PHED 3<br />Section A: Physiology<br />14pt Qs<br />
Physiology<br />Hyperbaric chambers, oxygen tents and ice baths are methods increasingly used by performers to enhance rec...
Physiology<br />The comprehensive answer on the next slide covers the physiological reasons for the use of these aids and ...
Physiology<br />Hyperbaric chambers reduce the recovery time for an injury . The chamber is<br />pressurised to increase t...
Physiology<br />Name the energy sources and the main energy system used to regenerate ATP by a triathlete during competiti...
Physiology<br />One mark for each of the following<br />(up to 8 marks):<br /> aerobic/with oxygen<br /> glucose/glycogen/...
Physiology<br />During a competitive match, a hockey player will work at different intensities and produce energy from bot...
Physiology<br />Football example<br />During the match a performer will use all three energy systems.<br />At any one poin...
Physiology<br />A shot putter relies upon effective muscle function when competing.<br />Explain how a muscle contracts ac...
Physiology<br />Sliding filament mechanism<br />Action potential reaches the motor end plate and causes depolarisation<br ...
Physiology<br />In order to optimise performance, athletes may take supplements.<br />Discuss the potential benefits and h...
Physiology<br />Caffeine<br />Primarily used by endurance athletes / games players<br />Benefit<br />Stimulant.<br />Incre...
Physiology<br />Injuries occur in sport for a wide variety of reasons. Briefly outline the causes of injury, giving exampl...
Physiology<br />Causes to include:<br />Intrinsic factors<br />Age, sex, body composition, weight.<br />Muscle weakness / ...
Physiology<br />Preventative measures continued<br />Ensure that the athlete takes account of the prevailing environmental...
Physiology<br />An understanding of biomechanics can help improve all sporting performance.<br />Describe how an ice skate...
Physiology<br />Moment of inertia (MI) is the body’s resistance / reluctance to rotate / change its state of angular motio...
Physiology<br />During flight:<br />The skater reduces MI.<br />By bringing arms and legs in towards the midline of their ...
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  1. 1. PHED 3<br />Section A: Physiology<br />14pt Qs<br />
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  3. 3. Physiology<br />Hyperbaric chambers, oxygen tents and ice baths are methods increasingly used by performers to enhance recovery from exercise and injury. Explain the physiological reasons behind the use of each of these aids. (14 marks)<br />Remember each mark is awarded according to how the answer relates to the descriptors in each band. These include the quality of your ‘written communication’, so you need to pay attention to your spelling, punctuation and grammar.<br />
  4. 4. Physiology<br />The comprehensive answer on the next slide covers the physiological reasons for the use of these aids and scores 14 out of 14.<br />Other questions on this area could also ask about the type of performer who uses the aids and may require you to look at the effectiveness of them.<br />
  5. 5. Physiology<br />Hyperbaric chambers reduce the recovery time for an injury . The chamber is<br />pressurised to increase the amount of oxygen that can be breathed in so that more<br />oxygen can be diffused to the injured area . The dissolved oxygen can reduce<br />swelling and repair cells .<br />Elite sports men and women sleep in oxygen tents as it is the same as being at high<br />altitude with low levels of oxygen . The low levels of oxygen cause a production<br />of more red blood cells and haemoglobin . This means that more oxygen can be<br />extracted from the blood for extra energy . Oxygen tents do not decrease recovery<br />time but they do allow performers to maintain levels of fitness .<br />Ice baths are used after training sessions or matches by elite performers. This<br />involves getting into an ice bath for 5 to 10 minutes . The cold water causes the<br />blood vessels to tighten and drains the blood out of the legs . On leaving the bath<br />the legs fill up with new blood that flushes the muscles with oxygen . The blood<br />that leaves the legs takes away with it the lactic acid that has built up during the<br />activity .<br />
  6. 6. Physiology<br />Name the energy sources and the main energy system used to regenerate ATP by a triathlete during competition. Name two illegal ergogenic aids that a triathlete might use, explaining how each can help performance and the disadvantages associated with their use. (14 marks)<br />Remember each mark is awarded according to how the answer relates to the descriptors in each band. These include the quality of your ‘written communication’, so you need to pay attention to your spelling, punctuation and grammar.<br />
  7. 7. Physiology<br />One mark for each of the following<br />(up to 8 marks):<br /> aerobic/with oxygen<br /> glucose/glycogen/carbohydrate<br />glycolysis<br /> broken down to form pyruvic acid<br /> fats/triglycerides/fatty acids/glycerol<br /> beta oxidation<br /> mitochondria<br /> Krebs cycle<br /> electron transport chain<br /> ATP produced<br />One mark for each of the following<br />(up to 6 marks):<br />HGH:<br /> artificially produced hormone<br /> increases muscle mass and causes a decrease in fats<br /> heart and nerve diseases<br /> glucose intolerance<br /> high levels of blood fats<br />EPO:<br /> artificially produced hormone<br /> increases haemoglobin levels<br /> increases the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood<br /> can result in blood clotting<br /> stroke/death<br />
