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  1. 1. The United Kingdom Cultural Context
  2. 2. Historical Determinants •19th C Public schools - large fee paying boarding schools •Exclusive to sons of the gentry then the middle classes built there own proprietary colleges such as Cheltenham, Marlborough and CLIFTON •Different variations of Mob games were brought to the schools, where they began the process of organising and devising new/better ways of playing •Thomas Arnold (Headmaster of Rugby) encouraged these sports to be played as he saw the character-building qualities •Teamwork, self-discipline, loyalty, courage = prospective leaders of society •Team games have since remained an integral part of education.
  3. 3. Notion of Amateurism and Professionalism •The public-school influence established its own definition of amateurism: •It combined physical endeavour with moral integrity, with the struggle being fought for the honour of the house or school. •England has two distinct phases of amateurism: •1. Originally, amateurs were gentlemen of the middle and upper classes who played sports in the spirit of fair competition. •2. There was a shift in definition of an amateur, from a straightforward social distinction, to a monetary one i.e. someone who plays sport without receiving any money/reward •There were advantages and disadvantages to the amateur code: •Ads = promotion of graciousness in defeat and restraint/dignity in victory, acceptance of rules and respect for decisions. •DisAds = excluded the working classes.
  4. 4. Traditions of Hierarchical Society •Before the Industrial revolution there were two classes: •1. Lower Class – working •2. Upper Class – gentry/aristocracy •The middle class emerged with the advent of new ways of making money •Your class affected how much leisure time, money and opportunity you had for sport. •Lower Class = limited by their working hours •Middle Class = factory owners created factory sports facilities and sponsored teams •Upper Class = life of leisure, patrons (prizefighting & pedestrianism) •Middle Class became the moral force in society disapproving of popular activities enjoyed by both the other classes •They encouraged rational sports, concepts of amateurism, banned blood sports and became the promoters of sport.
  5. 5. Geographical Determinants Climate & Population • High density population (596 per sq. Mile) • Population = approx. 61 million • 4 seasons have traditionally had an impact on sport • Urban-industrial conurbations surrounded by green belts Terrain & Communications • Rolling countryside with Penines & Cotswolds as major hill features • Mountainous areas mainly Scottish Highlands, Lake District and Welsh Mountains • Extensive road and rail network • All areas of Britain can be reached in a day • Variety of sports & recreational activities
  6. 6. Government Policy • Government have taken more control over P.E. & Sport • They are using sport to help deliver the four key national outcomes of: 1. Lower long-term unemployment 2. Less crime 3. Better health 4. Better qualifications • Sport can also develop individual pride and community spirit • Control/Responsibility of sport is through the Department of Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) + UK Sport; although the major sporting organisations remain autonomous. • They promote its two main policies: 1. Sport for All – aiming to widen access to sport and recreation to the masses. 2. Achieving Excellence – at National & International competition.
  7. 7. Policies for Participation/Excellence • A Sporting Future for All (2000) • Game Plan (2002) • Best Value through Sport • Step into Sport: Leadership and Volunteering • PE School Sport and Club Links Strategy (PESSCL) • The Youth Sports Unit promotes the importance of PE and Sport for Young People • The DCMS supports bids for staging International Events eg. World Cup and Olympic Games are High Priority • UK Sport – World Class Programme
  8. 8. Local Authorities Agendas for Sport • Variations in provision and expenditure to provide leisure facilities in their area can be found between local authorities. • Leisure is a popular demand by local residents • Leisure is increasingly valued for its own benefits and not as a means of reducing crime or improving the nations health. • Leisure facilities can also help to increase tourism. • Many Local Authorities play sport as a central feature in their work on healthy living, regeneration and social inclusion. • For every pound spent on sport there are multiple returns on improved health, reduce crime, economic regeneration and improved employment opportunities
  9. 9. Social Determinants • The need for a more coordinated and fair approach to the provision of sporting activities addresses two main areas: 1. Sports development: enabling people to learn basic sports skills with the possibility of reaching a standard of sporting excellence. 2. Sports Equity: the need of equality of access and opportunity of everyone, regardless of race, age, gender or level of ability. • The dominant group in the UK could be described as white, male and middle class. • This group controls the major social institutions eg, media, law, education and politics. They can also exercise control over the subordinate groups eg, women, ethnic minorities, disabled and working class. • Discrimination can occur when opportunities available to the dominant group are not available to all social groups. • Target groups, or social exclusion groups as they are now referred to, are still under- represented in sport participation.
