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  1. 1. Support Material GCE Physical Education OCR Advanced GCE in Physical Education: H554 Unit: G453 This Support Material booklet is designed to accompany the OCR Advanced GCE specification in Physical Education for teaching from September 2008.
  2. 2. Contents Contents 2 Introduction 4 Physical Education H554: G453 Historical Studies 6 Physical Education H554: G453 Historical Studies 7 Physical Education H554: G453 Historical Studies 8 Physical Education H554: G453 Historical Studies 9 Physical Education H554: G453 Historical Studies 10 Physical Education H554: G453 Historical Studies 11 Physical Education H554: G453 Historical Studies 14 Physical Education H554: Comparative Studies 16 Physical Education H554: Comparative Studies 18 Physical Education H554: Comparative Studies 19 Physical Education H554: Comparative Studies 20 Physical Education H554: G453 Sports Psychology 22 Physical Education H554: G453 Biomechanics 34 Physical Education H554: G453 Biomechanics 35 Physical Education H554: G453 Biomechanics 36 Physical Education H554: G453 Biomechanics 37 Physical Education H554: G453 Biomechanics 38 Physical Education H554: G453 Biomechanics 39 Physical Education H554: G453 Biomechanics 40 Physical Education H554: G453 Exercise and Sport Physiology 41 Physical Education H554: G453 Exercise and Sport Physiology 42 Physical Education H554: G453 Exercise and Sport Physiology 43 Physical Education H554: G453 Exercise and Sport Physiology 44 Physical Education H554: G453 Exercise and Sport Physiology 45 Physical Education H554: G453 Exercise and Sport Physiology 46 Physical Education H554: G453 Exercise and Sport Physiology 47 Sample Lesson Plan 48 G453 Historical Studies 48 Sample Lesson Plan: Physical Education 7832 Sample Lesson Plan G453 Comparative Studies 51 Sample GCE Lesson Plan G453 Exercise and Sport Physiology 54 2 of 57 GCE Physical Education
  3. 3. Other forms of Support 56 GCE Physical Education 3 of 57
  4. 4. Introduction Background A new structure of assessment for A Level has been introduced, for first teaching from September 2008. Some of the changes include: • The introduction of stretch and challenge (including the new A* grade at A2) – to ensure that every young person has the opportunity to reach their full potential • The reduction or removal of coursework components for many qualifications – to lessen the volume of marking for teachers • A reduction in the number of units for many qualifications – to lessen the amount of assessment for learners • Amendments to the content of specifications – to ensure that content is up-to-date and relevant. OCR has produced an overview document, which summarises the changes to Physical Education. This can be found at www.ocr.org.uk, along with the new specification. In order to help you plan effectively for the implementation of the new specification we have produced this Scheme of Work and Sample Lesson Plans for Physical Education These Support Materials are designed for guidance only and play a secondary role to the Specification. Our Ethos All our Support Materials were produced ‘by teachers for teachers’ in order to capture real life current teaching practices and they are based around OCR’s revised specifications. The aim is for the support materials to inspire teachers and facilitate different ideas and teaching practices. Each Scheme of Work and set of sample Lesson Plans is provided in: • PDF format – for immediate use • Word format – so that you can use it as a foundation to build upon and amend the content to suit your teaching style and students’ needs. The Scheme of Work and sample Lesson plans provide examples of how to teach this unit and the teaching hours are suggestions only. Some or all of it may be applicable to your teaching. The Specification is the document on which assessment is based and specifies what content and skills need to be covered in delivering the course. At all times, therefore, this Support Material booklet should be read in conjunction with the Specification. If clarification on a particular point is sought then that clarification should be found in the Specification itself. 4 of 57 GCE Physical Education
  5. 5. A Guided Tour through the Scheme of Work = Innovative Teaching Idea All the teaching idea contained in the SOW are innovative, but the icon is used to Highlight exceptionally innovative ideas. = Stretch & Challenge Activity This icon is added at the end of text when there is an explicit opportunity to offer Stretch and Challenge. = ICT Opportunity This icon is used to illustrate when an activity could be taught using ICT facilities. GCE Physical Education 5 of 57
  6. 6. Physical Education H554: G453 Historical Studies Suggested 2 hours Topic: Popular recreation in pre-industrial Britain and its impact on contemporary participation and performance teaching time Suggested teaching and Topic outline Learning outcome Resources Points to note learning activities Popular Candidates should be able to: • Overview of course/ pictures • Advance PE for OCR – • Whenever possible candidates recreation • Describe characteristics (including • Time line quiz A2 should be encouraged to simple/natural, occasional, local, wagering, • primary research of candidates’ • PE and the study of sport compare then and now as violence/cruelty, simple unwritten rules, relatives/friends/neighbours – Davis, Bull, Roscoe higher order examinations courtly/popular, rural, occupational) and Roscoe questions will require this. • Practical ‘role play’ of various • Explain social and cultural factors which activities e.g. smock race, grinning • Manly and Muscular • Candidates should find it influenced the nature and development of contest, whistling match et5c. Diversion – Tony Money beneficial if the first few popular recreations. • Use of visual images lessons are spent • Candidates to answer examination- • Explain how popular recreation impacted on wherever possible: consolidating understanding of style question related to this topic physical competence and health of Laminated pictures characteristics and societal • Begin glossary of key words. determinants. participants. • Slide shows • Describe the varying opportunities for • Impact of class an important • Video (eg The People’s participation. concept to understand at this Game) stage. • Explain the impact of popular recreation on contemporary participation and performance. • Note links to summer fairs, village fetes and surviving • Make reference to case study activities. ethnic sports (AS contemporary) today. 6 of 57 GCE Physical Education
