy bone with thin outer layer of compact bone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Irregular shaped bones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertebrae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle attachments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Seasmoid bones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patella – Found within a ligament </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Joint Structure and Function <ul><li>An articulation (joint) is a point of contact between two or more bones. </li></ul><ul><li>Trade off between strength and stability. </li></ul><ul><li>CLASSIFICATIONS : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immoveable (fibrous) ( Synarthrodial) ; sutures of skull </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cartilaginous (or Amphiarthrodial ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bones separated with fibrocartilage disk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synovial (or Diarthrodial ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freely moveable; most common </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ligaments, muscles provide stability </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Anatomy of a Synovial Joint <ul><li>Joint enclosed in articular capsule (ligamentous) </li></ul><ul><li>Synovial membrane lines inner surface of articular capsule </li></ul><ul><li>Synovial membrane secretes synovial fluid </li></ul><ul><li>Hyaline or articular cartilage lines bone ends (absorbs shock and decreases friction) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Anatomy of a Synovial Joint <ul><li>Articular discs (menisci) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pads of fibrocartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain stability & fit, ↓ friction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Torn cartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bursae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saclike structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alleviate friction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lined with synovial membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Between skin and bones ; tendons and bones; ligaments and bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bursitis </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Factors affecting movement at Synovial Joints <ul><li>Shape of articulating bones </li></ul><ul><li>Strength and tension of ligaments </li></ul><ul><li>Arrangement and tension of muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Apposition of soft parts </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul>
  10. 11. Types of Synovial Joints <ul><li>Uniaxial or HINGE joint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement in only one plane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knee/elbow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biaxial or CONDYLOID </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement in two plane or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>two axis of motion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Triaxial or BALL AND SOCKET </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 planes of motion involving a </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>concave surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hip joint/ Shoulder joint </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Synovial Joints con’t…. <ul><li>Nonaxial or GLIDING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motion is sliding rather than </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>motion around an axis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bones of the wrist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SADDLE joint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement in two planes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thumb joint </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PIVOT Joint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Turning movement about </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>one long central axis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio-ulnar joint </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Planes of Movement <ul><li>Planes </li></ul><ul><li>Human movements are described in three dimensions based on a series of planes and axis. There are three planes of motion that pass through the human body. </li></ul><ul><li>The sagital plane </li></ul><ul><li>The frontal/coronal plane </li></ul><ul><li>The transverse (horizontal) plane </li></ul><ul><li>The sagital plane lies vertically and divides the body into right and left parts. </li></ul><ul><li>The frontal plane also lies vertically however divides the body into anterior and posterior parts. </li></ul><ul><li>The transverse plane lies horizontally and divides the body into superior and inferior parts. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Anatomical Position N eed reference terms to describe the relationship of body structures to one another. <ul><li>Superior.. a structure that is higher than another e.g. knee is superior to ankle joint </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior… a structure that lies below another e.g ankle joint is inferior to knee joint </li></ul>
  14. 15. Anatomical Position <ul><li>Posterior: The back of the body or structure e.g. the back is posterior to the abdominals </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior: The front of the body or structure e.g. The bellybutton is anterior to the gluteal muscles </li></ul>
  15. 16. Anatomical Position <ul><li>Medial: A structure that is closer to the midline of the body or movement towards the midline e.g. the sternum is medial to the shoulder </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral: A structure further away from the midline or movement away from the midline e.g the shoulders are lateral to the chin </li></ul>
  16. 17. Anatomical Position <ul><li>Distal: The end of a structure on the extremities located further from the trunk e.g.the hand is distal to the elbow. </li></ul><ul><li>Proximal: The end of a structure on the extremities located closer to the trunk e.g the elbow is proximal to the hand. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Anatomical Position <ul><li>Dorsal: The top of the foot </li></ul><ul><li>Plantar: The bottom of the foot </li></ul>Dorsal Plantar
  18. 19. Movement Mechanics <ul><li>Nervous Sysytem and Muscular Sysytem coordination to produce movement involves the principle of LEVERS. </li></ul><ul><li>4 elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rigid levers are long bones of body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint act as the fulcrum or axis of movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscles act as the force is applied to the lever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body segments or external resistance act as the load. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Types of Contractions <ul><li>Concentric contraction (shortening) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forcible contraction leading to muscle shortening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand role of AGONIST & ANTAGONIST MUSCLES </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eccentric contraction (lengthening) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle acts as a brake to control speed of movement caused by another force </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Isometric contraction (static) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle exerts a force that counteracts an opposing force </li></ul></ul>Isotonic
  20. 21. Types of Movements <ul><li>Anatomical Position/Foetal position </li></ul><ul><li>Flexion/Extension </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal Flexion/Extension </li></ul><ul><li>Abduction/Adduction </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Circumduction </li></ul><ul><li>Pronation/Supination </li></ul><ul><li>Dorsiflexion/Plantarflexion </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral Flexion </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Task 10 P14-15 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Movements
  22. 23. Movements
  23. 24. Movements
  24. 25. Joint Movements <ul><li>Shoulder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexion – anterior movement of the arm to a decreasing angle from neutral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extension – posterior movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abduction – raising arm to side away from body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adduction – bringing arm towards the side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal rotation – medial rotation so that anterior surface is turned to the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External rotation – lateral rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal Flexion/Extension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scapular elevation - raising to head/ears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression - lowering shoulder blades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protraction - forward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retraction – back or shoulder blades together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotation (Up or Down)- refers to lower angle of scapula </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Circumduction – Extension, Abduction, Flexion, Adduction </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. Joint Movements <ul><li>Elbow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slight Abduction, Adduction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Radio-Ulnar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pronation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slight Abduction, Adduction </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Joint Movement <ul><li>Spine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexion (sit-up) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral Flexion (side bend) </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Joint Movements <ul><li>Hip </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexion…thigh up to abdomen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral or outward rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medial or inward rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Circumduction </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Joint Movements <ul><li>Ankle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dorsiflexion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plantar flexion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inversion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eversion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wrist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexion/Extension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adduction or radial deviation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abduction or ulnar deviation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Circumduction </li></ul></ul>

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