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  1. 1. And their influence on performance and lifestyle. . .
  2. 2. <ul><li>AIMS; </li></ul><ul><li>· Explain what is meant by the term 'attitude' </li></ul><ul><li>·Describe the components of an attitude </li></ul><ul><li>·Outline the factors influencing the formation of attitude and how they influence behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Critically evaluate attitudes and behaviour in sport. </li></ul><ul><li>·Understand the importance of developing positive attitudes towards specific attitude objects and the impact a negative attitude can have on performance </li></ul><ul><li>·Describe the methods used to assess attitudes and evaluate their effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>·Explain the methods used to change an attitude including cognitive dissonance and persuasive communication </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>‘ A mental state of readiness organised through experiences that influences the response of an individual towards any object or situation with which it is related’ (Moody, 1980) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ An enduring evaluation - positive or negative - of people, objects and ideas'. Aronson et al (1994) </li></ul><ul><li>'Ideas charged with emotion (positive or negative) which pre-disposes a class of actions to a particular social situation'. Triandis (1971) </li></ul><ul><li>'A mental and neural state of readiness, organised through experience, exerting a directive or dynamic influence upon the individual's response to all objects and situations with which it is related'. Allport (1935) </li></ul>
  4. 4. 'The focus of an individual's attitude. The object may be training, people, events, ideas or specific objects'. TASK 2 – A2 Text Book
  5. 5. ATTITUDES A learned behavioural predisposition. (Invariably linked with personality)
  6. 6. <ul><li>Attitudes are formed through experiences </li></ul><ul><li>A pleasant experience in PE is likely to promote a positive attitude towards sport and participation </li></ul><ul><li>An unpleasant experience in PE at school would bring about a negative attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Sport then becomes the ‘object’ to be avoided in the future. </li></ul><ul><li>Parents have an initial impact in attitude formation </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher or coach could be influential </li></ul><ul><li>In teenage years the peer group has the most powerful influence </li></ul><ul><li>The process of interaction between individuals and groups of people is called SOCIALISATION – role modelling </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>An attitude is directed towards an ‘Attitude Object’ </li></ul><ul><li>An object of an attitude could be a place, a situation or the behaviour of others. </li></ul><ul><li>Can you give an example of this?? </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Attitudes can bring about false perceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Prejudice is a prejudgement arising from an evaluation based on inadequate information and can be negative prejudice or positive prejudice (read p204) </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Attitude prejudice could reduce the possibility of a young person participating in sport. This could occur in 2 ways... </li></ul><ul><li>1 Prejudice could be directed towards sport in general </li></ul><ul><li>2 The young person maybe discouraged by being the victim of prejudice. </li></ul>With prejudice in mind, another definition of attitude is... ‘ An attitude is a predisposition to act in a certain way towards some aspect of the persons environment including other people’ (Mednick)
  10. 10. <ul><li>Give 5 reasons why people may have a positive attitude towards sport and physical activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Give 5 reasons why people may have a negative attitude towards sport and physical activity. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>POSITIVE </li></ul><ul><li>They have had success from participation </li></ul><ul><li>Belief in the value of the activity in promoting health and well-being </li></ul><ul><li>They have been encouraged by significant others </li></ul><ul><li>Have opportunities to continue participation </li></ul><ul><li>NEGATIVE </li></ul><ul><li>They may have had negative experiences in sport or PE </li></ul><ul><li>They find sport frustrating or boring </li></ul><ul><li>They do not believe in its value for health and well-being </li></ul><ul><li>Lack encouragement or have been discouraged </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>With reference to positive and negative attitudes give examples of when the following groups attitude might affect their amount of sports participation. </li></ul><ul><li>Children </li></ul><ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><li>Athletes </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers/coaches </li></ul><ul><li>General attitudes to Women in Sport </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Children </li></ul><ul><li>attitudes towards school PE lessons </li></ul><ul><li>2 . Women </li></ul><ul><li>attitudes on the availability of sport opportunities in the area </li></ul><ul><li>3. Athletes </li></ul><ul><li>attitudes towards training </li></ul><ul><li>4. Teachers/coaches </li></ul><ul><li>attitudes to the physical and intellectual abilities of children </li></ul><ul><li>5. General attitudes to women in sport </li></ul><ul><li>attitudes towards peoples negative stereotyping of them </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>1. Beliefs – this is the cognitive element – the knowledge and beliefs held about the attitude object i.e. fitness training </li></ul><ul><li>2. Emotions – this is the affective element – the positive or negative feelings and emotions towards the attitude object i.e. enjoyment of training </li></ul>3. Behaviour - this is the behavioural element – the intended behaviour towards the attitude object i.e. attending training sessions regularly
  15. 15. The Triadic model of attitudes Cognitive – Affective - Behavioural
  16. 16. Cognitive : reflects our beliefs, knowledge, thoughts, ideas and information we have regarding an attitude object. E.g. based on information received from our parents and PE lessons we may think swimming is good in terms of health and safety Identify some cognitive attitudes towards female body builders What informs these attitudes?
  17. 17. Affective : Involves our emotional response or feelings to the attitude object. For example, in the past we may have enjoyed swimming lessons and this has led to positive feelings toward future participation. However, if the experience has been negative (due to fear of safety etc) then future participation may be affected. Identify some affective responses to spiders What may have informed these attitudes?
  18. 18. Behavioural : Involves our intended or actual behaviour towards an attitude object. This is often based on our first evaluation of the first two components. E.g. due to positive beliefs and experiences about swimming we do actually participate regularly. Identify some behavioural responses to chocolate What may have informed these responses?
  19. 19. Draw two versions of the triadic model for 2 different sporting examples that you have completely different responses to.
  20. 21. Attitudes are mainly formed through experiences. S ocialisation: The process of mixing and relating to other people ATTITUDE Formation of Attitudes
  21. 22. <ul><li>What is a stereotypical attitude? </li></ul><ul><li>Is one that leads the holder to expect people characterised as belonging to a particular group to behave in a certain way. </li></ul>Although stereotypes can be positive, negative stereotyping is one of the main causes holding back certain groups of people from sport. What are 2 negative sporting stereotypes?
  22. 23. <ul><li>‘ Boys are no good at dance type activities’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Strength activities are less suited to girls’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Most women football or rugby players are gay’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Black people are no good at swimming’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ White men cant jump!!’ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ White people are no good at sprinting’ </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>Many people have talents that are as yet undiscovered or feel unable to express themselves because of stereotyping </li></ul><ul><li>Although attitudes do not necessary predict behaviour, they can certainly influence it. </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>Scales and/or Questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>(knowledge, emotion and intended behaviour) </li></ul><ul><li>Observing behaviour over a long period of time (behaviour) </li></ul><ul><li>Taking physiological measurements (emotions) </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>We are going to find out pupils attitudes towards their PE lessons. </li></ul><ul><li>In pairs/three’s design a questionnaire to establish pupils attitude towards sport. </li></ul><ul><li>Take the questionnaire into a class of your choice – ask the teacher if you can take 5 minutes to ask the questions </li></ul><ul><li>Give each pupil a scrap of paper – they put their age and gender on it NOT name as it is confidential. </li></ul><ul><li>They write the answers down after you’ve read the question. </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>Attitudes are learned or organised through experience </li></ul><ul><li>Socialisation plays an important role in attitude development </li></ul><ul><li>An attitude has three components </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive, affective, and behavioural </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes are evaluative, they lead us to think and behave positively or negatively about the attitude object </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes can be deep seated and enduring but can change or be changed </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>How attitudes are changed </li></ul><ul><li>Persuasive communication </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive dissonance theory </li></ul>