  7. 7. Physical Education H554: G453 Historical Studies Candidates should be able to contrast the post-industrial social and cultural factors relating to rational recreation with pre-industrial social and cultural factors relating to popular recreation. Suggested 2 hours Topic: Rational recreation in post-industrial Britain and its impact on contemporary participation and performance teaching time Suggested teaching Topic outline Learning outcome Resources Points to note and learning activities Rationalised Candidates should be able to: • Time line activity - • PE Review: • Emphasis on sports and • Describe the characteristics of rational recreation (including respectability, including cards of key Volume 2 examination technique pastimes regularity, regionalization, codification, more controlled wagering) societal determinants eg Number 1 – for comparing and • Understanding of how these characteristics differed from the characteristics Saturday half day/ impact article and task: contrasting e.g. of popular recreation. rail travel/ impact of ‘Was the comparing popular literacy on the Industrial recreations with rational • Explain how Social and cultural factors which influenced the nature and emergence of revolution also a recreations or the development of rationalised sports and pastimes ref:. rationalised sports and sporting societal features that • The industrial revolution and associated urban and agrarian recreations. revolution?’ impacted on them. revolutions. • Match up games to • Match up cards/ • Reminder to flag up key • Emergence of urban middle class. consolidate games societal influences both • Changes in work conditions that improved health and affected characteristics and in the past and present participation. societal determinants. that limited / encouraged • Increase in free time for industrial working class. • Candidates to answer and continue to limit / • The transport revolution and impact of the railways. examination-style encourage involvement question related to this in physical activity e.g. • Changing views of the Church towards sport and recreation. topic. impact of variety of • Amateurism and professionalism. transport links including • The place and status of women in Victorian Britain; increased cheap internal and participation by middle class women by end of the nineteenth European flights today. century. • Explain how rational recreation impacted on physical competence and health of participants. • Describe the varying opportunities for participation. • Make reference to case study activities. • Explain the impact of rational recreation on contemporary participation and performance. = Innovative teaching idea = Stretch and challenge opportunity = ICT opportunity idea GCE Physical Education 7 of 57
  8. 8. Physical Education H554: G453 Historical Studies Suggested 2 hours Topic: Nineteenth century public schools and their impact on the development of physical activities and young teaching time people both then and now Suggested teaching and Topic outline Learning outcome Resources Points to note learning activities Nineteenth Candidates should be able to: • to answer examination-style • Some ‘Clarendon Schools’ century public • Describe the characteristics (fee paying, question related to this topic. give tours with reference to A endowed, boys, boarding, gentry, non-local, Level PE study. schools controlled by trustees, Spartan) • Explain the impact of these schools on the development of case study activities with particular reference to participation and healthy lifestyles both then and now. • Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the Clarendon Report. = Innovative teaching idea = Stretch and challenge opportunity = ICT opportunity idea 8 of 57 GCE Physical Education
  9. 9. Physical Education H554: G453 Historical Studies Suggested 2 hours Topic: The developmental stages of athleticism in nineteenth century public schools teaching time Suggested teaching and learning Points Topic outline Learning outcome Resources activities to note The three Candidates should be able to: Pictures of key Clarendon Schools – identification • Pictures of key developmental • Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the three of key characteristics and analysis of impact on Clarendon Schools. developmental stages as a reflection of societal change development of sports and games. • Clips from Tom stages of athleticism and the civilising process • Candidates to answer examination-style Brown’s Schooldays • Explain the evolving nature, status, organisation, technical question related to this topic. video. development, social relationships and values of the schools and their sports and games through the stages. • Evaluate critically the three developmental stages of athleticism on the development of physical activities and young people both then and now. Stage one (bullying Candidates should be able to: • Wall chart or A3 revision chart of three stages. and brutality) • Explain the emergence of a sporting culture in individual schools as a result of activities brought in to schools by boys (melting pot) and the natural facilities available. Stage two (Dr Candidates should be able to: • Write an obituary to Dr Arnold: to include - Arnold and social • Explain the Impact of Dr Thomas Arnold of Rugby School what were his aims; did he achieve (1826-1842) as a reforming Headmaster (his aims, them? how? control) strategies, influence and impact) • Research into other public school • Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of Muscular headmasters. what was their contribution and Christianity (definition and values). how did it compare to that of Arnold? = Innovative teaching idea = Stretch and challenge opportunity = ICT opportunity idea GCE Physical Education 9 of 57
