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  1. 1. Socio – Cultural and Historical Effects on Participation in Physical Activity Mr Bradburne
  2. 2. Pre Public Schools Sport <ul><li>Prior to the formation of Public (Independent) schools in society the games played were very different to what we recognise as sport today </li></ul><ul><li>BRAINSTORM – With a partner quickly jot down some ideas as to characteristics of these games </li></ul>
  3. 3. Mob Games <ul><li>Loose organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Available to all </li></ul><ul><li>Simple/Local rules </li></ul><ul><li>Unruly </li></ul><ul><li>No limit on numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Few specific skills needed </li></ul><ul><li>Violent/High chance of injury </li></ul><ul><li>Example – Mob Football </li></ul>
  4. 4. Characteristics of Public Schools <ul><li>Were very elitist – for the upper class only </li></ul><ul><li>For boys aged 13 – 18 years old </li></ul><ul><li>Charged fees for attendance </li></ul><ul><li>They were boarding schools </li></ul><ul><li>The original eight public schools are – Eton, Harrow, Winchester, Rugby, Chaterhouse, St Pauls, Westminster, Merchant Taylor and Shrewsbury </li></ul>
  5. 5. Development of games in Public Schools <ul><li>Rules evolved – allowed boys from different areas of the country to play together at public schools </li></ul><ul><li>Participation in mob games frowned upon and banned at public schools </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise used as a means of channelling boys energy/catharsis/to fill time </li></ul><ul><li>Members of sixth form given responsibility for organisation of games to develop leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Intra-school matches developed into inter-house and then inter-school matches </li></ul>
  6. 6. Games influenced by public schools <ul><li>1. Association Football, 2. Fencing, 3. Rowing, 4. Rugby, 5. Athletics, 6. Cricket </li></ul><ul><li>The reasons for this were: </li></ul><ul><li>All are team games </li></ul><ul><li>All were seen by the schools masters to provide “manly” competition </li></ul><ul><li>All were played within a civilised code </li></ul>
  7. 7. The role of games in terms of social control <ul><li>Games acted as a form of social control in the following ways: </li></ul><ul><li>The introduction of rules acted as a behavioural code </li></ul><ul><li>Teams were selected on ability </li></ul><ul><li>The older boys were helped in practicing by younger boys </li></ul><ul><li>Younger teachers acted as players and coaches </li></ul><ul><li>Professionals were employed to coach and act as ground staff </li></ul><ul><li>Respect was developed for the captain of the team and those in a leadership role </li></ul><ul><li>Headmasters gained respect of pupils by supporting and participating in some games e.g. cricket </li></ul>
  8. 8. Thomas Arnold (1795 – 1842) Headmaster of Rugby School 1828 - 1842 Encouraging sporting conduct Development of leadership skills Reduction of Capital punishment Giving 6 th form Responsibility Introduction of spectatorism to sport Good Organisation Wearing of a specialised Games kit Influences of Thomas Arnold on sport at Rugby School
  9. 9. Athleticism <ul><li>Definition – A fanatical devotion to sport which produces team spirit and group loyalty . It is also character building and promotes self discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of athleticism in the development of middle-class sport </li></ul><ul><li>Athleticism met middle class values of respectability e.g. fair play, rule keeping and discipline in training/competition </li></ul><ul><li>Schools developed leadership and organisational qualities in pupils – MIDDLE CLASS VALUES </li></ul><ul><li>Pupils’ became interested to carry on with sport in adulthood </li></ul><ul><li>Middle class pupils mixed with gentry at university and played some of the same games </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Toughen society Improve Health Break from study </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Values of Athleticism </li></ul><ul><li>Competition Mental & Physical release Encourage </li></ul><ul><li>vigorous activity </li></ul>
  11. 11. Social Benefits of Athleticism <ul><li>Increased status of games over study </li></ul><ul><li>Development of discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Development of response to leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Taking par more important than winning </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on team work and co-operation </li></ul><ul><li>Development of leadership qualities </li></ul>
  12. 12. The spread of Athleticism <ul><li>Pupils left public schools and took their ideas with them to Universities </li></ul><ul><li>This created a ‘ melting pot’ of ideas for development </li></ul><ul><li>Many of these university ‘blues’ returned to the public schools as masters </li></ul><ul><li>Middle class propriety schools developed </li></ul><ul><li>Masters at the public schools became the Head’s at these new propriety schools </li></ul><ul><li>These new heads promoted athleticism </li></ul><ul><li>Schools increased in number/size/importance </li></ul>