  8. 8. Physiology<br />During a competitive match, a hockey player will work at different intensities and produce energy from both aerobic and anaerobic pathways.<br />Using examples from a sport of your choice, explain when and why a performer will use the ATP-PC, lactic anaerobic and aerobic energy systems and fuels during a competitive match. <br />(14 marks)<br />Remember each mark is awarded according to how the answer relates to the descriptors in each band. These include the quality of your ‘written communication’, so you need to pay attention to your spelling, punctuation and grammar.<br />
  9. 9. Physiology<br />Football example<br />During the match a performer will use all three energy systems.<br />At any one point, one system will be predominant.<br />Depends upon the intensity and duration of the exercise at that point.<br />ATP-PC system will be used for the highest intensity activity (3–10 secs), e.g. sprinting for a ball/ challenging for a header.<br />Lactic anaerobic system will be used for sustained periods of high intensity exercise (10 secs-3 mins), e.g. A midfielder in football moving from attack to defence back to attack again.<br />Aerobic system will be used for medium – low intensity activity (3 minutes +), e.g. A player following play around or jogging back in to position/A goalkeeper when not involved in play for long periods of time.<br />The duration and intensity of the activity also determines which fuel is used to supply energy.<br />During the ATP-PC system / highest intensity activity phosphocreatine is the fuel.<br />During the lactic anaerobic system / high intensity activity glycogen is the fuel.<br />During the aerobic system / low intensity activity glycogen and fatty acids is the fuel.<br />1Glycogen is the major fuel for the first 20 minutes of exercise.<br />Only glycogen can be broken down anaerobically.<br />Fats are a major fuel after 20 minutes of exercise.<br />The fitter the performer the earlier they can start to use fats as a fuel.<br />Fatty acids can produce more energy per mole than glycogen.<br />Fatty acids require 15% more oxygen for its breakdown than glycogen<br />Fatty acids can only be broken down in the presence of oxygen / aerobically.<br />
  10. 10. Physiology<br />A shot putter relies upon effective muscle function when competing.<br />Explain how a muscle contracts according to the sliding filament theory and explain how other factors<br />relating to the physiology of skeletal muscle can contribute to successful performance. (14 marks)<br />Remember each mark is awarded according to how the answer relates to the descriptors in each band. These include the quality of your ‘written communication’, so you need to pay attention to your spelling, punctuation and grammar.<br />
  11. 11. Physiology<br />Sliding filament mechanism<br />Action potential reaches the motor end plate and causes depolarisation<br />This causes calcium ions to be released.<br />The calcium ions attach to troponin.<br />This moves/changes the tropomyosin complex.<br />This leaves the binding sites on the actin free.<br />Myosin heads attach to the actin binding site to form cross bridges.<br />ATP required to form cross bridge.<br />Myosin head moves towards the centre/power stroke occurs.<br />Actinslides over the myosin / actin moves towards the centre of the sarcomere.<br />Cross bridge then broken, but can be recreated if calcium ions are still present.<br />ATP is also required to allow the myosin to break the cross bridge.<br />Muscle fibre type<br />A shot putter will recruit fast twitch glycolytic muscle fibres / type 2b.<br />Higher forces / fastest speed of contraction / fatigue easily.<br />Thicker/ large motor neurone.<br />High PC / ATP store.<br />Motor unit recruitment<br />Number of motor units used can be increased for maximum effort.<br />All or nothing law.<br />Size of motor units could be varied.<br />Spatial summation.<br />The additive effect of a number of stimuli ensures that the excitatory threshold is reached.<br />Multiple unit summation / wave summation.<br />Fast twitch motor units produce more force.<br />
  12. 12. Physiology<br />In order to optimise performance, athletes may take supplements.<br />Discuss the potential benefits and harmful effects to an athlete in taking caffeine, creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplements. (14 marks)<br />Remember each mark is awarded according to how the answer relates to the descriptors in each band. These include the quality of your ‘written communication’, so you need to pay attention to your spelling, punctuation and grammar.<br />
  13. 13. Physiology<br />Caffeine<br />Primarily used by endurance athletes / games players<br />Benefit<br />Stimulant.<br />Increased mental alertness.<br />Reduces effects of fatigue.<br />Allows performer to continue at higher intensity for a longer duration.<br />Reacts quicker to aspects on the track/pitch.<br />Overall leading to a higher level of performance.<br />Drawback<br />Loss of fine control.<br />Dehydration.<br />Sleep deprivation.<br />Creatine<br />Sprinters/ intense exercise/sprinting/weight-lifting<br />Benefit<br />Increase phosphocreatine stores<br />Increases the amount of energy supply from this system<br />Able to perform maximally for longer, leading to increase in performance<br />Drawback<br />Water retention, bloating<br />Vomiting, diarrhoea<br />Sodium bicarbonate<br />Sprinters/ endurance athletesBenefit<br />Increases buffering of lactate<br />Delays in the onset of blood lactate accumulation<br />Enables performer to maintain intensity for a longer duration<br />Drawback<br />May cause vomiting, stomach cramps, diarrhoea<br />