  10. 10. Physical Education H554: G453 Historical Studies Suggested 2 hours Topic: The developmental stages of athleticism in nineteenth century public schools teaching time Suggested teaching and learning Topic outline Learning outcome Resources Points to note activities Stage three (the Candidates should be able to demonstrate knowledge and • Prepare case study of ‘a public schoolboy’ at ‘cult’ of athleticism) understanding of:: this time including: home, school, university, • Athleticism – definition and values. career to illustrate key concepts and diffusion • ‘Melting pot’ influence of universities and of sports and games. • the standardisation of rules • Candidates to answer examination-style question related to this topic. • Role and impact of games-playing Oxbridge graduates returning to their schools. • The influence and impact of ex Public School boys on the spread of team games / rational recreations. = Innovative teaching idea = Stretch and challenge opportunity = ICT opportunity idea 10 of 57 GCE Physical Education
  11. 11. Physical Education H554: G453 Historical Studies Suggested 2 hours Topic: Case studies teaching time Suggested teaching Topic outline Learning outcome Resources Points to note and learning activities For each case study activity candidates should be able to, with reference • PowerPoint presentations, to the content specific to each activity: written accounts, group • Discuss increases in participation and increased physical work, competence. • Analyse the activity as popular recreation • Assess the influence of nineteenth century public schools on the development of the activity • Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the activity as rational recreation. • Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of both participation and barriers to participation in the activity today. Bathing and • Pop Rec: recreation, survival, health and the initial development of • Candidates to answer swimming competitive swimming. examination-style question • Public schools: values and status. related to this topic. • Rat Rec: Bathing in urban industrial towns; Wash and Bath house Acts and the impact on healthy lifestyles; hygiene and prevailing social conditions; the organisation of amateur swimming and formation of the ASA. • Factors that have helped develop bathing and swimming in the UK and the impact of these factors on contemporary participation and performance. = Innovative teaching idea = Stretch and challenge opportunity = ICT opportunity idea GCE Physical Education 11 of 57
  12. 12. Physical Education H554: G453 Historical Studies Suggested 2 hours Topic: Case studies teaching time Suggested teaching Topic outline Learning outcome Resources Points to note and learning activities Athletics • Pop Rec: types and nature of activities associated with community • Candidates to answer events, rural sports and festivals, commercial fairs and wakes, view of examination-style question the church. related to this topic. • Pedestrianism (its nature, development and status) • the emergence of athletics. • Public schools: hare and hounds, steeplechase, athletic sports days; values and status; impact of Exeter College, Oxford. • Rat Rec: The emergence of amateur athletics and opportunities for working class involvement; amateurism, professionalism and the exclusion clause. • Factors that have helped develop athletics in the UK and the impact of these factors on contemporary participation and performance. Football • Pop Rec: mob games • Candidates to answer • Refer back to AS contemporary • Public schools: football and rugby : values and status examination-style question studies. spectatorism and • Rat Rec: amateurism and professionalism; broken time payments; the related to this topic. participation today : impact, split between association football and rugby football; spectatorism vs. influence, issues. participation and the importance of the game in urban communities. • Factors that have helped develop football in the UK and the impact of these factors on contemporary participation and performance. Cricket • Pop Rec: significance of class on participation; • Candidates to answer • Compare to today. • Public schools: values, status and organisaiton. examination-style question • Rat Rec: William Clarke X1; amateurism and professionalism. related to this topic. • Factors that have helped develop cricket in the UK and the impact of these factors on contemporary participation and performance. = Innovative teaching idea = Stretch and challenge opportunity = ICT opportunity idea 12 of 57 GCE Physical Education
  13. 13. Physical Education H554: G453 Historical Studies Suggested 2 hours Topic: Case studies teaching time Suggested teaching Topic outline Learning outcome Resources Points to note and learning activities Tennis • Pop Rec: Real tennis as an exclusive, elitist pre-industrial activity; • Candidates to answer • Note why different to other popular • Public schools: Tennis and other striking games (fives, raquets, examination-style question recreations. squash) – their status and organisation. related to this topic. • Compare to today. • Rat Rec: Lawn tennis as a middle class invention; tennis as a social • Real tennis today? occasion and as a vehicle for the emancipation of women and their participation in sport. • Factors that have helped develop tennis in the UK and the impact of these factors on contemporary participation and performance. = Innovative teaching idea = Stretch and challenge opportunity = ICT opportunity idea GCE Physical Education 13 of 57
  14. 14. Physical Education H554: G453 Historical Studies Suggested 2 hours Topic: Drill, physical training and Physical Education in state schools with teaching time particular reference to its impact upon participation and the promotion of healthy lifestyles both then and now. Suggested teaching and Points Topic outline Learning outcome Resources learning activities to note • Candidates should be able to consider both the reasons for the • Emphasis on examination requirements to compare and contrast styles and change from one approach, the next and the effects of each methods and reasons for change. change both then and now and identify differences between each of the following and what occurs in State Schools today. The 1902 Model Candidates should be able to: • Practical role plays of each stage • Laminated cards of Course • Describe objectives, content and methodology; possibly with candidates as each era – write-on • Explain reasons for implementation; role of Colonel Malcolm Fox; ‘instructors’ or teachers having on key points. planning the session. • Explain reasons for rapid replacement (need for healthy lifestyle for urban working class young people) The 1933 syllabus Candidates should be able to: • Practical role play • Describe objectives, content, methodology, reputation, • Explain reasons for replacement. The 1950s – Moving Candidates should be able to: • Practical role play and Growing and • Describe objectives, content and methodology; Planning the • Explain the influence of WW2 on the use of apparatus and the Programme building of gymnasia leading to increased involvement in and effectiveness f physical activity for young people. = Innovative teaching idea = Stretch and challenge opportunity = ICT opportunity idea 14 of 57 GCE Physical Education