  13. 13. Influence of athleticism on society <ul><li>BRAINSTORM – What benefits would sport have? </li></ul><ul><li>Organisational experience through organising sport </li></ul><ul><li>Useful contacts made through socialising in sport </li></ul><ul><li>Experience of competition necessary to succeed in business </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits of a healthy lifestyle </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer of decision making skills </li></ul><ul><li>Fair play ethic and teamwork/co-operation </li></ul>
  14. 14. How has athleticism in public schools influenced the development of sport in Britain? <ul><li>Sport played more regularly </li></ul><ul><li>Sport played by sons of the gentry </li></ul><ul><li>Sport developed codified rule structures </li></ul><ul><li>Number of sports played increased </li></ul><ul><li>Sport said to build character as well as physical benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Boys responsible for the organisation of sport </li></ul><ul><li>Headmasters actively encourage sport </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Masters began to teach and join in the games </li></ul><ul><li>Professional coaches were employed to improve sporting standards </li></ul><ul><li>Some pupils went on to Oxford/Cambridge and gain ‘blues’ </li></ul><ul><li>These ‘blues’ often returned to their public schools passing on their knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Some ‘blues’ joined the army and spread sport at home and overseas </li></ul><ul><li>Some became priests and passed knowledge onto parishioners </li></ul><ul><li>Some became industrialists and encouraged sport among their workforce </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Old boys teams were formed </li></ul><ul><li>Private sports clubs formed </li></ul><ul><li>Some became politicians and improved sporting provision for all </li></ul><ul><li>This system of infiltration has become known as ‘THE OLD BOYS NETWORK’ </li></ul>
  17. 17. The development of sport governing bodies <ul><li>Ex-public school boys instrumental in the development of governing bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Had the task of agreeing national rules so that everyone can compete on an equal basis </li></ul><ul><li>Led to the development of regional and national associations which help to further disseminate the rules </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-competitions began to increase and flourish </li></ul><ul><li>Sport portrayed to the masses as morally worthwhile </li></ul><ul><li>Sport seen as having benefits for the nation (i.e. health for work, release of tension) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Codification <ul><li>Is the systematic definition of rules for conduct within sport. It encompasses both the scoring system and the rules which cover the behaviour/conduct of participants </li></ul><ul><li>The codified rules operate at all levels i.e. local, regional, national, international. The codified rules allow competition on an agreed and equal basis </li></ul>
  19. 19. Influence of public sports on the codification of sport rules <ul><li>The Public schools promoted sport as a means of disipline </li></ul><ul><li>This encouraged the development of rules for the conduct of the sport </li></ul><ul><li>The rules were spread to universities and armed forces via ex-public school boys – what is this called? </li></ul><ul><li>Ex-public school boys influential in the development of clubs who adopted the same rule structures </li></ul><ul><li>The national governing bodies led to the development of regional and national associations – increased spread </li></ul><ul><li>Fair play/amateur ideal in the public schools endorsed the adoption of codes of conduct – “unwritten” part of codification </li></ul><ul><li>Public schools contributed to the rules in two senses – 1. Formal establishment of rules 2. Ideological sense of fair play </li></ul>
  20. 20. Pre – Industrial and Contemporary Sports <ul><li>FEW IF ANY RULES </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of rule structure resulted in low skill level </li></ul><ul><li>Rules did little more than identify how a team would win </li></ul><ul><li>No governing agency </li></ul><ul><li>No referee </li></ul><ul><li>Events often unruly affairs </li></ul><ul><li>Pursued at festivals and holidays </li></ul><ul><li>Infrequent and irregular </li></ul><ul><li>Divided on a class basis </li></ul><ul><li>Almost exclusively male </li></ul><ul><li>No separate rules or competitions for men and women </li></ul><ul><li>Team games had no fixed time span </li></ul><ul><li>Team games were unruly and violent affairs </li></ul><ul><li>HIGHLY STRUCTURED RULES </li></ul><ul><li>Rules agreed nationally/internationally </li></ul><ul><li>Rigid structure has resulted in development of high skill level </li></ul><ul><li>Rules seek to ensure fair play </li></ul><ul><li>Referees </li></ul><ul><li>Fair play and sporting etiquette </li></ul><ul><li>Take place in individual free time </li></ul><ul><li>Fixtures on frequent basis – leagues </li></ul><ul><li>Divided by amateur/professional </li></ul><ul><li>Becoming more equal in participation </li></ul><ul><li>Modern rules allow for participation in own competitions </li></ul><ul><li>Team games played to a fixed time span </li></ul><ul><li>Team games seek to control the extent of physical contact to minimise possibility of injury </li></ul>