HEART EXAM QUESTIONS
<ul><li>1.  THE HEART ACTS AS TWO SEPARATE PUMPS RESPONSIBLE FOR 2 CIRCULATORY NETWORKS OF BLOOD VESSELS. </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>RA RV </li></ul>PULMONARY ARTERY LUNGS LV LA BODY (VENULES) (CAPILLARIES) (ARTERIOLES) AORTA PULMONARY VEINS (VENU...
2.  The amount of blood that the heart manages to pump out a crucial factor during exercise. Define the terms  STROKE VOLU...
<ul><li>HEART RATE  – THE NUMBER OF TIMES THE HEART BEATS IN ONE MINUTE </li></ul><ul><li>STROKE VOLUME  – THE VOLUME OF B...
<ul><li>HOW IS CARDIAC OUTPUT INCREASED? </li></ul>
<ul><li>VENOUS RETURN IS INCREASED </li></ul><ul><li>RELEASE OF ADRENALINE STIMULATES SA NODE </li></ul><ul><li>VOLUME INC...
<ul><li>4.  THE BLOOD IS RESPONSIBLE FOR SUPPLYING THE VITAL INGREDIENTS NEEDED FOR THE MUSCLES TO WORK , AS WELL AS FOR C...
<ul><li>OXYGEN </li></ul><ul><li>Red blood cells contain haemoglobin </li></ul><ul><li>Haemoglobin has an affinity for 02 ...
6.  DEFINE BLOOD PRESSURE & USING THE CORRECT UNITS GIVE AN AVERAGE VALUE FOR A YOUNG ADULT AT  REST
<ul><li>BLOOD PRESSURE = BLOOD FLOW X RESISTANCE TO FLOW </li></ul><ul><li>PRESSURE EXERTED BY BLOOD ON WALLS OF BLOOD VES...
<ul><li>7.  WHY IS GOOD VENOUS RETURN BENEFICIAL TO PERFORMANCE? </li></ul>
<ul><li>GREATER VOLUME OF BLOOD RETURNED TO THE HEART </li></ul><ul><li>SV & Q IS DEPENDENT UPON VENOUS RETURN </li></ul><...
<ul><li>8.  SKETCH A GRAPH TO SHOW THE HEART RATE OF AN ATHLETE WHO COMPLETES A 30 MIN AEROBIC TRAINING RUN.  </li></ul><u...
<ul><li>Resting heart rate around 40/90 beats per minute </li></ul><ul><li>Rise in HR prior to exercise/ anticipatory   ri...
REST EXERCISE RECOVERY 50 100 150 200 HEART RATE BEATS PER MIN
<ul><li>9.  DESCRIBE HOW HORMONAL CONTROL IS USED TO ALTER HEART RATE DURING THE TRAINING RUN </li></ul>
<ul><li>ADRENALINE/NORADRENALINE IS RELEASED </li></ul><ul><li>STIMULATES THE SA NODE </li></ul><ul><li>INCREASES THE HEAR...
<ul><li>DESCRIBE THE MECHANISMS OF VENOUS RETURN THAT ENSURE ENOUGH BLOOD IS RETURNED TO THE HEART DURING THE TRAINING RUN...
<ul><li>SKELETAL MUSCLE PUMP (MUSCLES CONTRACT TO SQUEEZE BLOOD BACK TO THE HEART) </li></ul><ul><li>VALVES/DIRECT BLOOD F...
<ul><li>11.  WHY SHOULD THE PERFORMER WARM UP BEFORE THE TRAINING RUN? </li></ul>
<ul><li>An increase in muscle temperature </li></ul><ul><li>This allows greater stretch in the muscles/02 dissociates from...
<ul><li>12.  During exercise more oxygenated blood is required by the muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>Define  cardiac output  a...
<ul><li>Definition:   </li></ul><ul><li>The total amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle per minute/ Q= SV X HR. ...
<ul><li>13.  Following a training session a coach will require the performer to complete a cool down.  </li></ul><ul><li>H...
<ul><li>Flushes out lactic acid/repays oxygen debt. </li></ul><ul><li>Keeps capillaries dilated/maintains blood flow. </li...
<ul><li>14.  Describe how blood travels through the heart during the following stages of the cardiac cycle: </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>DIASTOLE  </li></ul><ul><li>The atria/ventricles/heart are relaxed </li></ul><ul><li>Semi lunar valves closed </li...