  10. 10. Social Exclusion • Aspects of exclusion include: ethnicity, gender, disability, youth and age. • Constraints and exclusion in sport can be broken down into three main categories: 1. Environmental/structural factors – economic, physical and social 2. Personal constraints – internal and psychological 3. Attitudes of society and provider systems – policies and managers’ practices can act as barriers or enablers. • Policies such as discount schemes for disability sport will have little impact if managers do not actively promote their facilities and services to the disabled, who must be made to feel secure in attending these venues. • Main factors of constraint are poverty, time and unemployment. • Combinations of social exclusion groups can lead to double deprivation eg, being elderly and from an ethnic minority. • If exclusion is prolonged in youth, it can have lasting effects in terms of opportunities to play sport recreationally, to socialise and to compete to achieve.
  11. 11. Values of Sport within the Society • Democracy – Sports are ‘opening their doors’ when once they would have barred particular social groups eg. Women’s rugby, football & cricket; tennis initiatives in inner cities • Teamwork – Team games encourage people to work together and to conform to norms and values. If you could learn to be loyal to a sports team, a school house and a school, then you would also serve your country well. • Individuality – Flair and skill are valued for the good of the team (the individual is valued less then the team as a whole) • Fair Play – Sportsmanship is a code of etiquette to abide by the written and unwritten rules of the sport. Amateurism is based on fair play.
  12. 12. • Competitiveness – a person’s character and temperament are tested when under pressure. Team games were valued for the competitive spirit that they encouraged and needed for successful performance. • Participation – traditionally pastimes, such as mob football, encouraged mass active participation. Spectator sports are now a big part of the entertainment industry = decrease in participation levels (young children especially) and obesity problems. • Overcoming discrimination –  promoting equality through sport  working in partnership  challenging discrimination  endorsing the law  using a policy or guidelines
  13. 13. Commercialisation of Sport International Events • The cost of staging sporting events can be very expensive – stadiums, running of events, international TV fees, capital and revenue from governments. • The government has received more money from sport than it contributes (not taking into account 2012!). • Historically, participants could receive some monetary reward and spectators would wager on the outcome. • Today sport is heavily commercialised, packaged and presented to worldwide audiences - ‘spectator sports’. • Gate receipts are no longer the key to profit; media rights, sponsorship deals and merchandising are the forerunners.
  14. 14. • Commercial sports have developed under certain social and economic conditions – urbanisation, industrialisation, effective communications, surplus disposable income and a large population with high living standards and efficient leisure time. • The basic structures of many sports have remained the same, but commercialisation has been influential. • Mass audiences may demand drama and excitement rather than aesthetic appreciation. • Control of sport needs to be balanced between the owners and the athletes. • Amateur sports are becoming pressurised by the need to generate more money.
  15. 15. Sponsorship  The provision of funds or other form of support to an individual or event in return for a commercial return. It is of mutual benefit to both parties. • Sponsorship is now an intrinsic aspect of sports funding. • Television has allowed business sponsors to associate themselves (and their products) with sports, events, teams & sports stars. • Sports Golden Triangle: TV Event Sponsor
  16. 16. International sporting success is pursued by many countries. Discuss the extent to which cultural factors influence the promotion and achievement of sporting excellence in the UK Historical: • Taking part traditionally more important than winning • Legacy of nineteenth century public school attitudes on contemporary attitudes • Tradition of amateurism and professionalism as mutually exclusive • Fair play traditionally of ultimate importance • Value of teamwork • Most sports invented in Britain - resultant view by some that there is therefore no need to excel/contentment with former glories. Geographical Determinants: • Population of approx.60 million • Concept of small country aiming low
  17. 17. Policy: • The nature of sport organisation and administration - decentralised system of administration with several autonomous bodies. • Limited Government funding of high level sport & national lottery Commercialisation: • A mixed economy where relationship between sport and big business continues to strengthen • Mixed economy not exclusively driven by competition • Commercialisation of sport • Sport and multinational companies • The ‘golden triangle’ or relationship between high level sport, sponsorship and media • Fame and fortune available via very few sports or male dominated sports or limited to association football
  18. 18. Social Determinants: • Comparatively widespread mass participation • Discrimination • Lack of opportunity provision and esteem • Class divisions • Limited participation by minority groups Values: • Elitism not a traditional value • Mass participation dominant • Junior sport or community sport for participation as well as performance
  19. 19. School Sport and Physical Education • PHYSICAL ACTIVITY = an umbrella term encompassing any activity that requires an individual to exert a certain amount of energy, resulting in an increase in heart rate e.g. walking, football, canoeing. • HEALTHY, BALANCED LIFESTYLE = where an individual achieves a healthy state or equilibrium, especially in the ratio of time shared between the active and non- active aspects of their life. • OBESITY = an excessive increase in the body’s total quantity of fat caused by an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure.