  15. 15. Physical Education H554: G453 Historical Studies Suggested 2 hours Topic: Drill, physical training and Physical Education in state schools with teaching time particular reference to its impact upon participation and the promotion of healthy lifestyles both then and now. Suggested teaching and Points Topic outline Learning outcome Resources learning activities to note The 1970s and 80s Candidates should be able to: • Candidates to answer examination- • Explain the impact of industrial action on opportunity and style question related to this topic. provision for young people to participate in physical activity in state schools as part of a lifelong involvement in a balanced, active and healthy lifestyle ;impact on extra curricular activities • Describe the aims of the National Curriculum for Physical Education. • Evaluate critically the impact on Physical Education in state schools. = Innovative teaching idea = Stretch and challenge opportunity = ICT opportunity idea GCE Physical Education 15 of 57
  16. 16. Physical Education H554: Comparative Studies Suggested 5 hours Topic: Cultural context of UK, USA and Australia teaching time Topic outline Learning outcome Suggested teaching and learning Resources Points to note activities Candidates should be able to compare the USA and Australia with the UK with reference to the content as detailed for cultural context; Physical Education and school sport; mass participation; and sport and the pursuit of excellence. Cultural For each country, candidates should • Setting the scene. • A2 PE for OCR • Individual centres will decide whether to teach the context be able to demonstrate knowledge • Mind mapping review of the UK (AS (Heinemann) comparative studies option country by country or and understanding of: Contemporary Studies) ref: Physical theme by theme. Education and school sport; mass participation; sporting excellence; = Innovative teaching idea = Stretch and challenge opportunity = ICT opportunity idea 16 of 57 GCE Physical Education
  17. 17. Physical Education H554: Comparative Studies • Historical determinants • Picture montage: For USA and Australia • Advanced PE • The cultural context should be established and • Geographical determinants use travel brochures and other and Sport clearly understood by candidates as it underpins the • Government policy resources to illustrate cultural context of (Stanley whole course. each country with annotations. Thornes) • Throughout this unit candidates need to compare • Commercialisation of sport • Start set of key word cards for each • PE and the study what they learn and understand about USA and • Social determinants country, of sport – Davis Australia with UK – parts of the examination question • Values et al. will require this critical analysis/ comparison. • Exam-style question. Candidates should be able to • Travel brochures, • Prepare comparative revision chart fort evaluate critically the influence of the guide books and his topic. cultural context on: images. • PE and school sport • Map and flags. • Mass participation (particularly among young people. • Sport and the pursuit of excellence. = Innovative teaching idea = Stretch and challenge opportunity = ICT opportunity idea GCE Physical Education 17 of 57
  18. 18. Physical Education H554: Comparative Studies Suggested 8 Topic: Physical Education and school sport in USA and Australia compared teaching hours with UK time Topic outline Learning outcome Suggested teaching Resources Points to note and learning activities Physical • Health, fitness and obesity levels in young people; status of and attitudes • Research obesity levels • Video • Websites of High Schools in education towards Physical Education in schools; testing and measuring; in USA resources USA may be helpful. ‘curriculum crisis,’ strategies to promote Physical Education. • Prepare and give talk / easy to source and school • Equality; Title IX (benefits, drawbacks and impact on participation); presentation on values for USA High sport - USA School sport young disabled people and adapted PE programmes. of summer camps in USA • Outdoor Education: Summer Camps for young people (types and values; • Exam-style question eg Remember emphasis on promoting physical activity and healthy, active and the Titans. balanced lifestyles); impact of environmental factors. • High School (inter-mural) Sport – organisation, status and ethos; incentives for young participants and coaches. • Intra-mural school sport and its role in promoting participation in physical activity ( its organisation, status and ethos) Physical • Case study of the State of Victoria. • Research and do • Candidates should be familiar education • Fitness, skill and participation levels among young people. PowerPoint or OHT with the different organisations • presentation on each of: and initiatives illustrated with and school Sport Education and Physical Education Project (SEPEP); Physical Education and Sport Education (PASE): their role in encouraging active SEPEP, PASE, letters and numbers: title IX, sport - exemplary schools etc. WASP, SEPEP,PASE, AIS, participation and lifelong involvement by young people. Australia ASC, UKSI, UK Sport. • Key features and functions of: exemplary schools; fundamental skills programme; sports leader programmes; state award schemes (e.g. de Courbertin Award); school club links; sports linkage scheme; sports person in schools project; sports search; teacher games. • Outdoor Education: impact of environmental factors, status in schools. Compariso Ccompare PE and sport in school in the USA and Australia with the UK and • Exam-style question. n in UK candidates should be able to: • Prepare comparative • Describe organisation, status and ethos and inter- and intra-school sport. revision chart fort his • Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of health, fitness and topic. obesity levels among young people. • Exam-style question • Outline contemporary initiatives to promote PE and school sport.