<ul><li>15.  Whilst exercising a greater amount of blood is ejected during ventricular systole.  </li></ul><ul><li>Why is ...
<ul><li>More oxygen/blood supplied to muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Greater amounts of C02 waste products removed/delay OBLA. ...
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  1. 1. HEART EXAM QUESTIONS
  2. 2. <ul><li>1. THE HEART ACTS AS TWO SEPARATE PUMPS RESPONSIBLE FOR 2 CIRCULATORY NETWORKS OF BLOOD VESSELS. </li></ul><ul><li>DRAW & LABEL A DIAGRAM TO SHOW THE 2 CIRCULATORY NETWORKS </li></ul><ul><li>(5) </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>RA RV </li></ul>PULMONARY ARTERY LUNGS LV LA BODY (VENULES) (CAPILLARIES) (ARTERIOLES) AORTA PULMONARY VEINS (VENULES) (CAPILLARIES) (ARTERIOLES)
  4. 4. 2. The amount of blood that the heart manages to pump out a crucial factor during exercise. Define the terms STROKE VOLUME , HEART RATE & CARDIAC OUTPUT
  5. 5. <ul><li>HEART RATE – THE NUMBER OF TIMES THE HEART BEATS IN ONE MINUTE </li></ul><ul><li>STROKE VOLUME – THE VOLUME OF BLOOD PUMPED BY EACH VENTRICLE IN ONE CONTRACTION </li></ul><ul><li>CARDIAC OUTPUT – THE VOLUME OF BLOOD PUMPED BY EACH VENTRICLE IN ONE MINUTE / = STROKE VOLUME X HEART RATE (Q = SV X HR) </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>HOW IS CARDIAC OUTPUT INCREASED? </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>VENOUS RETURN IS INCREASED </li></ul><ul><li>RELEASE OF ADRENALINE STIMULATES SA NODE </li></ul><ul><li>VOLUME INCREASES WHICH STRETCHES VENTRICULAR WALLS WHICH WILL INCREASE SROKE VOLUME </li></ul><ul><li>SYMPATHETIC NERVE (ACCELERATOR) SPEEDS UP SA NODE </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>4. THE BLOOD IS RESPONSIBLE FOR SUPPLYING THE VITAL INGREDIENTS NEEDED FOR THE MUSCLES TO WORK , AS WELL AS FOR CARRYING AWAY WASTE PRODUCTS FROM THE WORKING MUSCLES. </li></ul><ul><li>HOW ARE OXYGEN & CARBON DIOXIDE TRANSPORTED IN THE BLOOD? </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>OXYGEN </li></ul><ul><li>Red blood cells contain haemoglobin </li></ul><ul><li>Haemoglobin has an affinity for 02 </li></ul><ul><li>97% of O2 combines with Hb (to form oxyhaemoglobin) </li></ul><ul><li>3% of O2 dissolves in the plasma </li></ul><ul><li>CARBON DIOXIDE </li></ul><ul><li>8% of carbon dioxide dissolves in plasma </li></ul><ul><li>20% of C02 combines with haemoglobin </li></ul><ul><li>72% of C02 dissolves in water to form carbonic acid </li></ul>
  10. 10. 6. DEFINE BLOOD PRESSURE & USING THE CORRECT UNITS GIVE AN AVERAGE VALUE FOR A YOUNG ADULT AT REST
  11. 11. <ul><li>BLOOD PRESSURE = BLOOD FLOW X RESISTANCE TO FLOW </li></ul><ul><li>PRESSURE EXERTED BY BLOOD ON WALLS OF BLOOD VESSELS </li></ul><ul><li>120/80 </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>7. WHY IS GOOD VENOUS RETURN BENEFICIAL TO PERFORMANCE? </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>GREATER VOLUME OF BLOOD RETURNED TO THE HEART </li></ul><ul><li>SV & Q IS DEPENDENT UPON VENOUS RETURN </li></ul><ul><li>GREATER VR WILL INCREASE SV & A LARGER SV WILL INCREASE Q </li></ul><ul><li>GOOD VENOUS RETURN MAINTAINS BLOOD PRESSURE </li></ul><ul><li>MORE BLOOD/OXYGEN WILL BE SUPPLIED TO MUSCLE </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>8. SKETCH A GRAPH TO SHOW THE HEART RATE OF AN ATHLETE WHO COMPLETES A 30 MIN AEROBIC TRAINING RUN. </li></ul><ul><li>SHOW HEART RATE PRIOR TO THE TRAINING RUN, DURING THE RUN AND FOR 10 MIN AFTER THE RUN. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Resting heart rate around 40/90 beats per minute </li></ul><ul><li>Rise in HR prior to exercise/ anticipatory rise </li></ul><ul><li>Steep rise at beginning of exercise and Plateau during exercise (115-180b/min range) </li></ul><ul><li>Initial fast fall during recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Followed by gradual decline towards rest value </li></ul>
  16. 16. REST EXERCISE RECOVERY 50 100 150 200 HEART RATE BEATS PER MIN
