Q1. Periodisation is a training principle that splits into specific
blocks. Explain how a performer might use Periodisation to structure
their training programme for one year. 
1. Periodisation is breaking training into specific blocks.
2. Periodisation is used to ensure athletes reach a physical peak at the correct
3. (Macro Cycle) a long term goal/building physical and skill-related fitness to
peak at the end of this time. (A sporting example must be given)
4. (Meso Cycle) A mid term goal with a specific aim (to develop skill or
strength). This can be 6 weeks-4 months. (A sporting example must be given)
5. (Micro Cycle) A short term goal, which could be a number of weeks. A
specific goal to improve a weakness. (A sporting example must be given)
6. (Unit) A single session or week, this is aimed at improving one specific skill.
Q2. Identify the type of strength most relevant to a 100-metre
Design a weight training programme to improve this type of strength.
• Explosive/elastic/dynamic strength.
• Focus on the ATP/PC energy system/Major muscle groups/Type 2b
(Overload using the F.I.T.T principle) imply a weight training session:
• Train 3-5 times per week.
• 80% of 1RM
• 3-6 sets
• 8-10 repetitions
• 2-3 mins recovery in-between each set (Must have link to allow PC to
• By changing the reps/frequency/sets can ensure progressive overload.
• Progressive overload can reduce the risk of injury.
Q3. Describe a method of stretching and explain the physiological
changes to skeletal muscle and connective tissue after flexibility
Static – is the range of motion without taking into account speed of movement. It’s
the maximum ROM the muscle will allow with an external. E.g.
Ballistic/Dynamic – is the ROM taking into account the speed of movement. It
reflects the joints resistance to movement. Ballistic is more dynamic as more force is
applied to the resistance. E.g. bouncing movements.
PNF – Partner applying resistance/force to the extremes of ROM.
1. static stretch held just beyond the point of resistance.
2. isometric contraction against a partner for minimum of 10 seconds.
3. relax and repeat sequence.
• Increased elasticity/length of muscle/connective tissue.
• Increased resting length of muscle.
• Muscle spindles adapt to the increased length reducing the stimulus to the
• Increased ROM at a joint before the stretch reflex is initiated.
• Increased potential for static and dynamic flexibility.
• Increased distance and efficiency for muscles to create force and acceleration.
• Increased ROM reduces the potential for injury to muscles during dynamic
Q4. Using your knowledge of Body Composition evaluate critically
the health implications of being overweight or obese and how it
impacts on involvement in physical activity. 
• Reference made to the department of Health’s guidelines on physical activity
– 3-5 x per week for 30 min.
Body composition refers to the chemical make up of the body and is split into two
Fat Mass – amount of weight stored as fat. (sporting example)
Lean body mass (fat free mass) – bone, muscle, organs and connective tissue.
• Two people can have the same body mass but have different body
compositions. (sporting examples)
Body composition assessment:
• Make sure you include the advantages and disadvantages of
each method of assessing body composition.
Hydrostatic Weighing –
• The weight difference between scale weight and the weight when the person is
immersed in water represents the fat mass.
• Fat is less dense than muscle/bone tissue and floats.
• Hydrostatic weighting is accepted as practically the most accurate measure of
body fat composition.
• Argument – its not readily available most people.
• Its only measures fat mass, which varies between gender and race.
Bioelectrical Impedance Electroscopy –
• Electrical impulse is sent through the body.
• The current passes free through fluids in the muscles and other tissue.
• Fat creates a bioelectrical impedance as it doesn’t conduct electricity.
• This measure can be used against weight and height to give body fat and BMI
• Argument – it relies on fluid conductivity, this is determined by the hydration
levels of an individual.
Skinfold measures –
• The most widely used method of assessing body compostition.
Body Mass Index –
Body weight in Kilograms divided by height in metres squared. (link to ideal for
athletic performers/sporting examples)
BMI is used as a guide to an individuals physical state.
BMI below 18.5 – under weight.
18.5- 24.9 – ideal weight and height.
30 + = obese
• Risks of Obesity:
• Heart disease (Heart/Attack/ Angina/ Atherosclerosis/Arterosclerosis),
• Some cancers
• Bone disease (osteoporosis/Osteoarthritis)
• Joint pain
• Psychological – stress/low self-esteem/underperformance in education and
Causes of Obesity and Over weight –
• Obesity and over weight are caused by an imbalance between energy intake
and energy expenditure.
A knowledge of BMR and METS are essential….
• BMR is the lowest rate of energy expenditure needed to sustain the body
• BMR equates to 60-75% of energy expenditure.
• METs – the ratio of a performers working metabolic rate relative to their
resting metabolic rate. E.g. 2 METs = 2x more than resting energy
• Energy intake - knowledge of a balance diet is important to include:
• 10-15% protein
• 30% Fat
• 55-60% Carbohydrate
Performance Implications of Body Weight –
• Body fat less than 5% in men and 10-15% in women can affect the immune
system, increasing the risk of illness. (sporting examples must be given).
• Females have increased risk of irregular menstrual cycle if body fat is lower
• A low fat mass decreases oestrogen levels – this increases the chances of
developing osteoporosis – which leads to weakness in bone.
For people who are overweight:
• Increased energy expenditure.
• Increased load bearing of joints and risk of joint injury.
• Decreased joint mobility.
Effect of Physical Activity on Body Composition.
• Link to a training programme (Physical Adaptations)
• Link to energy systems could be included.
• Food fuel used in relation to exercise intensities.
• Increased activity increases number of calories burned.
• Increased calorie expenditure post-exercise.
• Exercise minimises the loss of lean body mass (muscle) which burns more
calories than fat mass.
• Exercise increases muscle mass and burns more calories.
• Exercise increases the use of fat as an energy source.
• SPORT and FITT principle.
• Continuous training.
• Fuel Used: Fat/Glycogen (link to energy system)
• Low intensity.
• Testing methods.
Other Psych links:
• Bandura Self-efficacy
• State and trait sport confidence.
• Cognitive dissonance .
• Learned helplessness.
• Attitude re-training.