  14. 14. Physiology<br />Injuries occur in sport for a wide variety of reasons. Briefly outline the causes of injury, giving examples from a range of sporting activities.<br />Discuss the steps a coach and athlete can take, to avoid injury together with the rehabilitative methods available to speed up the recovery process. (14 marks)<br />Remember each mark is awarded according to how the answer relates to the descriptors in each band. These include the quality of your ‘written communication’, so you need to pay attention to your spelling, punctuation and grammar.<br />
  15. 15. Physiology<br />Causes to include:<br />Intrinsic factors<br />Age, sex, body composition, weight.<br />Muscle weakness / poor core stability.<br />Joint hyperlaxity.<br />Poor flexibility.<br />Malalignment of body parts, poor posture.<br />Extrinsic factors<br />Poor training techniques.<br />Over-training (too high a training volume).<br />Poor execution of skills.<br />Inappropriate playing surfaces.<br />Inappropriate clothing.<br />Inappropriate equipment.<br />Adverse environmental conditions.<br />Preventative measures:<br />Ensure that the athlete has the necessary levels of fitness to undertake the physical tasks being asked of them.<br />Ensure that the athlete has the necessary levels of skill to undertake the sporting skills being asked of them.<br />Ensure that the performer follows an appropriate warm-up prior to any training and competition undertaken.<br />Ensure that the performer is in a state of sound physical well-being and not suffering from any undue stress or fatigue.<br />Ensure that muscle imbalance is avoided through an appropriate strength training regime.<br />Ensure that the athlete follows a suitable diet plane and eats appropriately for both performance and recovery.<br />Ensure that the athlete follows the principles of training correctly so that there are no abrupt changes to the methods of training used or intensity of training expected.<br />Ensure that the athlete always wears appropriate clothing and footwear for the training or competition to be undertaken.<br />Continued on next slide<br />
  16. 16. Physiology<br />Preventative measures continued<br />Ensure that the athlete takes account of the prevailing environmental conditions.<br />Ensure that the athlete follows the rules of the activity.<br />Ensure that all equipment used is appropriate for the activity or training session to be undertaken.<br />Rehabilitative methods:<br />Hyperbaric chambers are used by injured performers to speed up recovery by delivering oxygen to the injured part at very high pressure and concentrations.<br />Hyperbaric chambers can be used to treat the full range of injuries and conditions.<br />Oxygen tents (or hypoxic tents) replicate the low oxygen conditions of altitude.<br />Oxygen tents are not used specifically to treat a particular sports injury but rather to maintain fitness levels while the performer rehabilitating.<br />Ice baths are used to treat both injury and the soreness that occurs following hard exercise, speeding up the recovery process.<br />Ice baths create a rush of fresh oxygenated blood carrying the nutrients and components necessary to revitalise the damaged and sore tissue.<br />
  17. 17. Physiology<br />An understanding of biomechanics can help improve all sporting performance.<br />Describe how an ice skater uses the concept of moment of inertia to control their angular velocity at take off, during flight and landing. (14 marks)<br />Remember each mark is awarded according to how the answer relates to the descriptors in each band. These include the quality of your ‘written communication’, so you need to pay attention to your spelling, punctuation and grammar.<br />
  18. 18. Physiology<br />Moment of inertia (MI) is the body’s resistance / reluctance to rotate / change its state of angular motion.<br />MI depends upon the mass of the body.<br />Larger the mass the greater the MI / or opposite.<br />MI depends upon the distribution of the mass from the axis of rotation.<br />The further the distribution of mass from the axis of rotation, the greater the moment of inertia / or opposite.<br />MI = Σmr².<br />Moment of inertia and angular velocity are inversely proportional.<br />Control at take off:<br />The skater creates a large torque at take off,<br />By widening arms and legs.<br />Moment of inertia is high.<br />Angular velocity is low.<br />To generate a high angular momentum.<br />As angular momentum cannot be changed once in flight.<br />Due to the law of conservation of angular momentum.<br />Continues n next slide….<br />
  19. 19. Physiology<br />During flight:<br />The skater reduces MI.<br />By bringing arms and legs in towards the midline of their body.<br />This increases angular velocity / rate of rotation.<br />Angular momentum remains constant.<br />Control on landing:<br />The skater increases MI.<br />By spreading their arms and legs out.<br />Reduces angular velocity.<br />Gives more control on landing.<br />

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