  19. 19. Physical Education H554: Comparative Studies Suggested 4 hours Topic: Mass participation (particularly among young people)in USA and Australia compared with UK teaching time Topic outline Learning outcome Suggested teaching and Resources Points to note learning activities Mass Candidates should be able to demonstrate knowledge and • Research midnight basket ball participation understanding of: leagues in UK. (particularly • Participation rates among • National fitness levels young • Strategies to promote participation and ensure lifelong involvement and healthy lifestyles. people) - • Amateur sports clubs (lack of tradition) USA • Community recreation: midnight leagues and other contemporary community initiatives. • Contemporary initiatives: Time Out for Better Sports for Kids / Hook a Kid on Golf. Mass • Participation rates. participation • National fitness levels. (particularly • Promotion by the government of regular participation in physical among activity; role of the Australian Sports Commission (ASC). young • ‘More Active Australia’ and club participation. people) - • Adapted games for young people. Australia Comparison • Compare mass participation in the USA and Australia to the UK • Exam-style question. and in the UK candidates should be able to refer to participation • Prepare comparative rates, national fitness levels, strategies to promote participation revision chart fort his topic. and to ensure lifelong involvement and healthy lifestyles • Exam-style question
  20. 20. Physical Education H554: Comparative Studies Suggested 8 hours Topic: Sport and the pursuit of excellence in the USA and Australia teaching time compared with UK Topic outline Learning outcome Suggested teaching and learning Resources Points activities to note Sport and the • Little League (participation in competitive sport for young people). • Create ‘pathway’ to excellence chart with key • Video clips: pursuit of • Pathways to professional sport (the College system; scholarships, words and phrases. Super Bowl, special admit programmes; the Pro-Draft) • Case study research of Draft. excellence - USA • Equality and discrimination: history of WASP domination; African contemporary ethnic sports Americans (discrimination and contemporary success); tokenism; starts. analyse reasons for success including stacking and centrality; the ‘glass ceiling’ and contemporary ethnic opportunity, provision and esteem. sport stars; opportunity, provision and esteem. • Case study of the ‘big four’ American sports with reference to origins, nature of game, impact of universities, sport as an industry, the relationship between high level sport, sponsorship and the media (golden triangle) and the concept of ‘sport space’ Sport and the • The Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) – structure and function. • Group research projects of different styles of pursuit of • Alternative ‘pathways’ into professional sport (the draft system in football in Australia. excellence - Australian Rules Football and Rugby League) Australia • Case studies of cricket, rugby League, Rugby Union, Association football, Australian Rules. • Equality and discrimination: • Sport and gender: contemporary equality and high status of women in high level sport in Australia. • Sport and people with disabilities: high status; Paralympic involvement. = Innovative teaching idea = Stretch and challenge opportunity = ICT opportunity idea 20 of 57 GCE Physical Education
  21. 21. Physical Education H554: Comparative Studies Suggested 8 hours Topic: Sport and the pursuit of excellence in the USA and Australia teaching time compared with UK Topic outline Learning outcome Suggested teaching and learning Resources Points activities to note Comparison • Compare the pursuit of excellence in the USA and Australia with the • Exam-style question. UK. In the UK. • Prepare comparative revision chart for his • Candidates should be able to: topic. • explain opportunity, provision and esteem (UK Sport; UKSI, and the • Exam-style question. Mark another student’s increasing commercialization of sport) answer using mark scheme or students self mark own work perhaps before handing in for formal teacher assessment. = Innovative teaching idea = Stretch and challenge opportunity = ICT opportunity idea GCE Physical Education 21 of 57
  22. 22. PHYSICAL EDUCATION H554: G453 SPORTS PSYCHOLOGY SUGGESTED SECTION B SCIENTIFIC OPTIONS OPTION B1 – TEACHING 30 HOURS TOPIC: SPORTS PSYCHOLOGY TIME TOPIC SUGGESTED TEACHING AND HOMEWORK LEARNING OUTCOMES SUGGESTED RESOURCES POINTS TO NOTE OUTLINE ACTIVITIES 3 hours • Demonstrate knowledge and • Introduction to the social science of psychology with use of • Advanced PE and Sport - • Although Hollander Individual understanding of the theories different types of evidence to form hypotheses. Honeybourne, Hill and Moors. not specified in the aspects of of personality: trait • Students to be given a variety of sports psychology research • OCR Advanced PE A2 – spec – students performance perspectives (the summaries to evaluate and assess how psychology can help various. should use his that influence characteristics of and hinder sports behaviour. • Psychological Dynamics of model as an extroversion/introversion, • example of young people’s Students to use questionnaires to gather evidence re Sport – D Gill. neuroticism/stability, Type personality characteristics – with peers and / or sportspeople. trait/interactionist participation • Applying Psychology to Sport – A/Type B); social learning The use of profiling should be the basis for further discussion theory and be able and aspirations. Woods. perspectives; interactionist on links between personality and sports performance and to explain using Active and approaches. • Personality questionnaires from: practical examples. adopting a balanced, active and healthy lifestyle. healthy lifestyle. • Explain the effects of • www.sportsconfidence.biz/SPQ • The results of the profiles are analysed by students to draw out _sample_report.pdf (includes Personality and personality profiling on the problems such as low ecological validity or too many demand profile of Tiger Woods) its importance adoption of balanced, active characteristics. in effective and healthy lifestyles. • Eysenck’s Personality • Traits related to the elite sportspeople through individual case performance • Evaluate critically personality Questionnaire: studies. and to following profiling in sport. • www.ddrc.org/downloads/poster a balanced. • Trait perspectives via readings on Eysenck and Cattell. s07_04/UHMS_personality • Interactionist based on Hollander. Students to draw • www.personalitypage.com Hollander’s model and then relate this to sports performance / • www.pponline.co.uk behaviour. • www.myskillsprofile.com • Students to present their findings from their questionnaires and to make judgements about the links between personality and • www.thesportselite.com/articles/l sports behaviours. earning.html 2 hours • Describe and explain the • Explore students’ own attitudes via a discussion and draw from • Advanced PE and Sport – • Relate attitudes not nature of attitudes, them the factors that make up an attitude. Introduce the triadic Honeybourne, Hill and Moors. just to performance • Inconsistencies and prejudice model as a structure. • OCR Advanced PE A2 – but also to lifestyle Individual = Innovative teaching idea = Stretch and challenge opportunity = ICT opportunity idea 22 of 57 GCE Physical Education
  23. 23. PHYSICAL EDUCATION H554: G453 SPORTS PSYCHOLOGY SUGGESTED SECTION B SCIENTIFIC OPTIONS OPTION B1 – TEACHING 30 HOURS TOPIC: SPORTS PSYCHOLOGY TIME TOPIC SUGGESTED TEACHING AND HOMEWORK LEARNING OUTCOMES SUGGESTED RESOURCES POINTS TO NOTE OUTLINE ACTIVITIES aspects of in sporting situations; • Practical with students involved in a number of different various. choice and performance • Explain the origins of attitudes, practicals including dance, competitive activities and non- • Motivation in Sport and Exercise persistence in that influence and their influence on competitive activities – observe and record behaviours. – Roberts. active participation. young people’s performance and lifestyles • Draw on observations from teacher or peers to explore the • Exercise Psychology – Willis participation (including the effects of sources of attitudes. and Campbell. and aspirations. socialisation); • Introduce the concept of socialisation. Students to link • Attitudinal surveys related to • Describe the components of behaviour / choices in sport with socialisation influences. sport: Attitudes and attitudes (cognitive, affective, • Use questionnaires to gather evidence re lifestyles and • http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publi their influence behavioural); attitudes to sports. cations/2006/09/29134901/3 on performance • Evaluate critically attitudes • Students to make presentations of findings identifying factors • www.wsf.org.uk/documents/Mus and lifestyles. (and behaviour) in sport and affecting attitudes and what can be done to change attitudes to lim_women_in_Sport.pdf lifestyle choice; healthy lifestyles. • Describe methods of changing • Visiting speaker from Sports Development to find out how the attitudes from negative to attitudes of target groups can be changed or enhanced. positive to promote Students to make psychological links. participation in physical activity • Reading and note taking on cognitive dissonance theory. and a balanced, active and • Students to work on individual case studies to identify healthy lifestyle; strategies to change attitudes and to recognise the influence of • Demonstrate knowledge and cognitive dissonance. understanding of the concept of cognitive dissonance to change attitudes. 2 hours • Atkinson and McClelland’s • Text reading and note taking on Atkinson and McClelland’s • Advanced PE and Sport - theory of achievement theory of achievement motivation. Honeybourne, Hill and Moors. motivation (need to achieve • Students to identify the characteristics of approach behaviours • OCR Advanced PE A2 – various Individual and need to avoid failure). and avoidance behaviours. • Psychological Dynamics of aspects of = Innovative teaching idea = Stretch and challenge opportunity = ICT opportunity idea GCE Physical Education 23 of 57
  24. 24. PHYSICAL EDUCATION H554: G453 SPORTS PSYCHOLOGY SUGGESTED SECTION B SCIENTIFIC OPTIONS OPTION B1 – TEACHING 30 HOURS TOPIC: SPORTS PSYCHOLOGY TIME TOPIC SUGGESTED TEACHING AND HOMEWORK LEARNING OUTCOMES SUGGESTED RESOURCES POINTS TO NOTE OUTLINE ACTIVITIES performance • Sport-specific achievement • Observing video of a team game and or observing live sport – Sport – D Gill. that influence motivation (e.g. qualititative evidence gathering by students on motivational • Applying Psychology to Sport – young people’s competitiveness). behaviours. Woods. participation • Link with AS work on motivation and the influences of and aspirations. motivation in sport. • Case studies of two elite sportspeople per student. Each to Achievement make a poster presentation on motivational behaviour. motivation and • Role-play and or the use of written scenarios to encourage its effect on students to recognise strategies to encourage need to achieve performance behaviours rather than need to avoid failure. and on following • Exploration of the concept of competitiveness and whether this an active and is nature and / or nurture. Influences explored on healthy lifestyle. competitiveness. • Students to design a leaflet encouraging need to achieve behaviour to follow a healthy lifestyle. 