  17. 17. <ul><li>9. DESCRIBE HOW HORMONAL CONTROL IS USED TO ALTER HEART RATE DURING THE TRAINING RUN </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>ADRENALINE/NORADRENALINE IS RELEASED </li></ul><ul><li>STIMULATES THE SA NODE </li></ul><ul><li>INCREASES THE HEART RATE </li></ul><ul><li>ALSO INCREASES STRENGTH OF CONTRACTION/STROKE /CARDIAC OUTPUT. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>DESCRIBE THE MECHANISMS OF VENOUS RETURN THAT ENSURE ENOUGH BLOOD IS RETURNED TO THE HEART DURING THE TRAINING RUN. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>SKELETAL MUSCLE PUMP (MUSCLES CONTRACT TO SQUEEZE BLOOD BACK TO THE HEART) </li></ul><ul><li>VALVES/DIRECT BLOOD FLOW BACK TO THE HEART/PREVENT BACKFLOW. </li></ul><ul><li>RESPIRATORY PUMP </li></ul><ul><li>BLOOD ABOVE THE HEART WILL RETURN DUE TO THE EFFECT OF GRAVITY </li></ul><ul><li>VENOCONSTRICTION OF VEINS RETURNING BLOOD TO THE HEART. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>11. WHY SHOULD THE PERFORMER WARM UP BEFORE THE TRAINING RUN? </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>An increase in muscle temperature </li></ul><ul><li>This allows greater stretch in the muscles/02 dissociates from haemoglobin quicker </li></ul><ul><li>Decreases risk of injury </li></ul><ul><li>Nerve conduction quicker </li></ul><ul><li>Improves muscle contraction speed/faster reaction time/ improved co-ordination of antagonistic pairs </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in heart rate/respiratory rate/stroke volume/cardiac output </li></ul><ul><li>Increase enzyme activity </li></ul><ul><li>Blood vessels dilate </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces blood viscosity so blood flow quicker </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>12. During exercise more oxygenated blood is required by the muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>Define cardiac output and give a maximum value for a 17 year old endurance performer. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>The total amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle per minute/ Q= SV X HR. </li></ul><ul><li>Value: </li></ul><ul><li>Range 20 – 40 Litres (per min) </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>13. Following a training session a coach will require the performer to complete a cool down. </li></ul><ul><li>How would a cool down aid the vascular system? </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Flushes out lactic acid/repays oxygen debt. </li></ul><ul><li>Keeps capillaries dilated/maintains blood flow. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains skeletal muscle pump/respiratory pump </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents blood pooling </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains venous return </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains Stroke Volume/Q </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains blood pressure </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>14. Describe how blood travels through the heart during the following stages of the cardiac cycle: </li></ul><ul><li>DIASTOLE/ATRIAL SYSTOLE & VENTRICULAR SYSTOLE </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>DIASTOLE </li></ul><ul><li>The atria/ventricles/heart are relaxed </li></ul><ul><li>Semi lunar valves closed </li></ul><ul><li>Blood flows into right & left atrium via </li></ul><ul><li>pulmonary vein & vena cava </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure rises and forces blood into ventricles </li></ul><ul><li>ATRIAL SYSTOLE </li></ul><ul><li>The atria contract forcing the blood into ventricles </li></ul><ul><li>Through AV valves </li></ul><ul><li>VENTRICULAR SYSTOLE </li></ul><ul><li>The ventricles contract </li></ul><ul><li>AV valves shut to prevent backflow </li></ul><ul><li>Blood forced through pulmonary artery and aorta </li></ul><ul><li>Semi lunar valves forced open </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>15. Whilst exercising a greater amount of blood is ejected during ventricular systole. </li></ul><ul><li>Why is this beneficial to performance? </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>More oxygen/blood supplied to muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Greater amounts of C02 waste products removed/delay OBLA. </li></ul><ul><li>Delays fatigue/maintains/prolongs aerobic performance </li></ul>

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