Scheme of Work Outline
1. Participant as an Individual – Chapter 1 Pp 9-26 – 8
2. Characteristics and Benefits of Leisure and Recreation –
Chapter 3 Pp 43-48 – 2 lessons.
3. Cultural and Social Factors – Chapter 8 Pp 101-106 – 3
4. Health, Fitness and a Healthy active lifestyle – Chapter 5
Pp 55-74 – 10 lessons.
5. Training – Chapter 6 Pp 75–88 - 6 lessons.
6. Diet – Chapter 4 Pp 49-54 – 2 lessons.
7. Physical and Mental demands of Performance – Chapter 2
Pp 27-33 - 3 lessons
8. Social factors (Health and Safety) – Chapter 11 Pp136-137
– 1 lesson.
1. International and Social Factors – Chapter 10 and 11 Pp
117-144 – 9 lessons.
2. School influences – Chapter 7 Pp89-100 – 5 lessons.
3. Opportunities for further involvement – Chapter 9 Pp107-
116 – 4 lessons.
4. Physical and Mental demands on performance (Part II) –
Chapter 2 Pp 34-42 – 4 lessons.
5. Revision revision revision.
The Content of the syllabus must be read in conjunction with
the “Aims of the chapter” in the text book
1. The participant as an Individual – Chapter 1
(Pages 9-26) 8 lessons.
Students will need to understand that people are individuals with different needs
according to the following factors.
• Physical maturity, suitability for certain activities prior to maturity.
• The effects of performance at various ages up to and including retirement.
• Understanding what their bodies can and cannot do as they go through
periods of development.
Objectives: To consider the effects aging has on the body.
To further consider how these effects might affect the suitability
for certain activities.
To look at the necessity for age divisions within sport.
• How physical, mental, temporary or permanent disability can affect
participation and performance in physical activity.
Objectives: To consider the types of disability that exist.
To look at the ways in which disabled performers are able to be
To consider the measures taken to enable the disabled to
participate as fully as possible.
• How physique, metabolism and hormones can affect participation and
performance in physical activity.
To consider the differences that exist between males and females.
To consider the physical, metabolic and hormonal differences that
To consider the allowances that are made in view of these
differences and because of the effects they can have.
• Body typing as Endomorph, Mesomorph and Ectomorph.
• The most suitable body type for a particular sport or playing role/position
within that sport.
• Knowledge of the particular sports for each type and the reasons for their
To consider the link between body type and Somatotype.
To consider the three types of extreme Somatotype that exist.
To consider the most suitable body type for a role or position in a
• How weather, pollution, altitude, humidity, and access to facilities and
terrain can affect the participant and their performance in physical activity.
To consider the aspects of the environment that can affect
participants and their performance.
To consider the ways in which these factors have an actual effect.
To consider how access to facilities can reduce the effect of the
Risk and challenge
• Risk assessment and risk control for themselves and others to participate
safely in different environments.
To consider the aspect of challenge that is present in physical
To consider the need for carrying out risk assessment.
To consider the importance of being aware of risk control.
• The effects and needs of different demands from different activities.
To consider the effects and needs of different demands from
To consider how the demands of an activity can have an effect on
The benefits to be gained by high-activity levels.
• How funds and the time available affect the participant and their
performance in physical activity.
To consider how funds and the time available can affect a
participant and their performance.
To consider the demands of an activity and how a participant has
to organise their training schedule.
To consider the different levels of participation linked to training.
Students should also understand that taking part in physical activity of any sort,
for any reason, involves developing physical and mental capacity to respond to
the demands of performance.
2. Characteristics and benefits of leisure and
recreation – Chapter 3 (Pages 43-48) 2 lessons.
• How leisure and recreation contribute to a balanced, healthy lifestyle and
as a non-competitive, alternative, option leading to lifetime sport.
• Leisure – free time when you can do what you choose, a time to take part
in physical activity or in sport.
To consider what is actually meant by leisure time.
To consider the choices individuals have on how they make use of
their leisure time.
To consider the benefits to be gained by becoming involved in
• Recreation – time to relax, do something active and healthy an active
aspect of leisure.
• Physical recreation – playing for intrinsic rather than extrinsic rewards.
• Outdoor recreation – activity associated with challenge in the natural
• Lifetime sports – which can be carried on throughout life.
To consider what recreation and recreation time is.
To look at the different recreation types and options available.
To consider the link between recreation and leisure, and the
benefits to be gained by being active for life.
3. Cultural and Social factors - Chapter 8 (Pages 101
– 106) 3 lessons
• Opportunities available – reasons for increased leisure time, e.g. greater
unemployment, shorter working week, technological advances including
more labour-saving devices. Growth in the leisure industry (public and
private sector) to provide for this greater need.