2 hours • Discuss reasons for success • Students to be involved in a brief sports competition for • Advanced PE and Sport - and failure in physical activity. example a relay. Honeybourne, Hill and Moors. Individual • Explain Weiner's model (locus • Reasons for the outcomes (winning / losing) are then recorded. • OCR Advanced PE A2 – aspects of of causality and stability • Class explore whether thee reasons are valid and what various. performance dimensions). characterizes them. • Motivation in Sport and Exercise that influence • Justify the use of attributional • Introduction to causal attribution and its links with motivation. – Roberts. young people’s retraining. • Students to view video of managers / coaches giving reasons • Psychological Dynamics of participation • Demonstrate knowledge and for their team’s performances. Sport – Gill. and aspirations. understanding of strategies for • Students to draw and understand Weiner’s model of attribution • Foundations of Sport & Exercise the promotion of mastery- Psychology – R Cox. = Innovative teaching idea = Stretch and challenge opportunity = ICT opportunity idea 24 of 57 GCE Physical Education
  25. 25. PHYSICAL EDUCATION H554: G453 SPORTS PSYCHOLOGY SUGGESTED SECTION B SCIENTIFIC OPTIONS OPTION B1 – TEACHING 30 HOURS TOPIC: SPORTS PSYCHOLOGY TIME TOPIC SUGGESTED TEACHING AND HOMEWORK LEARNING OUTCOMES SUGGESTED RESOURCES POINTS TO NOTE OUTLINE ACTIVITIES orientation and the avoidance and to use this model to place other attributions. • Some articles related to Attribution of learned helplessness; to • Link mastery orientation and learned helplessness with attribution: theory and the raise self esteem and to attribution. • www.sshs.ex.ac.uk/textdocs/ impact of develop positive behaviours • Questionnaire to be given to younger pupils about the reasons psych_pubs.pdf attribution on towards lifetime involvement in for being involved in sport or otherwise. Class discussion • https://intranet.psychology. physical activity. performance about how the negative reasons related to learned bangor.ac.uk and sustaining • Evaluate critically the effects of helplessness could be changed through attributional retraining. • www.pponline.co.uk/encyc/ a balanced, attribution theory on • Visiting clinical psychologist or sports psychologist to give talk psychology active and performance and on sustaining on the importance of self-esteem in developing positive and • For case studies from sports a balanced, active and healthy healthy lifestyle. healthy behaviours. performers lifestyle. • Extended examination – style question to encourage a piece of and their reasons for winning extended writing that evaluates critically the effects of and or losing: attribution on performance and sustaining a healthy lifestyle. • http://news.bbc.co.uk/ sport1/hi/academy/default.stm 2 hours • Describe the nature of • Drawing on students’ own experiences / video evidence and • Advanced PE and Sport - aggression and assertion. newspaper reports identify aggressive tendencies in sport. Honeybourne, Hill and Moors. Individual • Define channeled aggression. • Identify a clear definition of aggression and assertion with • OCR Advanced PE A2 – aspects of • Explain the causes of practical examples. various. performance aggressive behaviour. • Students to have a list of incidents for them to recognise either • Foundations of Sport & Exercise that influence aggressive or assertive behaviour. Psychology – R Cox. • Evaluate critically theories of young aggression (instinct theories; • Reading on causes of aggression from the texts. • Collect newspaper / magazine people’s frustration-aggression cuttings of aggressive incidents • Each student to have responsibility of presenting either a participation hypothesis; aggressive-cue nature or a nurture theory – lead to class debate on whether in sport for analysis. and hypothesis (Berkowitz); social aggression is learned or it is instinctive. • Various: aspirations. learning theories). • Review the main theories by grouping behaviours under each. • www.kidsfirstsoccer.com/violenc • Describe methods of = Innovative teaching idea = Stretch and challenge opportunity = ICT opportunity idea GCE Physical Education 25 of 57
  26. 26. PHYSICAL EDUCATION H554: G453 SPORTS PSYCHOLOGY SUGGESTED SECTION B SCIENTIFIC OPTIONS OPTION B1 – TEACHING 30 HOURS TOPIC: SPORTS PSYCHOLOGY TIME TOPIC SUGGESTED TEACHING AND HOMEWORK LEARNING OUTCOMES SUGGESTED RESOURCES POINTS TO NOTE OUTLINE ACTIVITIES eliminating aggressive • Students to draw up a self-help sheet for those in sport who e.htm Aggression tendencies of performers and cannot channel their aggressive tendencies – leading to an • www.selfhelpmagazine.com/arti explain the effects of these identification of the main strategies to control aggression. cles/sports/violence.htm and its impact methods on the adoption of • Links to be made with operant conditioning from the AS • http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/f upon active and healthy lifestyles. course. unny_old_game/1494252.stm performance and behaviour. 3 hours • Describe the nature of a • Students to research case studies of successful teams to • Advanced PE and Sport - group/team (mutual identify success factors. Honeybourne, Hill and Moors. awareness, interaction, • Reflection on own team experiences – what makes a good • OCR Advanced PE A2 – Group common goal). team in sport? various. dynamics of • Demonstrate knowledge and • Students to observe a high level team game and note the • Sports Psychology a self help performance understanding of Steiner’s characteristics of the teams. guide – Bull. and audience model of group performance • Students to draw Steiner’s model and reflect on the faults that • CD Rom Switch on to Sports effects that (awareness of problems for barriers to optimizing team performance. Psychology – Mace. influence associated with productivity of • Link Steiner with Ringelmann research and draw from this the • Case studies from the BBC young a group/team). concept of social loafing and its causes. Sport Academy web site: people’s • Demonstrate knowledge and • Through reading and research students to present thoughts • http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/ understanding of motivational participation, about negative influences on behaviour that may lead to hi/academy/default.stm factors (social loafing); aspirations coordination/cooperation dysfunctional behaviour. Review research that shows some and lifestyles. link between sport and combating crime and unhealthy factors (Ringlemann effect) lifestyles. and explain the negative influences on behaviour that • Via team building exercises peers to observe behaviour in = Innovative teaching idea = Stretch and challenge opportunity = ICT opportunity idea 26 of 57 GCE Physical Education