  20. 20. The Aims of P.E. • Develop a range of psycho-motor skills • Maintain and increase stamina, strength and flexibility • Develop understanding and appreciation for a range of physical activities • Develop positive values and attitudes such as sportsmanship, competition and an ability to abide by the rules • Help to increase self-esteem and confidence through the acquisition of skill, knowledge and values • Develop an understanding of the importance of exercise in maintaining a healthy lifestyle
  21. 21. P.E. and the National Curriculum • Decentralised system where the teacher and school have the power to produce their own programme (within government guidelines) • P.E. is compulsory from Key Stage 1 (ages 5-7) through to Key Stage 4 (up to 16) • The National Curriculum attempts to raise standards in education and make schools more accountable for what they teach. • It has given a more centralised policy for education and its framework is used by all state schools.
  22. 22. P.E. as preparation for Leisure • Schools offer options programmes in the later years; the use of community facilities and information about local clubs and sports centres. • Various policies and initiatives have been set up to try and improve activity levels amongst school children, as part of both the curriculum and extra-curriculum programmes.
  23. 23. School Sport • Sport takes place outside the formal curriculum as an opportunity for children to extend their interest or ability in physical activities • Extracurricular activities are optional • Opportunity and provision vary depending on your school. • The government, through its Department for Children, Schools and Families (DfCSF) is trying to increase the range and amount of school sport available to young people aged 5-16. • By 2008 75% of children will have engaged in 2 hours of high quality PE and sport per week, within and beyond the curriculum. • By 2010 all children will be doing at least 2 hours of high quality PE and 2-3 hours sport (through the school, community and clubs) • How is this going to be achieved?
  24. 24. Government Initiatives • CLUB LINKS • STEP INTO SPORT • SCHOOL SPORT MATTERS • SPORT KITEMARKS FOR SCHOOLS • COMPETITION MANAGERS • PE SCHOOL SPORT AND CLUB LINKS STRATEGY (PESSCL) • Prep: research what these initiatives are and how they are attempting to increase the range and amount of school sport.
  25. 25. Definitions: • ACCESS: factors that affect a persons ability to take part in sport and recreation • OPPORTUNITY: do they have the chance to play? Issues relating to money and or time • PROVISION: the availability of facilities. How easy is it to play? Where are the facilities? Is there transport to get to them? • ESTEEM: societal views i.e. what will I look like? How will I feel? Issues linked to stereotypes. MASS PARTICIPATION
  26. 26. Target Groups • What are target groups? • Definition: a group of people whose participation in sport is affected by social influences such as access, opportunity, provision and esteem • They are now also referred to as Social Exclusion Groups • Examples = Disabled, Women, Ethnic Minorities, Elderly & Youth
  27. 27. MASS PARTICIPATION • Notes/Stats p68 • In context p69 – Advantages/Disadvantages of Midnight leagues – Table format.
  28. 28. The Coalfields Regeneration Trust Midnight Leagues • Working with the financial backing of Halifax Bank, GAME ON has recently coordinated and delivered an exciting programme of 6-a-side leagues across the country. • The idea behind a 'Midnight League' is to facilitate activity at times and places where there is limited provision. • 12 leagues engaged over 1,000 young people in games played across the country over 4 months of Friday and Saturday evenings. Aims & Objectives The following are the five Aims & Objectives of the GAME ON national programme as outlined in the National GAME ON Development Plan. They act as the guiding principles for our work :- 1. Grass Roots Participation To increase participation in football at grass roots level, particularly by young people in coalfield wards. 2. Engagement & Exit Routes Using the power and profile of football to engage disaffected and disadvantaged people into football and other sports and community activities, encouraging healthy lifestyles, heightening educational and personal goals and their attainment. 3. Investment in Football To increase investment into football in deprived areas across a range of levels in the Coalfield wards. 4. Networking Opportunities & Best Practice Sharing Facilitate and deliver opportunities that enable Coalfield (and other) Communities to share Best Practice and increase Networking Opportunities. 5. Inclusive Communities & Community Identification Football, as an integral part of localised community activity, plays an important part in establishing Community identity and cohesion. GAME ON is in a position to assist with the revitalisation of communities in this sports-orientated way
  29. 29. Sports for All Definition: • 1.the opportunity for anyone/all to take part in sport or recreation • 2. to have access regardless of race/gender/age/ability/socio economic background • 3. it creates mass participation (ideally those at grass roots/foundation level are encouraged)
  30. 30. Benefits 1. Increase in the base of the pyramid so more athletes to pick from 2. Improved health & fitness of the population 3. Greater efficiency of workforce/less time off work sick/higher levels of productivity 4. Less money spent on health service (NHS) 5. Reduction in crime rates & social problems 6. Better social integration so less racial or social tension 7. Raises morale & self esteem of the population 8. Has economic benefits – people spend & jobs are created (gyms/leisure centres) 9. By creating a healthy & positive image more tourists & investors/sponsors are attracted to the country from overseas