• Providers and users – local authority provision specifically targeting
particular ‘user groups’ and making concessions and allowances for them.
To understand the concept of leisure time and look at the types of
provisions that can be made for it.
To be aware of specifically identifiable user groups.
Fairness and personal and social responsibility
• Concepts of etiquette and fairness – examples of where this is expected to
take place within different sports
• The link with rules – adherence to the rules and spirit of the game,
including responding positively to the officials in charge (teachers/coaches,
etc.) affecting safety.
To understand the concepts of fair play and correct etiquette.
• Peers – positive and negative effects of peer pressure on participation
• Family – positive and negative effects of family pressure on participation
• Gender – positive and negative effects of gender on participation in sport
including wider sporting opportunities and involvement in management
and officials’ roles
• Ethnicity – awareness and appreciation of their own and other cultures in
relation to physical activities.
To be aware of the different types of social groupings that exist.
To understand the influences and effects these groups can have,
both positively and negatively.
4. Health, fitness and a healthy active lifestyle –
Chapter 5 (Pages 55- 74) 10 lessons.
Fitness as one aspect of general health.
To define good health.
To consider the components that combine to affect the health of
an individual and their link to physical activity.
Differences between health and fitness and how they are related.
The adoption of a healthy active lifestyle, for example:
• Jobs involving manual labour
• Jobs involving being on feet all day
• An outdoor job
• Walking/cycling to work/school
• Practical leisure pursuits.
To consider the differences between health and fitness and also
the ways in which they are related.
To consider some good exercise habits that could be adopted.
To be aware of the benefits that can be gained through increasing
basic exercise levels.
The structure of the skeletal system
To be aware of the bones that make up the skeletal system.
To consider the particular functions that the skeletal system
To be aware of how movement occurs through joints.
The role of the skeletal system
To be aware of the role the skeletal system plays in allowing
To consider the types of movement that are possible because of
the skeletal system.
Activity - identify exactly which joints are involved in a normal 6
Movement and activity
The structure of the muscular system
To be aware of the main muscles that make up the muscular
To identify the three different types of muscle.
To consider the way in which movement occurs through the link
of the muscular system to the skeletal system.
Consider: - Muscles
Activity - the contraction and relaxation of muscles in action
- Skeletal muscles, - Cardiac muscles, - Involuntary muscles
Muscles and movement
The role of the Muscular system
To consider the basic roles that the muscular system fulfils.
To be aware of the particular movements that various muscles
To consider specific muscles and muscle groups, and the major
movements they are responsible for.
Muscles and movement
- Muscular contractions
Major muscles and movement functions
The concept of ‘fitness’ as the capability of the body to meet the daily demands
made upon it with some comfort/without stress.
Fitness capability in terms of the components that serve the body in different
degrees, at different times to meet different demands, either separately or in
combination, including the following:
• Strength – dynamic, explosive, static
• Cardiovascular endurance/stamina
• Muscular endurance/stamina
To consider fitness capability in terms of the various components
To consider each of the separate components of fitness.
To consider the ways in which these components can be affected 7
Skill related fitness (BCART)
• Reaction time
To consider the ways in which skill-related factors contribute to
fitness and effective performance.
To consider the specific skill-related factors.
To be aware of how these factors interrelate with each other and
also the components of fitness.
Skeletal and muscular systems need to be understood in the above
contexts, where applicable.
5. Training – Chapter 6 (Pages 75 -88) 6 lessons.
Aspects of training
• Principles of training – including sessions and programmes
• Specificity and Progression
To understand the ways in which different factors affect the
capacity to train.
To understand and define these factors.
• Overload (including frequency, intensity and duration) and Reversibility
To understand how to apply these factors in a practical way.
Understand the safe and correct way to put together a training
• Training zones
• Environment e.g. altitude, warm weather
• The training year – pre-season, competition, closed season
To consider how to design training to be most effective.
To be aware of what should be included within a training session. 8
To be able to cater for individual needs.
Specific exercise or training programmes including advantages and
disadvantages, training and practice to improve fitness/skills/techniques, such as:
• Circuit training
To consider the types of circuits that can be used.
To look at the types of benefits that can be gained.
To consider some of the content that could be included in a
• Weight training to include Repetition/sets
To consider the ways in which weight training can be used
To be aware of how weight training might effectively be carried
To understand the basic link between weight training and the
• Continuous training
• Interval training
• Fartlek training
To be aware of other forms of training available.
To match training methods to particular activities.
6. Diet – Chapter 4 (Pages 49 – 54) 2 lessons.
• Through a balanced diet the body receives the nourishment it needs to
maintain physical health
• Knowledge and understanding is limited to: proteins, carbohydrates, fats,
vitamins, minerals, water/fluids, fibre/roughage
• Causes and results on the body of dietary imbalance/deficiency with
particular reference to obesity and anorexia
To be aware of what constitutes a balanced diet in terms of the
To be aware of the different food types and the nutrients they
To consider what proportions of food should be consumed to
ensure a balanced diet.