  27. 27. PHYSICAL EDUCATION H554: G453 SPORTS PSYCHOLOGY SUGGESTED SECTION B SCIENTIFIC OPTIONS OPTION B1 – TEACHING 30 HOURS TOPIC: SPORTS PSYCHOLOGY TIME TOPIC SUGGESTED TEACHING AND HOMEWORK LEARNING OUTCOMES SUGGESTED RESOURCES POINTS TO NOTE OUTLINE ACTIVITIES Groups and cause dysfunctional behaviour teams. For example groups have to agree a new sport type teams – their and avoidance of an active ‘game’ with appropriate equipment. This can be an experience impact upon and healthy lifestyle. that shows how group dynamics operate and also introduce performance • Explain the factors affecting the concept of leadership. and the the formation and • Reflection on outdoor activities in groups and how group development of a cohesive members interacted under situations of stress. pursuit of group/team. • Students to complete an extended type examination-style balanced, question on the formation of a group and what influences its active and performance. healthy • Explain the factors affecting • lifestyles. participation in a group/team. • Explain group and team effects on behaviour (related to balanced, active and healthy lifestyles). 3 hours • Demonstrate knowledge and • Team exercises with different prescribed leaders and others • Advanced PE and Sport - understanding of effective with emerging leaders. Students to observe / video reflect on Honeybourne, Hill and Moors leadership and explain its how and why a leader emerges. • OCR Advanced PE A2 – various Group effects on lifestyle behaviour; • Case studies on leaders in sport – to be presented to the rest • Sports Psychology a self help dynamics of performance • Describe the characteristics of of the group – what qualities do these leaders share? guide – Bull leaders (autocratic/task • Role-play different types of leader in different situations to • and audience Sports Psychology: Concepts oriented; democratic/social- introduce concept of autocratic / democratic leadership. and Applications – Cox effects that oriented; laissez-faire); • Students to draw and explain Chelladurai’s multi-dimensional influence young • Psychology in Practice – Woods people’s • Demonstrate knowledge and model by using examples from their own experiences in sport. • CD Rom Switch on to Sports understanding of emergent • participation, Students to answer an extended examination – style question Psychology – Mace and prescribed leaders; on the theories of leadership and how they relate to sports aspirations and • Case studies from the BBC = Innovative teaching idea = Stretch and challenge opportunity = ICT opportunity idea GCE Physical Education 27 of 57
  28. 28. PHYSICAL EDUCATION H554: G453 SPORTS PSYCHOLOGY SUGGESTED SECTION B SCIENTIFIC OPTIONS OPTION B1 – TEACHING 30 HOURS TOPIC: SPORTS PSYCHOLOGY TIME TOPIC SUGGESTED TEACHING AND HOMEWORK LEARNING OUTCOMES SUGGESTED RESOURCES POINTS TO NOTE OUTLINE ACTIVITIES lifestyles. • Evaluate critically leadership performance and also how the effects of leadership can Sport Academy web site: theories (trait; social learning; influence lifestyle choice. • http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/a interactionist theories); cademy/default.stm Leadership and the role of a • Demonstrate knowledge and leader in understanding of Chelladurai’s multi-dimensional model of physical leadership and explain the activities. effect of leadership expectations on performance and the adoption of a balanced, active and healthy lifestyle. 3 hours • Demonstrate knowledge and • Students to carry out a series of brief experiments on sports • Advanced PE and Sport - • Illustration of the understanding of the positive performance in isolation and with an audience and with Honeybourne, Hill and Moors effects of an (facilitation) and negative competitive and non-competitive coactors e.g. standing broad • OCR Advanced PE A2 – various audience on the Group (inhibition) effects (audience jump for gross actions and aiming activities for complex fine • Sports Psychology a self help performance of dynamics of and co-actors) on actions. The effects of an audience to be experienced and guide – Bull complex fine skills performance performance, participation and reflected upon by students. can be shown and audience • Sports Psychology: Concepts lifestyle; • Visiting speaker / or interviews with a sports performer who through card effects that and Applications – Cox • Demonstrate knowledge and reflects on coping with an audience. sorting into suits. influence young A number of understanding of links with • Make links to arousal theories from AS unit. Students to draw people’s levels of arousal, and the different conditions out arousal graphs in relation to the effects of an audience. participation, heightening of the dominant can be simulated aspirations and • Identify other effects such as proximity and audience size. response (Zajonc); for example with lifestyles. • Students to identify coping strategies for different types of hostile crowd or • Explain causes and effects of sports performer. evaluation apprehension; supportive crowd – = Innovative teaching idea = Stretch and challenge opportunity = ICT opportunity idea 28 of 57 GCE Physical Education

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