To consider the problems that could be caused by an imbalance or
deficiency in diet.
• Special diets for different types and different levels of active participation;
to include carbohydrate loading and high protein diets.
To consider how diet is linked to the levels of activity of
To consider the correct and appropriate times for food to be
To consider special diets that particular types of performers might
require or use.
7. The Physical and Mental demands of Performance
– Chapter 2 (Pages 27 -33) 4 lessons.
How and when fatigue and stress occur, and the effects on skill level, including
To consider what fatigue and stress are.
To look at the factors that can lead to the onset of both fatigue
To consider the effects these can have on the performer, both
physically and mentally
• Precautions – how to prevent injury
• Correct techniques and safe practice
• Rules/codes of conduct
To consider the ways in which injuries might be caused and the
type of injury resulting.
To consider the precautions that can be taken to prevent injuries
First Aid and emergency arrangements –
(Double Award Only)
• Knowledge of common injuries associated with different activities and
actions that should be taken
• Joint and muscle injuries (strains and sprains, pulled muscles,
dislocations) and soft tissue injuries (cuts and bruises)
• The principles of RICE (rest, ice, compression, elevation)
• Recognition of upper/lower limb fractures, symptoms of concussion,
causes of hypothermia and actions to be taken.
To be aware of the action to be taken if an accident or emergency
To have a knowledge of the common injuries associated with
To be able to identify particular injuries and be aware of the
actions that might be taken
8. Social factors (Health and Safety) – Chapter 11
Pp136-137 – 1 lesson.
• Play safe, and health and safety legislation and guidance
• Correct technique when performing a skill
• Use of appropriate footwear and clothing to prevent injury
• Carrying, lifting and lowering – guidance on correct techniques.
To consider general health and safety rules and guidelines.
To look at some specific guidelines that will apply in specific
The correct way to lift and lower objects.
1. International and Social Factors – Chapter 10 and
11 Pp 117-144 – 9 lessons.
• The Press
• The Internet
To consider what the main media formats are.
To consider the ways in which they cover sport, sporting events
To compare the advantages some forms may have over others.
• How the media helps to give an understanding of performance and
• Different types of output e.g. informative, educational (e.g. coaching series or
documentaries), instructive and entertainment
• Director’s/writer’s influence on what might be seen or said.
To consider the overall influence the media can have.
To consider how the media can have a positive effect.
To consider how the media can have a negative effect.
To look at the various types of output.
• Range and scope and the effects of sponsorship
• Advantages and disadvantages to the sponsor, the performer and the
• Ease of obtaining sponsorship at various levels and at different profile
levels of sport. Examples of acceptable and unacceptable types of
To consider the way in which sponsors are involved in sport.
To consider the range and scope of sponsorship.
To consider the ‘ease’ of obtaining sponsorship and the benefits
for the sponsors.
To consider the types of sponsorship that sponsors provide.
To consider some aspects of sponsorship that might not be
To look at the advantages and disadvantages of sponsorship.
• Types of competitions used in all levels of sport, including knock-out,
ladders and combination events which involve qualifying criteria.
• Different levels including examples of specific competitions and
To look at the different types and levels of competitions that are
To consider the ways these competitions are organised and run.
To consider the advantages and disadvantages of the different 12
International sport and events
• Advantages and disadvantages of hosting major international sporting
competitions or events such as the Olympic Games and other high profile
To outline the major international sporting events.
To consider some of the other high-profile events.
To outline the importance of the Olympic Games as an
To outline some controversy associated with the event.
To consider the advantages and disadvantages of hosting such an
The link with role models
• The importance of role models in setting participation trends or shaping
attitudes and the effects of this on growth/declining popularity.
To consider the characteristics that a role model might have.
To look at the importance of role models in setting participation
trends or shaping attitudes.
The effect role models can have on the popularity of activities.
Rules relating to sport and equipment
• The link to safety – students should understand the roles that rules play in
making sure that taking part is as safe as possible.
To consider some general sport rules relating to safety.
To consider some specific sporting examples of safety and
To consider some general and specific rules relating to footwear,
clothing and equipment.
Science and ICT
• For planning improvement and involvement in physical activity
• Performance analysis software and hardware
• ICT to record and analyse performance; to track involvement and
improvement; linking with other curriculum areas
• Interactive tools and devices – including games consoles
• Technological innovations e.g. the video official, ‘Cyclops’ at Wimbledon,
‘Hawkeye’ at cricket matches.
To consider how science, through advances in technology, has
improved levels in sport.
To consider some specific aspects where developments have been
introduced into particular activities.
To consider the impact this technology has had upon facilities.
2. School influences – Chapter 7 Pp 89-100 – 5
• National Curriculum requirements
To understand the reasons PE is included and taught in schools.
To be aware of what should be provided in a PE programme.
• PESSCL (Specialist Sports Colleges, gifted and talented programme, Step
into Sport and the TOP LINK programme, school and club links, swimming
To outline what the PESSCL strategy consists of.
To be aware of the eight strands that made up the strategy.
• PESSYP (New sporting opportunities, the ‘5 hour offer’, increased coaching
opportunities, national networks of school sport, range of sporting
activities, Young Ambassadors, National Talent Orientation Camp, The
National Sport Week)
To outline the content of PESSYP.
To consider how this strategy builds on the PESSCL strategy and
to be aware of the additional strands.
The healthy schools programme and PSHE
• Healthy eating
• Balanced diet for the balance of good health
• Whole School Food Policy
• Standards and requirements for school lunch
• Food choices.
Emotional health and wellbeing
• Vulnerable individuals and groups
• Bullying policies
• Behaviour and rewards policies
• Confidential pastoral support systems.
To summarise the National Healthy Schools Programme.
To emphasise the necessity of the whole-school approach.
To consider the link it has with the PE curriculum.
• Physical Activity Policy
• Structured two hours physical activity
• The range of extra-curricular activities
Extra-curricular opportunities and provision
• Attitudes of staff (both positive and negative) and experience of staff
influencing the range and type of provision made
• The extent and quality of facilities available – challenges where facilities
are limited and the range of opportunities for well-resourced schools
• Outside visits to other sporting providers, specialist facilities and specific
activity providers (such as ice rinks, ten pin bowling or dry ski slopes)
• Links to local sports clubs/providers for a range of activities and different
types of provision such as health clubs, golf clubs etc.
• Providing a range of extra-curricular activities/representative teams, clubs
and societies which can extend beyond the traditional sporting models to
include other leisure and recreational opportunities.
To consider the range and type of activities that can be offered.
To know what opportunities might be made available to pupils.
3. Opportunities for Further Involvement – Chapter
9 (Pages 107 – 116) 4 lessons.
Roles – provision, choice and pathway opportunities
• The different roles that schools may encourage candidates to adopt, e.g.
performer, leader/coach, organiser, choreographer or official
• Being involved in increasingly complex and challenging tasks and activity
and following career and volunteering pathways; pursuing roles in sport
To be aware of the different roles that can be adopted.
To develop knowledge and understanding of what each role
To consider appropriate roles you might be able to adopt.
Activity - make a decision about a role you would like to adopt,
other than that of performer
Activity - consider all of these roles in turn and try to match the
qualities each would need to your own particular interests and
• Sports performer – differences between professional and amateur, open
sport and the ways in which ‘loopholes’ are found for amateur performers
• Careers such as PE teacher, coach, trainer, physiotherapist, sports
To consider the type, variety and extent of vocations that might
To consider the differences between amateur and professional
To be aware of the particular careers that might be accessible.
Accredited courses and qualifications
• Examination-based courses, accreditation, sports performance awards,
proficiency testing and awards.
To outline some of the types and varieties of accredited courses.
To consider some of the career pathways these qualifications may
• Cross-curricular possibilities
• Cross-curricular work, e.g. health awareness, social education issues.
To consider the links that PE has with other subject areas.
To consider the specific roles and contributions some subjects can
To understand the ways PE also contributes to the content of
4. Physical and Mental demands on performance
Chapter 2 Pages 34-42 4 lessons
• Aerobic respiration in the presence of oxygen, summarised as:
glucose + oxygen energy + carbon dioxide + water
To be aware of the components that make up the respiratory
To consider what is meant by aerobic respiration.
To consider the process of gaseous exchange.
To look at and understand the action of breathing.
• Anaerobic respiration in the absence of oxygen, summarised as:
glucose energy + lactic acid.
• Oxygen debt as the result of muscles respiring anaerobically during
vigorous exercise and producing a mild poison called lactic acid.
• The recovery process from vigorous exercise.
To consider what is meant by anaerobic respiration and the types
of exercise that require it.
To consider what takes place during the recovery period.
To consider the function and role of the blood in this process.
• The function and role of the blood in the transport of oxygen, glucose and
waste products, body temperature control and protection, link to aerobic
To be aware what the circulatory system consists of.
To consider the main components of the system and the functions
To consider the heart and its role in pumping blood to be an
effective transport system.
To be aware what the cardiovascular system consists of.
To understand what is meant by cardiovascular endurance.
To consider the ways in which levels of cardiovascular endurance
can be measured and improved.